Author(s): R. Badmanaban, Dhananjoy Saha, Dhrubo J. Sen, Arpita Biswas, Supradip Mandal, Susmita Basak

Email(s): dhrubosen69@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00966   

Address: R. Badmanaban1, Dhananjoy Saha2, Dhrubo J. Sen*3, Arpita Biswas3, Supradip Mandal3, Susmita Basak3
1Principal and Head of the Department of Pharmacognosy, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Muvattupuzha P.O, Ernakulam District, Kerala–686661, India.
2Deputy Director of Technical Education, Directorate of Technical Education, Bikash Bhavan, Salt Lake City, Kolkata‒700091, West Bengal, India.
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Techno India University, Salt Lake, Sector‒V, EM‒4/1, Kolkata‒700091, West Bengal, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 10,     Year - 2021


ABSTRACT:
Most of us know turmeric (Curcuma longa) as the vibrant orange powder located in the spice section between thyme and vanilla beans. And many of us use turmeric root powder in our cooking, particularly if we have an affinity for preparing Indian–inspired dishes. Similar to the root–like component of its cousin ginger, turmeric has been a staple of Indian food traditions for millennia and has a long history of healing use (over 4000 years) in Ayurvedic, Traditional Chinese, and Siddhic medicinal traditions. Turmeric’s role in Hindu devotional and sacred ceremonies is alluded to by one of its Sanskrit names: Kanchani, the “Golden Goddess,” perhaps so called because its beautiful golden hue generously bestows healing to a wide range of ailments (Gallant, n.d.). Indeed, traditional Ayurvedic use includes turmeric as healing agent for skin abrasions, GI tract inflammation, aches and pains, and liver disorders, while modern research confirms the anti–bacterial, anti–inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of turmeric. The characteristic golden hue is produced by curcumin, the constituent in turmeric most isolated and studied by scientists, but the whole herb is used in herbal traditions and has also been the subject of many favorable studies. Turmeric’s Herbal Actions: Antioxidant and Anti–Inflammatory: Antioxidants scavenge free radicals and help to reduce or prevent damage and inflammation caused by free radicals, and anti–inflammatory agents block enzymes that promote inflammation and pain. Turmeric is often used in an Ayurvedic approach to reduce inflammation of the throat and tonsils, and as an anti–inflammatory herb for many other aches and pains. You will find that a number of culinary herbs also have antioxidant and anti–inflammatory properties, including sage, ginger, and garlic. Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial herbs inhibit the growth of pathogens like bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Cholerectic: Cholerectics stimulate production of bile, thereby supporting digestion. In Ayurveda, turmeric is a warming herb that kindles digestive fire, or agni. Like other bitter–flavored herbs that stimulate bile production, turmeric is used to promote digestion and alleviate symptoms in the GI tract. Turmeric offers such a dynamic array of health benefits that it’s even being studied in regards to its potential effect on serious diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s, and heart disease. Cardiac specific benefits are its effects on cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood sugar. While studies do not show that it would be a good substitute for cholesterol and diabetes medications, long–term use may help reduce the amount of other medications used in a treatment level. How to Use Turmeric: Topical and External Use: Because of its antibacterial properties, when combined with a little salt and mixed together as a paste, turmeric can be applied to the skin in response to abrasions and swelling. This remedy is also used to help resolve bruises. Gargling with salt water is often thought to help relieve a sore throat. But turmeric, when paired with salt, has the potential to be even more effective! You can find turmeric at this link or at your local grocery store. Gargle With Turmeric and Salt: Ingredients: A pinch or two of turmeric, A pinch or two of salt, Add to warm water and gargle as you would regular salt water. Internal Use: The medicinal properties of turmeric may not be absorbed well due to its rapid metabolism in the liver and intestines unless it is consumed with black pepper. In a validating example of the time–tested concept of herbal catalysts (herbs that enhance the activity of other herbs), it turns out that the piperine in black pepper enhances the bioavailability of the curcumin in turmeric by 2000%. Whether by incorporating it into cooking or taking it as one of several herbs in a tea, turmeric is at the heart of many different remedies and continues to prove its value after thousands of years of use. One such tried and true recipe is “Golden Milk,” a traditional Ayurvedic concoction. Here is our take on this age–old recipe, with the addition of black pepper for enhanced curcumin bioavailability. This yummy, warming drink is delicious in the winter and can be served room temperature or slightly warmed if desired. turmeric for health – golden milk Turmeric Recipes: Traditional instructions recommend making a turmeric paste first, which can be spread on toast or added to other dishes, but you can also simply add turmeric powder into the milk. Turmeric Paste: Ingredients: ¼ cup ground turmeric, ½ cup water Directions: Combine turmeric powder and water in a saucepan. Simmer until mixture forms a thick paste. Let cool, then store in fridge. turmeric for health – golden milk Golden Milk: Serves one Ingredients: 1 cup unsweetened coconut, rice, or almond milk, ¼ – 1/2 teaspoon turmeric paste (or just add powder), 1 teaspoon coconut oil, Few shakes of ground black pepper, Generous dash of vanilla, Raw local honey or maple syrup to taste, Sprinkle of cinnamon Directions: Place 1 cup milk with turmeric paste, oil, black pepper, vanilla, and honey/maple syrup into a blender. Blend on high briefly until combined and foamy. Pour into cup, sprinkle with cinnamon, and serve. Safety: Turmeric eaten in food is considered safe. For some individuals, turmeric should not be used at high doses long term as overuse may cause gastrointestinal disturbances (e.g., diarrhea, nausea, ulcers) in some susceptible people Turmeric is considered contraindicated in the case of biliary tract obstruction due to potential bile–stimulating activity, and those with a history of biliary tract obstruction should gain professional advice before using turmeric at therapeutic doses. Because turmeric may have antiplatelet and blood–thinning activity, individuals on blood–thinning medications should exercise caution when considering therapeutic use and speak with their healthcare professional or pharmacist prior to self–administration. For similar reasons, it is also generally advised that individuals undergoing surgery stop consuming therapeutic doses of turmeric at least two weeks prior to their procedure. Eating foods with turmeric during pregnancy is generally considered safe, however turmeric should not be taken in high doses by pregnant women due to its potential emmenagogic effects. Lastly, one small study concluded that consumption of supplemental doses of turmeric can significantly increase urinary oxalate excretion which may subsequently increase risk of kidney stone formation in susceptible individuals.


Cite this article:
R. Badmanaban, Dhananjoy Saha, Dhrubo J. Sen, Arpita Biswas, Supradip Mandal, Susmita Basak. Turmeric: A holistic Solution for Biochemical malfunction. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2021; 14(10):5540-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00966

Cite(Electronic):
R. Badmanaban, Dhananjoy Saha, Dhrubo J. Sen, Arpita Biswas, Supradip Mandal, Susmita Basak. Turmeric: A holistic Solution for Biochemical malfunction. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2021; 14(10):5540-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00966   Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-10-84


REFERENCES:
1.    Baum L, Lam C.W, Cheung SK, Kwok T, Lui V, Tsoh J, Mok V. Six–Month Randomized, Placebo–Controlled, Double–Blind, Pilot Clinical Trial of Curcumin in Patients With Alzheimer Disease. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2008; 28(1): 110–113.
2.    Ehrlich, S.D. (2014). Turmeric. Retrieved from  http://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/turmeric
3.    Gardner Z and McGuffin M. American Herbal Product Association’s herbal safety handbook. 2013. New York: CRC Press.
4.    Kuptniratsaikul V, Thanakhumtorn S, Chinswangwatanakul P, Wattanamongkonsil L, Thamlikitkul V. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2009; 15(8): 891–897.
5.    Liu K, Zhang D, Chojnacki J, Du Y, Fu H, Grant S, Zhang S. (2013). Design and biological characterization of hybrid compounds of curcumin and thalidomide for multiple myeloma. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry. 2013; 11(29): 4757.
6.    Niamsa N, Sittiwet C. Antimicrobial Activity of Curcuma longa Aqueous Extract. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2009; 4: 173–17.
7.    Rasyid A, Lelo A. The effect of curcumin and placebo on human gall–bladder function: an ultrasound study. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1999; 13: 245–249.
8.    Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS. (1998). Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Medica, 1998; 64 (4): 353–6.
9.    Tang M, Larson–Meyer DE, Liebman M. Effect of cinnamon and turmeric on urinary oxalate excretion, plasma lipids, and plasma glucose in healthy subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008; 87 (5): 1262–1267.
10.    Thamlikitkul V, Bunyapraphatsara N, Dechatiwongse T, Theerapong S, Chantrakul C, Thanaveerasuwan T,  Gingsungneon V. (1989). Randomized double blind study of Curcuma domestica Val. for dyspepsia. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 1989; 72: 613–620.

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