Monika D. Bhalodiya, Jayant R. Chavda, Nilesh K. Patel, Ajay I. Patel, Ravi A. Manek
Monika D. Bhalodiya1*, Jayant R. Chavda2, Nilesh K. Patel2, Ajay I. Patel2, Ravi A. Manek2
1Gujarat Technological University, Chandkheda, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India - 382424.
2 B.K. Mody Government Pharmacy College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India - 360003.
Volume - 14,
Issue - 10,
Year - 2021
This study is aimed to evaluate extraction capacity of different solvents through determining total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total saponin content, and an antioxidant assay of different solvent extracts (toluene, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, water, 60% aqueous methanol, 60% aqueous ethanol and 60% aqueous acetone) of Asparagus racemosus (A. racemosus) root. The 60% aqueous methanol shows the highest extracting yield, in contrast, toluene shows the lowest yield. Highest total phenolic content (220.8±0.74mg GAE/g), total flavonoid content (219.3±0.64mg QCE/g), total tannin content (108.4±0.88mg GAE/g) were found from acetone extract. The methanol extract showed the highest saponin content (579.4±2.85mg ESE/g). Antioxidant potential determines by using various in vitro methodologies such as DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assay. The lowest IC50 value was found in acetone extract and thus it exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The highest correlation was found between phenolic content and the antioxidant assay. It seems that phenolic contents are responsible for free radicle scavenging activity. From the observation, it concluded that acetone extract rich with polyphenolic content and methanol extract shows the highest amount of saponin content.
Cite this article:
Monika D. Bhalodiya, Jayant R. Chavda, Nilesh K. Patel, Ajay I. Patel, Ravi A. Manek. Evaluation of Solvent Extraction Process for Asparagus racemosus Root Extract through the Determination of its Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity Assay. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(10):5108-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00890
Monika D. Bhalodiya, Jayant R. Chavda, Nilesh K. Patel, Ajay I. Patel, Ravi A. Manek. Evaluation of Solvent Extraction Process for Asparagus racemosus Root Extract through the Determination of its Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity Assay. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(10):5108-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00890 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-10-8
1. Liguori I, Russo G, Curcio F, Bulli G, Aran L, Della-Morte D, et al. Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases. Clin Interv Aging 2018; 13: 757-72.
2. Poprac P, Jomova K, Simunkova M, Kollar V, Rhodes CJ and Valko M. Targeting Free Radicals in Oxidative Stress-Related Human Diseases. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2017; 38: 592-607.
3. Xu DP, Li Y, Meng X, Zhou T, Zhou Y, Zheng J, et al. Natural antioxidants in foods and medicinal plants: extraction, assessment and resources. Int J Mol Sci 2017; 18: 96-99.
4. Pandey KB and Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med. Cell. Longev 2009; 5: 270-78.
5. Tchabo W, Ma Y, Kwaw E, Xiao L, Wu M and Apaliya MT. Impact of extraction parameters and their optimization on the nutraceuticals and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract mulberry leaf. Int J Food Prop 2018; 21: 717-32.
6. Tanase C, Cos S and Muntean DL. A critical review of phenolic compounds extracted from the bark of woody vascular plants and their potential biological activity. Molecules 2019; 24: 1182-90.
7. Pathak A.V., Kawtikwar P. S., Sakarkar D. M. Pharmacognostical and Physico-Chemical Standardization of Shatavari Churna: An Official Ayurvedic Formulation. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2015; 8: 1495-1501.
8. Patel LS, Patel RS. Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of In -vitro Condition Asparagus racemosus Willd. leaf. Research J. Pharm. and Tech.2013; 6: 1387-1390.
9. Raaman N, Selvarajan S, Balakrishnan D, Balamurugan G. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial activity and Nutritional Analysis of Methanol Extract of Asparagus racemosus (Willd) Roots. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2009; 2: 777-779.
10. Patel LS, Patel RS. Antimicrobial Activity of Asparagus racemosus Willd from Root Extracts – A Medicinal Plant. Research J. Pharm. and Tech.2013; 6: 1141-1143.
11. Kushwah P, Pillai S, Ghulaxe C, Mandloi N, Singh S, Patel R. Review on Medicinal value of Asparagus racemosus in Woman’s. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11: 418-420.
12. Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res 1999; 13:275-91.
13. Joshi T, Sah SP, Singh A. Antistress activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd roots in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 2012; 50: 419- 24.
14. Bhatnagar M, Siddhraj S. Sisodia B and Bhatnagar R. Antiulcer and Antioxidant activity of Asparagus racemosus Willd and Withania somnifera Dunal in rats. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci 2005; 1056: 261-78.
15. Singla R and Jaitak V. Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd): A review on its cultivation, morphology, phytochemistry and pharmacological importance. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014; 5: 742-57.
16. Singh AK, Srivastava A, Kumar V and Singh K. Phytochemicals, medicinal and food applications of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus): An updated review. The Natural Products J 2018; 8: 32-44.
17. Parihar MS and Hemnani T. Experimental excitotoxicity provokes oxidative damage in mice brain and attenuation by extract of Asparagus racemosus. J Neural Transm 2004; 111: 1-12.
18. Velavan S and Vava H. Restorative effect of Asparagus racemosus on age related oxidative damage in heart lysosome of aged rats. Int. J. Pharmacol 2007; 3: 48-54.
19. Jayashree P, Kamat A, Krutin K. Boloor A, Thomas PA, Devasagayam A, et al. Antioxidant properties of Asparagus racemosus against damage induced by g-radiation in rat liver mitochondria. J. Ethnopharmacol 2000; 71: 425- 35.
20. Visavadiya NP, Narasimhacharya AV. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of Asparagus racemosus in hypercholesteremic rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2005; 37: 376-80.
21. Kongkaneramit L, Witoonsaridsilp W, Peungvicha P, Ingkaninan K, Waranuch N, Sarisuta N. Antioxidant activity and antiapoptotic effect of Asparagus racemosus root extracts in human lung epithelial H460 cells. Exp Ther Med 2011; 2: 143-48.
22. Sravani K and Krishna K. Anti-depressantand antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus seeds. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013; 6: 102-07.
23. Karuna DS, Dey P, Das S, Kundu A and Bhakta T. In vitro antioxidant activities of root extract of Asparagus racemosus Linn. J Tradit Complement Med 2018; 8: 60-65.
24. Visavadiya NP, Soni B and Madamwar D. Suppression of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide by Asparagus racemosus root extract using in vitro Studies. Cell Mol Biol 2009; 55: 1083-95.
25. Taepongsorat L and Rattana S. Antioxidant activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus roots. Pharmacogn J 2018; 10: 1129-32.
26. Karmakar UK, Biswas SK, Chowdhury A, Raihan SZ, Akbar MA, Muhit MA, et al. Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of Asparagus racemosus. Int J of Pharmacol 2012; 8: 53-57.
27. Parimi R, Pravallika KE. Studies on Phytochemical Screening, Total Phenolic Content and In vitro Antioxidant activity of Different Extracts of Euphorbia thymifolia Roots. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10: 551- 556.
28. Chigayo K, Mojapelo P, Mnyakeni-Moleele S and Misihairabgwi J. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Kirkia wilmsii tubers. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2016; 6: 1037–43.
29. Le AV, Parks SE, Nguyen MH and Roach PD. Effect of solvents and extraction methods on recovery of bioactive compounds from defatted gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) seeds. Separations 2018; 5: 39-42.
30. Osadee Wijekoon M, Bhat R and Karim A. Effect of extraction solvents on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of bunga kantan (Etlingera elatior Jack.) inflorescence. J. Food Compos. Anal 2011; 24: 615–19.
31. Kavita G, V.K. Lal, S. Jha. Total Phenolic content, flavonoid content and In vitro antioxidant activities of Flemingia species (Flemingia chappar, Flemingia macrophylla and Flemingia strobilifera). Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2013; 6(5): 516-523.
32. Salah EM, Naima B, Mohamed AM. In vitro Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Contents of Gladiolus segetum Extracts. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(11): 5017-5023.
33. Lokhande V.Y, Yadav A.V. In vitro Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity of Supercritical Fluid extract of Leaves Ocimum sanctum L. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11: 5376-5378.
34. Maheswari A, Mahendran S, Sankaralingam S, Sivakumar N. In vitro Antioxidant activity of Exoploysaccharide extracted from Marine Sediment Soil Bacteria. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12: 4496-4502.
35. Ponnanikajamideen M, Rajeshkumar S, Annadurai G. In Vivo Antidiabetic and In Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Chamaecostus cuspidatus. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2016; 9: 1204-1210.
36. Diem Do Q, Angkawijaya A, Tran-Nguyen P, Huong Huynh L, Edi Soetaredjo F, Ismadji S, et al. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. J Food Drug Ana 2014; 22: 296-02.
37. Blainski A, Cristiny Lopes G and Mello J. Application and analysis of the folin ciocalteu method for the determination of the total phenolic content from Limonium brasiliense L. Molecules 2013; 18: 6852-65.
38. McFerrln AR and Davison RR. The effect of surface phenomena on a solvent extraction process. AlChE Journal 1971; 17: 1021-27.
39. Efthymiopoulosa I, Hellier P, Ladommatosa N, Russo-Profilia A, Eveleigha A, Aliev A, et al. Influence of solvent selection and extraction temperature on yield and composition of lipids extracted from spent coffee grounds. Ind Crops Prod 2018; 119: 49-56.
40. Medini F, Fellah H, Ksouri R and Abdelly C. Total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of organic extracts of shoots of the plant Limonium delicatulum. J Taibah Univ Sci 2014; 8: 216–24.
41. Wiboonpun N, Phuwapraisirisan P and Tip-pyang S. Identification of antioxidant compound from Asparagus racemosus. Phytother Res 2004; 18: 771-73.
42. Pramila K, Julius A. In Vitro Antioxidant effect of Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) in Protecting Cardiovascular Diseases. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12: 1265-1267.
43. Thakur L, Ghodasra U, Patel N and Dabhi M. Novel approaches for stability improvement in natural medicines. Phcog Rev 2011; 5: 48-54.
44. Sepahpour S, Selamat J, Manap M, Khatib A and Abdull Razis A. Comparative analysis of chemical composition, antioxidant activity and quantitative characterization of some phenolic compounds in selected herbs and spices in different solvent extraction systems. Molecules 2018; 23: 402.
45. Singla R and Jaitak V. Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Wild): A review on its cultivation, morphology, phytochemistry and pharmacological importance. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014; 5: 742-57.
46. Saxena V and Chourasia S. A new isoflavone from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Fitoterapia 2001; 72:307-09.
47. Sekine T, Murakoshi N and Ruangrungsi N. A 10.Dihydrophenanthrene from Asparagus racemosus. Phytochemistry 1997; 44: 763-64.
48. Chavan CS, Rao R, Raman DN, Somashekaraiah BV. Phytochemical Analysis and In vitro Antioxidant activity of extracts of Justicia wynaadensis leaves. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12: 3643-3648.
49. Murugan R and Parimelazhagan T. Comparative evaluation of different extraction methods for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties from Osbeckia parvifolia Arn. – An in vitro approach. J King Saud Univ Sci 2014; 26: 267–75.
50. Sowndhararajan K and Chul Kang S. Free radical scavenging activity from different extracts of leaves of Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. Saudi J Biol Sci 2013; 20: 319-25.
51. Maharani R, Anna Sheba L. Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Baccaurea courtallensis. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(9): 4397-4399.
52. Patel N. “Phytotherapeutic investigation of major herbal steroids to explore their potential as an alternative to synthetic steroids”, Thesis PhD, Saurashtra University 2011.
53. Hayes P, Jahidin A, Lehmann R, Penman K, Kitching W and De Voss J. Steroidal saponins from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Phytochemistry 2008; 69:796–04.
54. Lü J, Lin P, Yao Q and Chen C. Chemical and molecular mechanisms of antioxidants: Eperimental approaches and model systems. J Cell Mol Med 2010; 14: 840-60.
55. Manju V, Revathi R, Murugesan M. In vitro Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Anti-inflammatory, Anthelmintic Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Indian Medicinal Spices. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2011; 4: 596-599.