Author(s): Sonti Sulochana, K. S. Jaya Madhumithra


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00884   

Address: Dr. Sonti Sulochana1, K. S. Jaya Madhumithra2
1Professor of Pathology, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Thandalam, Chennai, 602105.
22nd Year MBBS, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Thandalam, Chennai, 602105.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 10,     Year - 2021

Infertility and problems of impaired fecundity have been a concern through ages and is also a significant clinical problem today, which affects 8–12% of couples worldwide. Of all infertility cases, approximately 40–50% is due to "male factor" infertility and as many as 2% of all men will exhibit suboptimal sperm parameters. It may be one or a combination of low sperm concentration, poor sperm motility, or abnormal morphology. Aim and objective: Demographic study of male infertility and assessment of abnormalities in semen parameters. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 702 males who came to test for infertility to Saveetha Medical College and hospital to evaluate the parameters of semen and male infertility causes. Methods and Material: The participants were divided into two categories and one group was evaluated through a questionnaire for occupation, personal habits, exposure, family history, and the other category was evaluated on lab findings of various parameters to check the yearly variation in parameters of semen. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics. Results: On the evaluation of parameters of semen in combination with a questionnaire to 44 patients, it shows that alcoholics and smokers have low semen volume, increase in liquefaction time and increase in viscosity is most commonly seen in youngsters like students and IT professional. Conclusion: In our study low semen volume, delayed liquefaction time and increase in viscosity is most commonly seen in youngsters like students and IT professional with a history of alcohol and smoking and stress.

Cite this article:
Sonti Sulochana, K. S. Jaya Madhumithra. A Demographic Study of male infertility and Analysis of semen parameters. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(10):5072-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00884

Sonti Sulochana, K. S. Jaya Madhumithra. A Demographic Study of male infertility and Analysis of semen parameters. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(10):5072-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00884   Available on:

1.    Zegers-Hochschild F, Adamson GD, de Mouzon J, Ishihara O, Mansour R, Nygren K, et al. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (ICMART) and the World Health Organization (WHO) revised glossary of ART terminology, 2009. Fertil Steril. 2009; 92:1520–4. [PubMed]10.1186/s12610-017-0060-0.
2.    Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Definitions of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril. 2008; 90(5 Suppl): S60. [Pub Med]
3.    4th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1999. World Health Organization. WHO Laboratory
4.    Men's Health – Male Factor Infertility. University of Utah Health Sciences Center. 04 January, 2003. Archived from the Original on 04 July 2007. [Last retrieved on 2007 Nov 11].
5.    Brugh VM, 3rd, Lipshultz LI. Male factor infertility: Evaluation and management. Med Clin North Am. 2004; 88:367–85. [Pub Med]
6.    Hirsh A. Male subfertility. BMJ. 2003; 327:669–72. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
7.    Lotti F, Maggi M. Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health. Hum Reprod Update. 2015; 21: 56–83. [Pub Med]
8.    Cooper TG, Noonan E, von Eckardstein S, Auger J, Baker HW, Behre HM, et al. World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics. Hum Reprod Update. 2010; 16:231–45. [Pub Med]
9.    Plachot M, Belaisch-Allart J, Mayenga JM, Chouraqui A, Tesquier L, Serkine AM. Outcome of conventional IVF and ICSI on sibling oocytes in mild male factor infertility. Hum Reprod. 2002; 17:362–9. [Pub Med]
10.    Harris ID, Fronczak C, Roth L, Meacham RB. Fertility and the aging male. Rev Urol. 2011; 13:e184–90. [PMC free article] [Pub Med].
11.    Baheerati M M, Gayatri Devi R. Obesity in relation to Infertility. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(7): 3183-3185.
12.    Shenuka. S, Thiyagarajan. T2, Sambath Kumar. R. A review on the effect of Immunosuppressants on Fertility. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(3): 1441-1447.
13.    Wamoto TI, Nozawa S, Yoshiike M. Semen quality of Asian men. Reprod Med Biol. 2007; 6:185–93. [PMC free article] [Pub Med]
14.    5th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2010. World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research. World Health Organization Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen.
15.    Jequier AM. Semen analysis: A new manual and its application to the understanding of semen and its pathology. Asian J Androl. 2010; 12:11–3. [PMC free article] [Pub Med]
16.    Guzick DS, Overstreet JW, Factor-Litvak P, Brazil CK, Nakajima ST, Coutifaris C, et al. Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345:1388–93. [PubMed]
17.    Smith KD, Rodriguez-Rigau LJ, Steinberger E. Relation between indices of semen analysis and pregnancy rate in infertile couples. Fertil Steril. 1977; 28:1314–9. [PubMed]
18.    Brazil C. Practical semen analysis: From A to Z. Asian J Androl. 2010; 12:14–20. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
19.    Lackner J, Schatzl G, Waldhör T, Resch K, Kratzik C, Marberger M. Constant decline in sperm concentration in infertile males in an urban population: Experience over 18 years. Fertil Steril. 2005; 84:1657–61. [PubMed]
20.    Marimuthu P, Kapilashrami MC, Misro MM, Singh G. Evaluation of trend in semen analysis for 11 years in subjects attending a fertility clinic in India. Asian J Androl. 2003; 5:221–5. [PubMed]
21.    Bussen S, Sütterlin M, Steck T, Dietl J. Semen parameters in patients with unilateral testicular cancer compared to patients with other malignancies. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004; 269:196–8. [PubMed]
22.    Mohsin K, Al- Murshdi, Yahya K, Al – Sultani. Study of prognostic Factors affecting on the IUI Outcome of Infertile Patients. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(1): 161-166.
23.    Muthusami KR, Chinnaswamy P. Effect of chronic alcoholism on male fertility hormones and semen quality. Fertil Steril 2005; 84:919–24.
24.    Ricci E, Al Beitawi S, Cipriani S, Candiani M, Chiaffarino F, Vigano P, et al. Semen quality and alcohol intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Biomed Online 2017; 34:38–47.
25.    Harlev A, Agarwal A, Gunes SO, Shetty A, du Plessis SS.Smoking and male infertility: an evidence-based review. World J Mens Health 2015; 33:143–60.
26.    Li Y, Lin H, Li Y, Cao J. Association between socio-psychobehavioral factors and male semen quality: systematic review and meta-analyses. Fertil Steril 2011; 95:116–23.
27.    Sharma R, Harlev A, Agarwal A, Esteves SC. Cigarette smoking and semen quality: a new meta-analysis examining the effect of the 2010 world health organization laboratory methods for the examination of human semen. Eur Urol 2016; 70:635–45.
28.    Salwan Abdul Muaen Al-Khaikani, Fallah H. Abdul Latif, Ahmed F. Al- Hussein. The Effect of Smoking Types in Some Semen Characteristics of Men in the City of Diwaniyah, Iraq. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(7): 3328-3332.
29.    Sridharan Balasundaram, Parameswari Ranganathan, Kamini A Rao. Tea poly Phenol – Zinc Oxide nano Particle effects on Infertile Smokers Spermatozoa – A. Short Report. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(2): 667-670.
30.    Aedah Z, Al-Kaisy and Daliya A. Al- Comparison Study between two laser effects on enhancement of Human Sperm motility. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(11): 5330-5332.
31.    Sridharan TB1*, Viswapriya V S1, Moumita Basak1, Parameswari R1, Kamini A Rao2. A Survey of Biochemical Parameters in Fertile Smokers- A Clinical Study. Research J. Pharm. and Tech.2018; 11(2):559-563.
32.    Eskenazi B, Wyrobek AJ, Sloter E, Kidd SA, Moore L, Young S, et al. The association of age and semen quality in healthy men. Hum Reprod 2003; 18:447–54.
33.    Gunes S, Hekim GN, Arslan MA, Asci R. Effects of aging on the male reproductive system. J Assist Reprod Genet 2016; 33:441–54.
34.    Belloc S, Hazout A, Zini A, Merviel P, Cabry R, Chahine H, et al. How to overcome male infertility after 40: Influence of paternal age on fertility. Maturitas 2014; 78:22–9.
35.    Durairajanayagam D, Sharma R, Du Plessis SS, Agarwal A. Testicular heat stress and sperm quality. In: Du Plessis SS,editor. Male infertility: a complete guide to lifestyle and environmental factors. New York: Springer Science + Business Media; 2014.
36.    Durairajanayagam D, Agarwal A, Ong C. Causes, effects and molecular mechanisms of testicular heat stress. Reprod Biomed Online 2015; 30:14–27.
37.    Mohsin K. AL-Murshidi. Relationship between Semen Volume and blood Hormone in Azoospermic Males. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(3): 1169-1171.
38.    Abdulsamie H. Alta’ee Hann Abbasa Majeed, Mahmoud H. Hadwan. The levels of Vitamin E in Seminal Fluids and their association with Male Infertility: Short Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(5): 2152-2156.
39.    Mann Raval, Manish Patel, Kanan Gamit, Kalapi Patel, S.N. Gupta. A pilot study on Evaluation of Standardized Ayurveda formulation Ashwagnadhadi lehya as Aphrodisiac and in treatment of oligospermia. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(5): 2383-2390.
40.    Vigano P, Chiaffarino F, Bonzi V, Salonia A, Ricci E, Papaleo E, et al. Sleep disturbances and semen quality in an Italian cross sectional study. Basic Clin Androl 2017; 27:16.
41.    Agarwal A, Durairajanayagam D. Are men talking their reproductive health away? Asian J Androl 2015; 17:433–4.
42.    Adams JA, Galloway TS, Mondal D, Esteves SC, Mathews F. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Int 2014; 70:106–12.
43.    Liu K, Li Y, Zhang G, Liu J, Cao J, Ao L, et al. Association between mobile phone use and semen quality: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Andrology 2014; 2:491–501.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available