Hegde Veena, Thippeswamy N. B, K. G Sandesh
Hegde Veena1, Thippeswamy N. B2*, K. G Sandesh3
1,2 Department of P.G Studies and Research in Microbiology, Kuvempu University, Jnana Sahyadri, Shankaraghatta-577451, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India.
3Director, Niranthara Scientific Solutions Pvt Ltd, Bengaluru-560060, Karnataka, India.
Volume - 13,
Issue - 9,
Year - 2020
Simarouba amara (Aubl.) bark belongs to Simaroubaceae family and used to treat diarrhoea. S. amara (Aubl.) aqueous bark extract (SAAE) was qualitatively, quantitatively analyzed for phytochemicals and presence of terpenoids, phenol and flavonoids spectrophotometrically. SAAE was further evaluated for acute toxicity (1000-5000mg/kg b.w), anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory activity in female BALB/c mice. Cell migration inhibition in peritoneal exudates was assessed in carrageenan induced peritonitis. Further, studies focused on immunostimulation in cyclophospahmide (CP) induced immuno-suppressed mice. Cell mediated (macrophages, T- cell, TH cells) and humoral immune (immunoglobulins) responses were evaluated after treating with SAAE in groups of mice. Pre-treatment of SAAE (100, 200, and 300mg/kg, b.w, p.o.) showed antiinflammatory activity by reducing the accumulation of polymorpho neuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and nitrite (NO-2) in dose dependent manner. At 300mg/kg b.w SAAE reduced the PMNLs count (2.2×106cells/mL) and NO-2 (5.3µM±1.5) significantly (P<0.001) with half of inhibitory concentration (IC50) at 194.95mg/mL and 197.64mg/mL respectively. SAAE was successful in stimulating the immune system in immune suppressed mice (increased the differential, total WBC, splenocytes, RBC, platelets and haemoglobin level) significantly (P < 0.01) compared to CP induced group and control. SAAE at the dose 300mg/kg b.w improved the macrophage activity to engulf the carbon particles in circulation system in carbon clearance test. Whereas SAAE increased the T-lymphocytes, rosettes formation and increased TH cells against SRBC. Significant results in T-cell population test and delayed hypersensitivity test indicates the cell mediate response and activation of adaptive immunity. Moreover dose dependent increase in antibody titer test exhibited the humoral immune resonse of SAAE. In addition, SAAE displayed nontoxic nature even at the highest dose 5000mg/kg b.w in an acute toxicity study. It could be due to the presence of phytoconstituents like proteins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, tannins, diterpenoids along with terpenoids (260µg/g), flavonoid (100µg/g), and phenol (144µg/g). The synergetic activity of secondary metabolites of SAAE was responsible for compelling outcome in anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, cell mediated and humoral immune response.
Cite this article:
Hegde Veena, Thippeswamy N. B, K. G Sandesh. Biological activity of Simarouba amara (Aubl.) bark. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(9):4165-4171. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00735.0
1. McGettigan P, Henry D. Use of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs That Elevate Cardiovascular Risk: An Examination of Sales and Essential Medicines Lists in Low, Middle and High-Income Countries. PLOS Medicine. 2013;10:1-6.
2. Cho J, Bing SJ, Kim A, Lee NH, Byeon SH, Kim GO, et al. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) rescues mice from γ-ray irradiation by accelerating hematopoiesis and curtailing immunosuppression. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2016;55:306-16.
3. Venkatalakshmi P, Vadivel V, Brindha P. Role of phytochemicals as immunomodulator agents: A review. International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2016;10:1-18.
4. Dhasarathan P, Gomathi R, Theriappan P, Paulsi S. Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of different fruits in mice. Journal of Applied Science and Research. 2010;6:1056-59.
5. Bonte F, Barre P, Pinguet P, Meybeck A. Simarouba amara extract increases human skin keratinocyte differentiation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1996;53:65-74.
6. Taylor L. Technical data report for Simarouba; Simarouba amara. Herbal secrets of the rainforest. Inc Austin: Sage Press; 2003.
7. Charishma Y, Thiruvengadarajan VS. A review on identification strategy of phytoconstituents present in herbal plants. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science. 2013;4:123-40.
8. Ferguson NM. A text book of pharmacognosy. 1st ed. NewYork, USA: Macmillion Company; 1956.
9. Kim HP, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS. Anti-inflammatory Plant Flavonoids and Cellular Action Mechanisms. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 2004;96:229-245.
10. Maranhao HML, Vasconcelos CFB, Rolim LA, Costa-Silva JH, Silva-Neto JC, Wanderley AG. Acute and subacute toxicities of the aqueous extract of Simarouba amara Aublet stem bark. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 2014;5:5151–62.
11. Freitas ACC, Ximenes NCA, Aguiar JS, Nascimento SC, Lins TUL, Magalhaes LR, et al. Biological activities of Libidibia (Caesalpinia) ferrea var. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul.) L.P. Queiroz pod preperations. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Mediciene. 2012:1-7.
12. Hemalatha R, Babu KN, Karthik M, Ramesh R, Kumar BD, Kumar PU. Immunomodulatory activity and Th1/Th2 cytokine response of Ocimum scantum in meylosuppressed swiss albino mice. Trends in Microbiology Research. 2011;6:23-31.
13. George A, Chinnappan S, Choudhary Y, Bommu P, Murthy S. Immunomodulatory activity of an aqueous extract of Polygonum minus Huds on swiss albino mice using carbon clearance assay. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2014;4:398-400.
14. Sathianarayanan S, Rajasekaran A. Immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of wrightia tinctoria leaves. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmceutical Science. 2012;4:251-54.
15. Kori ML, Gaur K, Dixit VK. Investigation of immunomodulatory potential of Cleome gynandra Linn. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Clinical Research. 2009;2:35-39.
16. Nworu CS, Nwuke HC, Akah PA, Okoye FBC, Esimone CO. Extracts of Ficus exasperata leaf inhibit topical and systemic inflammation in rodents and suppress LPS-induced expression of mediators of inflammation in macrophages. Journal of Immunotoxicology. 2013;10:302-310.
17. Schmid D, Gruber M, Woehs F, Prinz S, Etzlstorfer B, Prucker C, et al. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh) extracts in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2009;61:1089-96.
18. Jarosz M, Olbert M, Wyszogrodzka G, Młyniec K, Librowski T. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of zinc. Zinc-dependent NF-jB signalling. Inflammopharmacology. 2017;25:11–24.
19. Alvesa IA, Mirandab HM, Soaresa LA, Randaua KP. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities. Rev Brasilian Pharmacology. 2014;24:481-501.
20. Kelly M, Hwang JM, Kubes P. Modulating leukocyte recruitment in inflammation. Journal of Allergy Clinical Immunology. 2007;120:3-10.
21. Winklelstein A. Mechanism of Immunosuppression: Effects of cyclophosphamide on cellular immunity. Blood 1973;41:273-84.
22. Manthou E, Georgakouli K, Deli CK, Sotiropoulos A, Fatouros IG, Kouretas D, et al. Effect of pomegranate juice consumption on biochemical parameters and complete blood count. Experimental and Theory of medicine. 2017;14:1756-62.
23. Morris D, Ly J, Chi P, Daliva J, Nguyen T, Soofer C, Yung et al. Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2015;5:1-6.
24. Bharshiv CK, Garg SK, Bhatia AK. Immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis flowers with particular reference to splenocytes proliferation and cytokines induction. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2016;48:412-417.
25. Undiandeye JU, Oderinde BS, El-Yuguda A, Baba SS. Immunostimulatory effect of levamisole on the immune response of goats to peste des petits ruminants (ppr) vaccination. World Journal of Vaccine. 2014;4:88-95.
26. Parawansah P, Nurtamin T, Mulyawati SA, Nuralifah N, Misnaen WaOA. Immunomodulatory Effect of Momordica charantia L. Fruit Ethanol Extract on Phagocytic Activity and Capacity of Mice Peritoneal Macrophages. Indonesian Biomedical Journal. 2018;10:144-147.
27. Deng YY, Yi Y, Zhang LiF, Zhang RuiF, Zhang Y, Wei ZC et al. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia. Molecules. 2014;19:13432-13447.
28. Rehman J, Dillow JM, Carter SM, Chou J, Le BB, Maisel AS. Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis. Immunology Letters. 1999;68:391-96.
29. Brandt DP, Thomas WL, Keylock KD, Potter VJP, Cook MD, McAuley E, et al. Relationship between Systemic Inflammation and Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Response to Candida Antigen in Older Adults. PLoS One 2012;7:1-6.
30. Szczepanik M, Akahira-Azuma M, Bryniarski K, Tsuji RF, Kawikova I, Ptak W, et al. Askenase2. B-1 B Cells Mediate Required Early T Cell Recruitment to Elicit Protein Induced Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity. Journal of Immunology 2003;171:6225-6235.