Mahendra Basnet, Yogesh H.S, Shivkumar Swamy
Mahendra Basnet1, Yogesh H.S2, Shivkumar Swamy1
1Department of Pharmacology, Mallige College of Pharmacy, Silvepura, Bangalore-560090, Karnataka, India.
2Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur Road, Opp. Lalbagh Main Gate, Bangalore-27, Karnataka, India.
Volume - 13,
Issue - 8,
Year - 2020
Nowadays, owing to medicinal plants as a candidate to obtain promising new medicinal agents, there is a renewed interest in the use of these natural sources for drug development. In the present study, we aimed to assess the neuroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea glabra leaves against 3Nitropropionic acid induced neurotoxic rats. The extract of Bougainvillea glabra leaves in two doses (150 and 300mg/kg) were administered daily for eight successive days to albino rats of either sex. 3Nitropropionic acid (10mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce neurotoxicity in rats. Elevated plus maze test for special memory, Rota-rod performance assessment for motor coordination and Neurochemical measurements were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters using Piracetam (200mg/kg, i.p.) as a standard nootropic agent. During treatment psychopharmacological parameters were recorded, 24 hours after experiment antioxidant profiles from brain isolate were estimated and histopathology of brain was performed. These results suggest that ethanolic extract significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and striatal/hippocampus damage in 3-Nitropropionic acid treated rats. Ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea glabra leaves might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in treatment of dementia seen in elderly.
Cite this article:
Mahendra Basnet, Yogesh H.S, Shivkumar Swamy. Evaluation of Neuroprotective activity of Bougainvillea glabra leaves extract on experimentally induced Neurotoxicity in Albino rats. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(8):3825-3832. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00677.0
1. Makris SL, Raffaele K and Allen S, A retrospective performance assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity study in support of OECD test guideline 426. Environmental health perspectives, 117(1) (2009) 17-25.
2. Middaugh LD, Dow-Edwards D and Li AA, Neurobehavioral assessment: a survey of use and value in safety assessment studies Toxicol Sci. 76 (2) (2003) 250–261.
3. Hiroaki Aoyama, Naofumi Takahashi, Yasufumi Shutoh, Atsuko Motomura and Kevin M. Crofton. Developmental Neurotoxicology: History and Outline of Developmental Neurotoxicity Study Guidelines, Food Safety, 3(2) (2015) 48-61.
4. Alston TA, Mela L and Bright HJ. 3-Nitropropionate, the toxic substance of Indigofera, is a suicide inactivator of succinate dehydrogenase, Proc Natl Acad. Sci. (74) (1977) 3767-3771.
5. Mogami M, Hida H, Hayashi Y, Kohri K, Kodama Y et al, Estrogen blocks 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Ca2+ increase and cell damage in cultured rat cerebral endothelial cells, Brain Res. 956 (1) (2002) 116-25.
6. Ludolph AC, He F, Spencer PS, Hammerstad J and Sabri, M. 3Nitropropionic acid–exogenous animal neurotoxin and possible human striatal toxin, Can. J Neurol Sci, (18) (1991) 492-498.
7. Coles CJ, Edmondson DE and Singer TP. Inactivation of succinate dehydrogenase by 3-nitropropionate, J Biol Chem, (254) (1979) 5161-5167.
8. Brouillet E, Guyot MC, Mittoux V, Altairac, S, Conde F et al, Partial inhibition of brain succinate dehydrogenase by 3nitropropionic acid is sufficient to initiate striatal degeneration in rat, J Neurochem, (70) (1998) 794-805.
9. Schulz JB, Henshaw DR, MacGarvey U and Beal MF. Involvement of oxidative stress in 3-nitropropionic acid neurotoxicity, Neurochem Int, (29) (1996) 167-171.
10. Matthias L and Reichmann H. Clinical neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease- still waiting for the breakthrough, J Neurol Sci, (289) (2010) 104-114.
11. Arseniuk A. Bougainvillea spectabilis, Bougainvillea glabra - Paper Flower. Herbs from distant lands. http://herbsfromdistantlands.blogspot.in/2015/12/bougainvillea-spectabilis-bougainvillea.html (2015) 183-504.
12. Mariajancyrani J, Chandramohan V and Renganathan R, Antioxidant activity, preliminary phytochemical investication and GCMS study of bougainvillea glabra choicy leaves, Int. J of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(2) (2012) 12-16.
13. Ghule BV, Murugananthan G and Yeole PG. Analgesic and Antipyretic effects of Capparis Zeylanica leaves, Fitoterapia, (78) (2007) 365-369.
14. Anonymous. Organization for economic Co-operation and development Guidance Document on acute toxicity testing. Environment Directorate, OECD (2001) 1-24.
15. Manuj A, Mahendra B and Chopra K, Protective effect of minocycline, a semi synthetic second-generation tetracycline against 3nitropropionic acid(3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity, Toxicology, (244) (2008) 111-122.
16. Shalavandl MH, Chandrasekhar VM, Avinash SP, Sowmya et al. Neuroprotective activity of stereospermum suaveolens DC against 6-OHD induced Parkinson’s model, Indian J Pharmacol 44 (6) (2012) 737-743.
17. Puneet K and Kumar A. Protective role of sertraline against 3nitropropionic acid-induced cognitive dysfunction and redox ratio in striatum, cortex and hippocampus of rat brain, Indian J Exp Biol, (47) (2009) 715-722.
18. Moshahid KM, Ajmal A, Tauheed I, Badruzzaman K, Nasrul H M et al, Resveratrol attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative damage and dopamine depletion in rat model of Parkinson's disease, Brain Res (1328) (2010) 139-151.
19. Hiroshi O, Nobuko O and Yagi K. Assay for Lipid Peroxides in Animal Tissues by Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction, Anal Biochem, (95) (1979) 35l-358.
20. Ellman GL, Tissue Sulphydral Groups.,Arch Biochem Biophys, (82) (1959) 70-77.
21. Deepak KD, Veerendra CY, Siva SN, Tirtha G, Rajalingam D et al. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Ichnocarpus frutescens (Linn.) R.Br. on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, Trop J Pharm Res, 6(3) (2007) 755-765.
22. Anusha J, Flora SJ. Dose related effects of nicotine on oxidative injury in young, adult and old rats, J. Environ. Biol, (33) (2012) 233-238.
23. Young DS, Pestaner LC and Gibberman V. Effects of drugs on clinical laboratory tests. Clin. Chem, (21) (1975) 351-353.
24. Friedman RB, Anderson RE and Hirshberg SB. Effects of diseases in clinical laboratory tests, Clin.Chem, (26) (1980) 209-211.
25. Chandrashekhar VM, Ranipariya VL, Ganapaty S, Parashar and Muchandi AA. Neuroprotective activity of Matricaria recutita Linn against global model of ischemia in rats, J Ethanopharmacol, (127) (2010) 645-651.
26. Tunez I, Inmaculada T, Perez-De La Cruz V and Santamaria A. 3Nitropropionic Acid as a Tool to Study the Mechanisms Involved in Huntington’s Disease: Past, Present and Future, Molecules, (15) (2010) 878-916.
27. Kumar P and Kumar A. Neuroprotective effect of cyclosporine and FK506 against 3 nitropropionic acid induced cognitive dysfunction and glutathione redox in rat: possible role of nitric oxide, Neurosci Res, (63) (2009) 302-314.
28. Tariq M, Khan HA, Elfaki I, Deeb SA, Moutaery KA. Neuroprotective effect of nicotine againt 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntingtons disease in rats. Brain Res Bull. (67) (2005) 161-168.