Author(s): Somaraju Revanth Kumar, Vignesh Mohan, K. Srilekha, Shifa Ryaz, Koteshwara KB, Vamshi Krishna Tippavajhala, Lalit Kumar

Email(s): kb.koteshwara@manipal.edu

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00549.1   

Address: Somaraju Revanth Kumar, Vignesh Mohan, K. Srilekha, Shifa Ryaz, Dr. Koteshwara KB*, Dr. Vamshi Krishna Tippavajhala, Dr. Lalit Kumar
Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India – 576104.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 7,     Year - 2020


ABSTRACT:
Diffusion of the drug from a formulation and across membranes simulating biological cell membranes is the major concern to be taken under consideration while formulating any dosage form. This brings on a major role in those which are to be applied along the skin, since drug needs to first release from the polymer matrix then enter systemic circulation via the skin. The purpose of the study was to compare the dispersion rate of diclofenac sodium from the gel formulation across five different synthetic membranes. In this work, we worked to measure the drug release profile using and using various kinetic models, found out the mechanism of diffusion through membranes on the drug release profile. The evaluation was done by an in vitro drug release system in the laboratory using Franz diffusion cell. Diclofenac sodium topical gel was formulated using carbopol 934 as the gel-forming agent(1). Diffusion studies showed that the highest release was given by mixed cellulose ester membrane (83.16%) in 71.5 hrs. Followed by cellulose acetate membrane (78.1%), cellulose acetate nitrate membrane (75.6), polyether sulphone membrane (70.8%) and sigma cellulose membrane (56.39%). Drug release followed first-order kinetics and Higuchi's model of diffusion from all the membranes with case II and super case II transport mechanisms.


Cite this article:
Somaraju Revanth Kumar, Vignesh Mohan, K. Srilekha, Shifa Ryaz, Koteshwara KB, Vamshi Krishna Tippavajhala, Lalit Kumar. Diffusion studies of Diclofenac sodium topical gel using Different Synthetic Membranes. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(7): 3098-3102. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00549.1


REFERENCES:
1. Shiva Kumar Yellanki, NKN, , Sambit Kumar Deb, et al. Development of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride in situ Opthalmic Gelling Systems Using Natural and Synthetic Polymers and In Vitro Evaluation. Res J Pharm Tech [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2019 Aug 14];3(3):729–32. Available from: http://anvpublication.org/ ShowPDF_Paper.aspx
2. Nastiti C, Ponto T, Abd E, Grice J, Benson H, Roberts M. Topical Nano and Microemulsions for Skin Delivery. Pharmaceutics [Internet]. 2017 Sep 21 [cited 2019 Jun 13];9(4):37. Available from: http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4923/9/4/37
3. Sanna V, Peana AT, Moretti MDL. Effect of vehicle on diclofenac sodium permeation from new topical formulations: in vitro and in vivo studies. Curr Drug Deliv [Internet]. 2009 Jan [cited 2019 Jun 13];6(1):93–100. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/19418961
4. Hamed R, Basil M, AlBaraghthi T, Sunoqrot S, Tarawneh O. Nanoemulsion-based gel formulation of diclofenac diethylamine: design, optimization, rheological behavior and in vitro diffusion studies. Pharm Dev Technol [Internet]. 2016 Nov 16 [cited 2019 Jun 13]; 21(8):980–9. Available from: https: // www.tandfonline.com/ doi/full/10.3109/ 10837450.2015. 1086372
5. Khullar R, Kumar D, Seth N, Saini S. Formulation and evaluation of mefenamic acid emulgel for topical delivery. Saudi Pharm J [Internet]. 2012 Jan 1 [cited 2019 Jun 13];20(1):63–7. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/ article/ pii/S1319016411000624
6. Miss A. B. Hajare, Dr. M. M. Nitalikar, Dr. C.S. Magdum, Dr. S. K. Mohite, S.J. Shid VND. Formulation and Optimization of Dermatological Dosage form for Comparative in- vitro Evaluation of Semisolid Bases. Res J Top Cosmet Sci [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Aug 14];7(2):46–54. Available from: http:// anvpublication.org/ShowPDF_Paper.aspx
7. Thakur V, Prashar B, Arora S. Drug Invention Today Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Gel for Topical Delivery of Antifungal Agent Fluconazole Using Different Penetration Enhancers. [cited 2019 Jun 13];2012(8):414–9. Available from: www.ditonline.info
8. Hamed R, Al Baraghthi T, Alkilani AZ, Abu-Huwaij R. Correlation Between Rheological Properties and In Vitro Drug Release from Penetration Enhancer-Loaded Carbopol® Gels. J Pharm Innov [Internet]. 2016 Dec 29 [cited 2019 Jun 13];11(4):339–51. Available from: http:// link.springer.com/ 10.1007/s12247-016-9262-9
9. Rençber S, Karavana SY, Özyazici M. Bioavailability File: KETOPROFEN [Internet]. Vol. 34, J. Pharm. Sci. 2009 [cited 2019 Jun 13]. Available from: https:// pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ 1209/21730cc34d7501cc58736ad3e44a7f7d7bc8.pdf
10. FitzGerald GA, Patrono C. The coxibs, selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2001 Aug 9 [cited 2019 Jun 13];345(6):433–42. Available from: http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11496855
11. Gan TJ. Diclofenac: an update on its mechanism of action and safety profile. Curr Med Res Opin [Internet]. 2010 Jul 17 [cited 2019 Jun 13];26(7):1715–31. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1185/03007995.2010.486301
12. Priya P. Munshi, D.S. Mohale RA and AVC. Formulation and Evaluation of Diclofenac gel. Res J Pharm Tech [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2019 Aug 14];4(9):1394–9. Available from: http:// anvpublication.org/ShowPDF_Paper.aspx
13. Vippamakula S, Vijaya Bhanu P, Shanmugam V, Lakshmi PK. Development and optimization of novel diclofenac emulgel for topical drug delivery Pharmacie Globale International Journal Of Comprehensive Pharmacy Development And Optimization Of Novel Diclofenac Emulgel For Topical Drug Delivery. 2011 [cited 2019 Jun 13]; Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267227479
14. India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare., Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission. Indian pharmacopoeia, 2007 [Internet]. Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission; 2007 [cited 2019 Jun 13]. Available from: https:// www.indianpharmacopoeia.in/ BookDetail.php?item_id=225&
15. Mahajan N M, MA, and Sakarkar DM. A Novel Approach in Development of Diffusion Cell for In-Vitro Diffusion Study. Res J Pharm Tech [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2019 Aug 14];2(2):315–9. Available from: http://anvpublication.org/ShowPDF_ Paper.aspx
16. Bachhav YG, Patravale VB. Microemulsion based vaginal gel of fluconazole: formulation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm [Internet]. 2009 Jan 5 [cited 2019 Jun 13];365(1–2):175–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 18790032
17. Jawed Akhtar, TY Pasha, Monica Padaria, Bhoomi Shah, Nasimabanu Mansuri KP. Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Estimation of Tramadol Hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium in Combined Dosage Form. Res J Pharm Tech [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2019 Aug 14];6(3):127–31. Available from: http://anvpublication.org/ShowPDF_Paper.aspx
18. Khunt DM, Mishra AD, Shah R. Formulation Design & Development of Piroxicam Emulgel [Internet]. Vol. 4, International Journal of PharmTech Research CODEN (USA): IJPRIF ISSN. [cited 2019 Jun 13]. Available from: http://www.sphinxsai.com/2012/july_sept12/Pharm/pdfpharm/PT=60(1332-1344) JS 12.pdf
19. Som Shankar Dubey, and Battula Sreenivasa Rao. Kinetic Models in Adsorption - A Review. Asian J Res Chem [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2019 Aug 14];5(1):8–13. Available from: http://anvpublication.org/ShowPDF_Paper.aspx
20. Korsmeyer RW, Gurny R, Doelker E, Buri P, Peppas NA. Mechanisms of solute release from porous hydrophilic polymers. Int J Pharm [Internet]. 1983 May 1 [cited 2019 Jun 13];15(1):25–35. Available from: https:// www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/ 0378517383900649
21. Chen H, Chang X, Weng T, Zhao X, Gao Z, Yang Y, et al. A study of microemulsion systems for transdermal delivery of triptolide. J Control Release [Internet]. 2004 Aug 27 [cited 2019 Jun 13]; 98(3):427–36. Available from: https:// www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S016836590400269X
22. Suvakanta Dash, Lilakanta Nath and Prasanta Chowdhury, Suvakanta Dash et al. Acta Pol Pharm ñ Drug Res [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2019 Jun 13]; Vol. 67(No. 3):217–23. Available from: https:// pdfs.semanticscholar.org/af23/bccc9e6e51de59badd779b94388271148d70.pdf
23. Ravindra Babu Baggi. Calculation of predominant drug release mechanism using Peppas-Sahlin model, Part-I (substitution method): A linear regression approach. Asian J Pharm Tech [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Aug 14];6(4). Available from: http://anvpublication.org/ShowPDF_Paper.aspx
24. Kanij Fatema, Md. Zakiur Rahman, Tasnuva Haque, et al. Assessment and In Vitro Release Profiles of Salbutamol Sulphate from Hypromellose and Carbomer Based Matrix Tablets. Res J Pharm Tech [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2019 Aug 14];3(2):442–8. Available from: http://anvpublication.org/Show PDF_Paper.aspx
25. Modi JD, Patel JK. Nanoemulsion-Based Gel Formulation of Aceclofenac for Topical Delivery [Internet]. Vol. 1, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science Research. 2011 [cited 2019 Jun 13]. Available from: http://www.urpjournals.com
26. Sahle FF, Metz H, Wohlrab J, Neubert RHH. Polyglycerol fatty acid ester surfactant–based microemulsions for targeted delivery of ceramide AP into the stratum corneum: Formulation, characterisation, in vitro release and penetration investigation. Eur J Pharm Biopharm [Internet]. 2012 Sep [cited 2019 Jun 13];82(1):139–50. Available from: http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/22691416
27. Ravindra Babu Baggi. Modulation of drug release mechanism by Higuchi model: Estimation of percent deviation. Asian J Pharm Tech [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Aug 14];6(4):249–56. Available from: http:// anvpublication.org/ ShowPDF_Paper.aspx
28. Singla. V, Saini. S, Bansijoshi A. C. Ran. Emulgel: A new platform for topical drug delivery | Request PDF [Internet].  International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2012 [cited 2019 Jun 13]. p. 485–98. Available from: https:// www.researchgate.net/ publication/287517164_Emulgel_A_new_platform_for_topical_drug_delivery
29. Dattatreya B Udgirkar, and Hiremath Doddayya. Studies on Topical Gel Formulations of Flurbiprofen Containing Different Penetration Enhancers. Res J Top Cosmet Sci [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2019 Aug 14];1(1):33–6. Available from: http://anvpublication.org/ShowPDF_Paper.aspx
30. Jain A, Gautam SP, Gupta Y, Khambete H, Jain S. Development and characterization of ketoconazole emulgel for topical drug delivery. [cited 2019 Jun 13]; Available from: www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com
31. Baibhav J, Gurpreet S, A.C R, Seema S, Vikas S. Emulgel: A comprehensive review on the recent advances in topical drug delivery. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jun 13]; Available from: https://irjponline.com/details.php?article=680
32. Salgin U, Soyer N, Salgın S, Salgın U. Article in International journal of electrochemical science March [Internet]. Vol. 8, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 2013 [cited 2019 Jun 15]. Available from: www.electrochemsci.org
33. Elliott JE, Macdonald M, Nie J, Bowman CN. Structure and swelling of poly (acrylic acid) hydrogels: effect of pH, ionic strength, and dilution on the crosslinked polymer structure. Polymer (Guildf) [Internet]. 2004 Mar 1 [cited 2019 Jun 15];45(5):1503–10. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S0032386103011911
34. Nesrinne S, Djamel A. Synthesis, characterization and rheological behavior of pH sensitive poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels. Arab J Chem [Internet]. 2017 May 1 [cited 2019 Jun 15];10 (4):539–47. Available from: https://www. sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878535213003973

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): R. Narayana Charyulu, P. Parvathy Devi, Jobin Jose, A. Veena Shetty

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Priya P. Munshi, D.S. Mohale, R. Akkalwar, A.V. Chandewar

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ahmed Hilal Sheriff, Preetham Prasad Nittla

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00968.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ankita Chatterjee, Jayanthi Abraham

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00125.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Yarnykh T.G., Azarenko Iu. M., Buryak M.V., Bubilieva L. A.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00115.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rupesh Pandey, Priyanka Upadhayay, Shiv Shankar Shukla

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Surendra Nath Pandeya, Rajeev Kumar, Arun Kumar, Ashish Kumar Pathak

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Bhagyashree Purohit, Naveen Gupta, Shailesh Jain

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sandra Sajen, Jephin Varughese Jose, Sandeep Bukke, Chaithanya Sudha M, Saladi S.V. Subbarao, V.R. Mandla

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00286.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Pratik N. Shah, Bhavini N. Patel, Chaganbhai N. Patel

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Nawazish Alam, Om Prakash Agrawal, Rimpi, Perwez Alam, Satish Agrawal, Mukul Kaushik, J.S Dhari, Om Prakash Sharma

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Surya Prakash BN Gupta, Neeraj Upmanyu, Gopal Garg

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Alai M.S., Shinkar D.M., Saudagar R.B.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00646.1         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Subin Mary Zachariah, N. Aleykutty, Vidya Viswanad, Halima O.A.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ankit Patel, Pankaj Kushwah, Sujit Pillai, Ajay Raghuvanshi, Nitin Deshmukh

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00013.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): U.S MahadevaRao, Khamsah Suryati Mohd, Siti Zulaikha Bt Abd Halim, Masitah Bt Khamis

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Loveleen Preet Kaur, Rajeev Garg, GD Gupta

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

0.38
2018CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags