Leishmania donovani is a species of intracellular parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania, a group of haemoflagellate kinetoplastids that cause the disease leishmaniasis. It infects the mononuclear phagocyte system including spleen, liver and bone marrow. The study is to explain the role of circulating immune complexes in the development of clinical symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was performed on 31blood samples collected from children (14 males and 17 females) from different governorates, they were suspected of having visceral leishmaniasis, where they visited the central public health laboratory in Baghdad. Their ages from (6months -9years)in the period from October 2018-April 2019.All data were collected for each patient name, age, gender, and clinical symptoms like (fever, spleen hepatomegaly, and anemia).All sera were tested by immunochromatographic strips (In Bios, USA) for qualitative detection of Abs to members of L. donovani, and also IgG of L.donovani were detected by indirect immunofluorescent assay kit (IFAT) (Vircell microbiologists, Spain). Circulating immune complexes were detected by platelet aggregation test (Pl.A.T). The results of showed that there was strong relation between IFAT and immunochromatography used in the detection of Abs of L.donovani and there was significant relation between negative results of CICs titer and the main clinical symptoms of VL (like hepatospleenomegaly). The study concludes that there is an important role of the CICs in development of the clinical symptoms of VL like hepatospleenomegaly.
Cite this article:
Suha A. AL-Fakhar, Wifaq M. Ali, Khitam Yahya Obaid, Khalil Ismail A Mohammed, Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali, Jinan M. Mousa. Association of Circulating immune Complexes in the development of Visceral Leishmianisis. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(7): 3284-3288. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00582.X
Suha A. AL-Fakhar, Wifaq M. Ali, Khitam Yahya Obaid, Khalil Ismail A Mohammed, Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali, Jinan M. Mousa. Association of Circulating immune Complexes in the development of Visceral Leishmianisis. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(7): 3284-3288. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00582.X Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2020-13-7-42
1. Berman J. Current treatment approaches to leishmaniasis. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 2003; 16: 397-401.
2. Melby PC. Recent developments in leishmaniasis. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 2002; 15: 485–490.
3. Suzanne AM., Sean M., Conrad, RGA., Selma MBJ., David MM. A role for IgG immune complexes during infection with the intracellular pathogen Leishmania J Exp Med. 2005; 201(5): 747–754.
4. Pearson RD., Naidu TG., Young AC., de Alencar JE., Romito R., Davis JS. Circulating immune complexes and rheumatoid factors in visceral leishmaniasis. J. Infect. Dis. 1983; 147: 1102.
5. Carvalho EM., Andrews BS., Martinelli R., Dutra M., Rocha H. Circulating immune complexes and rheumatoid factor in schistosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1983; 32: 61–68.
6. Sonia J, Crespo MS. Immune complex-mediated tissue injury: a multistep paradigm. Trends in Immunology. 2006; .26(1): 48-55.
7. Stenger S., Donhauser N., Thuring H, Rollinghoff M., Bogdan C. Reactivation of latent leishmaniasis by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase. J. Exp. Med. 1996; 183: 1501–1514.
8. Von-Stebut E., Belkaid Y, Jakob T, Sacks DL., Udey MC. Uptake of Leishmania major amastigotes results in activation and interleukin 12 release from murine skin-derived dendritic cells: implications for the initiation of anti-Leishmania immunity. J. Exp. Med. 1998; 188: 1547–1552.
9. Penttinen K., Vaheri A., Myllyllä G. Detection and characterization of immune complexes by platelets aggregation test /immune complexes formed in vitro. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1971; 8: 389-397.
10. Melartin L., Myllylä G., Penttinen K. Detection of Au (1) Antigen by immunodiffusion and platelets aggregation tests. Vox San. 1970; 19: 239-245.
11. Kumar R., Nylén S. Immunobiology of visceral leishmaniasis. Logo of frontimmu Front Immunol. 2012; 3: 251. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2012.00251
12. Salam N., Al-Shaqha WM., Azzi A. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology; PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014; 8(10): e3208. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003208
13. Sundar S., Rai M. Laboratory Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002; 9(5): 951–958.
14. Carvalho SF., Lemos EM., Corey RM , Dietze R. Performance of recombinant K39 antigen in the diagnosis of Brazilian visceral leishmaniasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2003; 68: 321-324.
15. Mathur P., Samantaray J, Chauhan NK. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for diagnosis of kala-azar and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis at a tertiary care center of north India. Indian J. Med. Res. 2005; 122: 485-490.
16. Sundar S., Sahu M., Mehta H., Gupta A., Kohli U., Rai M., Berman JG., Murray HW. Noninvasive management of Indian visceral leishmaniasis: clinical application of diagnosis by K39 antigen strip testing at a kala-azar referral unit. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2002; 35: 581-586.
17. Welch RJ., Anderson BL., Litwin CM. Rapid Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Detection of Anti-K39 Immunoglobulin G Antibodies for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis▿. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008; 15(9): 1483–1484.
18. Malla N., Mahajan RC. Pathophysiology of visceral leishmaniasis - some recent concepts, Indian J Med Res. 2006; 123: 267-274.
19. Mary C., Ange G., Dunan S., Lamouroux D., Quilici M. Characterization of a Circulating Antigen Involved in Immune Complexes in Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1993; 49(4): 492-501.
20. AL-FAKHAR SA. The role of circulating immune complexes in relation to polymorphonuclear leucocytes in patients infected with toxoplasmosis, Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. 2017; 10(2): 907-914
21. Jancar S., Sánchez-Crespo M. Immune complex-mediated tissue injury: a multistep paradigm.; Trends Immunol. 2005; 26(1): 48-55.
22. AL-Fakhar.SA. Laboratory Diagnostic Evaluation of Toxoplasmosis in Aborted Women From Baghdad, 2010. Thesis of Ph.D. College of Medicine, University of Baghdad.
23. Miles SA., Conrad SM., Alves RG., Jeronimo SMB., Mosser DM. A role for IgG immune complexes during infection with the intracellular pathogen Leishmania, J Exp Med. 2005; 201(5): 747–754.