Author(s): Naresh Bhaskar Raj, Wan Zhen Lee, Vijayamurugan Eswaramoorthi, Hazliza Razali, Nur Yanti Hariana Othman, Mahadeva Rao US


DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00527.2   

Address: Naresh Bhaskar Raj1*, Wan Zhen Lee2 , Vijayamurugan Eswaramoorthi3, Hazliza Razali3, Nur Yanti Hariana Othman3 , Mahadeva Rao US4
1 Senior Lecturer,Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia.
2 Lecturer,Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia.
3 Post Graduate Student, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia.
4 Professor, School of Basic Medical Sciences, UniSZA, 20400, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 6,     Year - 2020

Falls are common within the aging population. The risk of falling will increase with age for several reasons, including overall muscle weakness, poor balancing, psychological issues, vision impairments, foot problems, adverse medication effects, and acute sickness. The older adults face problems of inability to control their balance during performing their daily activities. Balancing exercises have shown to enhance balance, cognition, and quality of life. The combination of different exercises and balance training could result in a better standard of living between older adults. Therapist and instructors can promote these exercises to the older adults for enhancing their muscle strength, balance, and cognition that produce a better quality of life. Thus, this review aims to discuss various exercises that are effective for reducing falls in older adults and its implications for practice.

Cite this article:
Naresh Bhaskar Raj, Wan Zhen Lee, Vijayamurugan Eswaramoorthi, Hazliza Razali, Nur Yanti Hariana Othman, Mahadeva Rao US. Exercise Programmes for Reducing The Risk of Falls in Elderly: A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(6): 2977-2984. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00527.2

1.    Moylan KC, Binder EF. Falls in older adults: risk assessment, management and prevention. The American journal of medicine. 2007 Jun 1;120(6):493-e1.
2.    Sieber CC. Frailty–from concept to clinical practice. Experimental gerontology. 2017 Jan 1;87:160-7.
3.    Rubenstein LZ. Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age and ageing. 2006 Sep 1;35(suppl_2):ii37-41.
4.    Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, Sherrington C, Gates S, Clemson LM, Lamb SE. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2012(9).
5.    Kojima G. Frailty as a predictor of future falls among community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2015 Dec 1;16(12):1027-33.
6.    Lord SR. Visual risk factors for falls in older people. Age and ageing. 2006 Sep 1;35(suppl_2):ii42-5.
7.    Ishiyama G. Imbalance and vertigo: the aging human vestibular periphery. InSeminars in neurology 2009 Nov (Vol. 29, No. 05, pp. 491-499). © Thieme Medical Publishers.
8.    Lord SR, Lloyd DG, Keung Li SE. Sensori-motor function, gait patterns and falls in community-dwelling women. Age and ageing. 1996 Jul 1;25(4):292-9.
9.    Kim HK, Suzuki T, Saito K, Yoshida H, Kobayashi H, Kato H, Katayama M. Effects of exercise and amino acid supplementation on body composition and physical function in community‐dwelling elderly Japanese sarcopenic women: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2012 Jan;60(1):16-23.
10.    Beauchet O, Annweiler C, Dubost V, Allali G, Kressig RW, Bridenbaugh S, Berrut G, Assal F, Herrmann FR. Stops walking when talking: a predictor of falls in older adults? European journal of neurology. 2009 Jul;16(7):786-95.
11.    Nagy E, Feher-Kiss A, Barnai M, Domján-Preszner A, Angyan L, Horvath G. Postural control in elderly subjects participating in balance training. European journal of applied physiology. 2007 May 1;100(1):97-104.
12.    Rogge AK, Röder B, Zech A, Hötting K. Exercise-induced neuroplasticity: Balance training increases cortical thickness in visual and vestibular cortical regions. Neuroimage. 2018 Oct 1;179:471-9.
13.    Bisson E, Contant B, Sveistrup H, Lajoie Y. Functional balance and dual-task reaction times in older adults are improved by virtual reality and biofeedback training. Cyberpsychology & behavior. 2007 Feb 1;10(1):16-23.
14.    Rendon AA, Lohman EB, Thorpe D, Johnson EG, Medina E, Bradley B. The effect of virtual reality gaming on dynamic balance in older adults. Age and ageing. 2012 Jul 1;41(4):549-52.
15.    de Vries AW, Faber G, Jonkers I, Van Dieen JH, Verschueren SM. Virtual reality balance training for elderly: Similar skiing games elicit different challenges in balance training. Gait & posture. 2018 Jan 1;59:111-6.
16.    Lafond D, Duarte M, Prince F. Comparison of three methods to estimate the center of mass during balance assessment. Journal of biomechanics. 2004 Sep 1;37(9):1421-6.
17.    de Andrade Mesquita LS, de Carvalho FT, de Andrade Freire LS, Neto OP, Zângaro RA. Effects of two exercise protocols on postural balance of elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. BMC geriatrics. 2015 Dec 1;15(1):61.
18.    Dunsky A, Yahalom T, Arnon M, Lidor R. The use of step aerobics and the stability ball to improve balance and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults–a randomized exploratory study. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. 2017 Jul 1;71:66-74
19.    Rees SS, Murphy AJ, Watsford ML, Mclachlan KA, Coutts AJ. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on stiffness and force-producing characteristics of the ankle in active women. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research. 2007;21:572–7
20.    Pereira MP, Gonçalves M. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation improves balance and knee extensors strength of older fallers. ISRN Rehabilitation. 2012 Nov 14;2012.
21.    Kloubec JA. Pilates for improvement of muscle endurance, flexibility, balance, and posture. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research. 2010;24:661–7.
22.    Wong AM, Lin YC, Chou SW, Tang FT, Wong PY. Coordination exercise and postural stability in elderly people: effect of Tai Chi Chuan. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2001 May 1;82(5):608-12.
23.    Nichols JF, Omizo DK, Peterson KK, Nelson KP. Efficacy of heavy‐resistance training for active women over sixty: muscular strength, body composition, and program adherence. Journal of the American geriatrics Society. 1993 Mar;41(3):205-10.
24.    Lord S, Castell S. Effect of exercise on balance, strength and reaction time in older people. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 1994 Jan 1;40(2):83-8.
25.    Chodzko-Zajko WJ, Proctor DN, Singh MA, Minson CT, Nigg CR, Salem GJ, Skinner JS. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Medicine & science in sports & exercise. 2009 Jul 1;41(7):1510-30.
26.    Marques EA, Figueiredo P, Harris TB, Wanderley FA, Carvalho J. Are resistance and aerobic exercise training equally effective at improving knee muscle strength and balance in older women? Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. 2017 Jan 1;68:106-12.
27.    Ansai JH, Aurichio TR, Gonçalves R, Rebelatto JR. Effects of two physical exercise protocols on physical performance related to falls in the oldest old: A randomized controlled trial. Geriatrics & gerontology international. 2016 Apr;16(4):492-9.
28.    Aartolahti E, Lönnroos E, Hartikainen S, Häkkinen A. Long-term strength and balance training in prevention of decline in muscle strength and mobility in older adults. Aging clinical and experimental research. 2020 Jan 1;32(1):59-66.
29.    Folland JP, Williams AG. Morphological and neurological contributions to increased strength. Sports medicine. 2007 Feb 1;37(2):145-68.
30.    Staron RS, Karapondo DL, Kraemer WJ, Fry AC, Gordon SE, Falkel JE, Hagerman FC, Hikida RS. Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy-resistance training in men and women. Journal of applied physiology. 1994 Mar 1;76(3):1247-55.
31.    Konopka AR, Douglass MD, Kaminsky LA, Jemiolo B, Trappe TA, Trappe S, Harber MP. Molecular adaptations to aerobic exercise training in skeletal muscle of older women. Journals of gerontology series a: biomedical sciences and medical sciences. 2010 Nov 1;65(11):1201-7.
32.    Lovell DI, Cuneo R, Gass GC. Can aerobic training improve muscle strength and power in older men?. Journal of aging and physical activity. 2010 Jan 1;18(1):14-26.
33.    Brach JS, VanSwearingen JM, Gil A, Nadkarni NK, Kriska A, Cham R, Perera S. Program to improve mobility in aging (PRIMA) study: Methods and rationale of a task-oriented motor learning exercise program. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 2020 Feb 1;89:105912.
34.    Kwok TC, Lam KC, Wong PS, Chau WW, Yuen KS, Ting KT, Chung EW, Li JC, Ho FK. Effectiveness of coordination exercise in improving cognitive function in older adults: a prospective study. Clinical interventions in aging. 2011;6:261.
35.    Dizdar M, Irdesel JF, Dizdar OS, Topsaç M. Effects of balance-coordination, strengthening, and aerobic exercises to prevent falls in postmenopausal patients with osteoporosis: A 6-month randomized parallel prospective study. Journal of aging and physical activity. 2018 Jan 1;26(1):41-51.
36.    Manto M, Bower JM, Conforto AB, Delgado-García JM, Da Guarda SN, Gerwig M, Habas C, Hagura N, Ivry RB, Mariën P, Molinari M. Consensus paper: roles of the cerebellum in motor control—the diversity of ideas on cerebellar involvement in movement. The Cerebellum. 2012 Jun 1;11(2):457-87.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Saranya, Parthasarathy V, Hariprasad B, Shobha Rani H

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00233.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): K. Rekha, D. Samuel Sundar Doss, R. Prathyusha Kanti Nandini

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00212.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Shikha Batra, Nikhil Batra, Anil Pareek, Badri Prakash Nagori

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ji-Hye Park, Seul-Gi Jung, Dong-Yeop Lee, Ji-Heon Hong, Jin-Seop Kim, Jae-Ho Yu

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00404.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Md Kamal Hossain, Kamrun Nahar, Parisa Shokryazdan, Norhani Abdullah, Kaiser Hamid, Mohammed Faseleh Jahromi

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00530.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Jong-Im Kim, Sun Kyung Kim, Hyunjoo Kim, Sunae Kim, Taehui Kim, Keumok Park, Bohyun Kim

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00544.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Deepak H B, Sabina Evan Prince

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00491.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Suraj. S. Gaba

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles