Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite that is seen inside the vagina of the human body. Normally the vaginal PH is acidic. The vaginal PH should be changed to alkaline for opposing the infection of the disease. From the previous studies, it’s clear that the vaginal microbiota of a mature woman can be divided into five kinds of bacteria. Four of these types are dominated by Lactobacillus bacteria. But, one among them is dominated by bacteria other than Lactobacillus. Aim of the study: is to find the relationship between Trichomonas vaginalis and bacteria collected from the vagina of Iraqi women. Patients and Methods: from the Gynecology Department of Al Imamein Al Kadhimein Medical in Iraq, we collected vaginal samples from 100 Iraqi women. This was done during the period between May 2014 and April 2015. Females with discharge and alkaline PH enrolled in the study. Trichomonas vaginalis is detected mainly by two methods. A polymerase chain reaction can be conducted and vaginal microbiota can be examined by the analysis of 16 sRNA genes. Samples were sent to Macrogen/Korea. Results: From hundred vaginal swabs only sixty were alkaline. 12 were positive for the parasite by PCR. Five samples were sequence for 16 RNA. Uncultured Lactobacillus were detected in four samples., So the 4CST are common in this study, one sample represent CST-IV, Sample 5 were common with Sterptophyta. uncultured method like NGs is helpful for diagnosis of uncultured bacteria. Lactobacillus spp.(uncultured) were dominated in our samples which might play a role in established parasite infection.
Cite this article:
Huda Dhaher Al-Marsomy. Association between Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal bacterial community composition in Human vagina. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(6): 2925-2931. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00539.9
1. Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. 2012. Prinicples of anatomy and physiology. (B. Roesch, Ed.) (13thed.). John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
2. Bing M, Forney LJ, Ravel J. Vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and diseases. Annu Rev Microbiol .2012;66:371–89. [PubMed: 22746335]
3. Aldunate M, Srbinovski D, Hearps AC, Latham CF, Ramsland PA, Gugasyan R, et al. Antimicrobial and immune modulatory effects of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids produced by vaginal microbiota associated with eubiosis and bacterial vaginosis. Front Physiol. 2015;6:164.
4. Ness RB, Hillier SL, Kip KE, Soper DE, Stamm CA, McGregor JA, et al. Bacterial vaginosis and risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104:761–9.
5. Nelson DB, Hanlon AL, Wu G, Liu C, Fredricks DN. First trimester levels of BV-associated bacteria and risk of miscarriage among women early in pregnancy. Matern Child Health J. 2015;19:2682–7.
6. DiGuilio DB, Callahan BJ, McMurdie PJ, Costello EK, Lyell DJ, Robaczewska A, et al. Temporal and spatial variation of the human microbiota during pregnancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A .2015;112:11060–5.
7. Zhou X, Brown CJ, Abdo Z, Davis CC, Hansmann MA, Joyce P, et al. Differences in the composition of vaginal microbial communities found in healthy Caucasian and black women. ISME J .2007;1:121–33.
8. Bilardi JE, Walker S, Temple-Smith M, McNair R, Mooney-Somers J, Bellhouse C, et al..The burden of bacterial vaginosis: women’s experience of the physical, emotional, sexual and social impact of living with recurrent bacterial vaginosis. PLoS One .2013;8:e74378.
1. 9. Brotman RM. Vaginal microbiome and sexually transmitted infections: an epidemiologic perspective. J Clin Invest.2011; 121:4610–7.
9. Aldunate M, Srbinovski D, Hearps AC, Latham CF, Ramsland PA, Gugasyan R, et al. Antimicrobial and immune modulatory effects of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids produced by vaginal microbiota associated with eubiosis and bacterial vaginosis. Front Physiol. 2015; 6:164.
10. Workowski KA, Berman S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010; 59:1–110. (PubMed:21160459).
11. Sutton M, Sternberg M, Koumans EH, et al. The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among reproductive-age women in the United States, 2001–2004. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 45:1319–1326.
12. Kissinger P, Amedee A, Clark RA, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis treatment reduces vaginal HIV-1shedding. Sex Transm Dis. 2009; 36:11–16.
13. Cummings LA, Hoogestraat DR, Rassoulian-Barrett SL, Rosenthal CA, Salipante SJ, Cookson BT, Hoffman NG. Comprehensive evaluation of complex polymicrobial specimens using next generation sequencing and standard microbiological culture.SCI Rep.2020 Mar;10(1):5446. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-62424-x.
14. Fettweis JM, Serrano MG, Girerd PH, Jefferson KK, Buck GA .A new era of the vaginal microbiome: advances using next-generation sequencing. Chem Biodivers .2012;9: 965–976.
15. Ma B, Forney LJ, Ravel J. Vaginal Microbiome: Rethinking Health and Disease. Annual Review of Microbiology .2012; 66:371-389.
16. Gajer P, Brotman RM, Bai G, Sakamoto J, Schutte UME, et al. Temporal Dynamics of the Human Vaginal Microbiota. Sci. Transl. Med .2012 May 2:4 (132):132ra152 doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3003605
17. Dr. Kiranmai, Dr. A. Neelima, Evaluation of PCR in the molecular diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in comparison with other conventional methods, IJMM 2016 ; 4, (1 ): 1-8.
18. Hassan F A .Genetic Variations of (glut)p3 and (ft2a)p6 in Trichomoias vaginalis a mong unexplained Infertile Iraqi Women . 2019 (Ph.D. thesis submitted to the college of Medicine ,al-Nahrain university ,Baghdad ,Iraq).
19. Larsson PG and Platz - Christensen JJ. The vaginal pH and leukocyte,epithelial cell ratio vary during normal menstrual cycles. Eur. J. Obstetric Gynecology Report Bio.1991;38:39-41.
20. Valadkhani Z, Role of pH on adhesion of trichomonas vaginalis isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic women to vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, Iranian J Med Sci 2004 September; 29 (3):134-139 •
21. Cudmore SL and Garber GE. Prevention or treatment: the benefits of Trichomonas vaginalis vaccine. J Infect Public Health. 2010; 3: 47–53.
22. Patel SR, Wiese W, Patel SC, et al. Systematic review of diagnostic tests for vaginal trichomoniasis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2000;8: 248-57.
23. Coleman JS, Gaydos CA and Witter F .etal .Trichomonas vaginalis Vaginitis in Obstetrics and Gynecology Practice: New Concepts and Controversies.Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2013; 68(1): 43–50.
24. Thomason JL, Gelbart SM, Sobun JF, et al. Comparison of four methods to detect Trichomans vaginalis. J. Clin Microbiol. 1988; 26:1869-72.
25. Sutton M, sternberg M, koumans Eh, et al. the prevalence of trichomonas vaginalis infection among reproductive-age women in the united states, 2001–2004. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2007; 45 (10): 1319-26.
26. Ragaa M Issa, Maisa A Shalaby. Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR. Iranian J Clinical Infe Dis. 2006; 1(4):171-175.
27. Lagier, JC, Papazian L ,Fenollar F, Edouard S,Melenotte C.et al. Tropheryma whipplei DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples: a case control study. Clin Microbiol Infect .2016;22, 875–879. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2016.07.010
28. Fenollar F, Thierry P, Bernard L , Jean-Christophe L, Maëva L et al. First isolation of Tropheryma whipplei from bronchoalveolar fluid and clinical implications. J Infect;2012: 65, 275-278.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2011.11.026
29. Ravel J, Gajer P, Abdo Z, Schneider GM, Koenig SSK. et al. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 2011.108:4680–4687.
30. Brotman R M, Bradford L L,Conrad M, GajerKevin P A, Peralta L, et al .Association between Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal bacterial community composition among reproductive-age women Sex Transm Dis. 2012 October ; 39(10): 807–812. doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3182631c79
31. Mascarenhas RE, Machado MS, Costa e Silva BF, Pimentel RF, Ferreira TT, .et al. Prevalence and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and other vulv ovaginitis in a population of sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Inf Dis Obs Gin .2012; (8, part 1):378640 1-6.
32. Mariam K. Ali1, Huda Dh. Hathal, Hala A. Almoayed.Prevalence and Diagnosis of sexually Transmitted Pathogens in A Sample of Iraqi Women: A Molecular Study Iraqi JMS .2017; Vol. 15(4):364-376 doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.4.7
33. Phukan N, Brooks AES, Simoes-Barbosa A. A cell surface aggregation promoting factor from Lactobacillus gasseri contributes to inhibition of Trichomonas vaginalis adhesion to human vaginal ectocervical cells. Infection and Immunity. 2018, 68(8):e00907-17.
34. Felicia M T, , Kyle T B, and Sevgi O. A, Vaginal Microbiome and Its Relationship to Behavior, Sexual Health, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Apr; 129(4): 643–654. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001932
35. Puri N., Jha B., Lekhak B., Adhikari RC. Study on the incidence of urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and the prevalence of multidrug resistant strains among the bacterial pathogens isolates [Dissertation, thesis] Kathmandu, Nepal: 2006(sited from referenceNo.38)
36. Mumtaz S., Ahmad M., Aftab I., Akhtar N., ul Hassan M., Hamid A. Aerobic vaginal pathogens and their sensitivity pattern. Journal of Ayub Medical College. 2008;20(1):113117.
37. Eliza R, Bijendra R R, Smrity M, and Pramila P .Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Its Association with Risk Factors among Nonpregnant Women: A Hospital Based Study.Int J Microbiol. 2018; 2018: 8349601.
38. Ruxana T, Timothy S B, John W. Ch, and Alice S. P. Pathogen–Host Interactions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Jun; 171(11): 1209–1223.
39. M. Hauser, H. Eichelmann, V. Oja, U. Heber, and A. Laisk .Stimulation by Light of Rapid pH Regulation in the Chloroplast Stroma in Vivo as Indicated by CO2 Solubilization in Leaves Plant Physiol. 1995 Jul; 108(3): 1059–1066. doi: 10.1104/pp.108.3.1059