Transdermal drug delivery systems are showing great improvement in delivering drugs as their advantages overweigh the disadvantages. Transfersomes are vesicular drug delivery systems which are used to enhance the penetration ability of drugs in a non-invasive manner. They have the ability to shrink themselves from 5 to 10 times less than their own diameter and reform in order to pass through a narrow pore. In this review we have discussed about transfersomes , their mechanism to easily penetrate skin by overcoming the barriers present in stratum corneum as well as the methods used in preparation of transfersomes along with their evaluation parameters involved. This newer approach to deliver drugs has got various applications in different fields. Some of their applications include delivery of : Transdermal immunization, NSAIDS, Herbal drugs, Corticosteroids and Interferons. Apart from these they prove to be a great carrier of high molecular weight proteins and insulin in case of diabetic patients. Recently, They are widely studied for their use in treatment of various cancer. Hence in our review, it was observed that transfersomes prove to a be a very good carrier for drugs when compared to liposomal drug delivery system.
Cite this article:
Madhumitha. V, S. Sangeetha. Transfersomes: A Novel Vesicular Drug Delivery System for Enhanced Permeation through Skin. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(5):2493-2501. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00445.X
1. Cevc G. Material transport across permeability barriers by means of lipid vesicles In: Lipowsky R, editor. Handbook of physics of biological systems. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. 1994; Vol. I. Vol. 9 pp : 441–466.
2. Cevc G, Blume G, Schatzlein A, et al. The skin: a pathway for the systemic treatment with patches and lipid-based agent carriers. Adv Drug Delivery Rev. 1996; 18 : 349–378.
3. Cevc G, Schatzlein A, Blume G. Transdermal drug carriers: basic properties, optimization and transfer-efficiency in the case of epi-cutaneously applied peptides. Journal Control Release. 1995; 36 : 3–16.
4. W.F. Lever and G.Schaumburg-Lever. Histopathology of the skin. J.B. Lippincott Company. 1990 ; seventh edition.
5. D. Batisse , R. Bazin, T. Baldeweck, B. Querleux, and J.L. Leveque. Influence of age on the wrinkling capacities of skin. Skin Research and Technology. 2002; (8) : 148-154.
6. El Zaafarany GM , Awad GAS, Holayel SM, Mortada ND. Role of edge activators and surface charge in developing ultra-deformable vesicles with enhanced skin delivery. International Journal Pharm. 2010; 397 : 164-172.
7. Cevc G, Blume G. Lipid vesicles penetrate into intact skin owing to transdermal osmotic gradient and hydration force. Biochem Biophys Acta. 1992 ; 1104 : 226-32.
8. Long XY , Luo JB, Li LR, Lin D, Rong HS, Huang WM. Preparation and in vitro evaluations of topically applied capsaicin transfersomes. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 ; 31 (12) : 981-4.
9. Gregor C. Preparation for the application of agents in minidroplets. US20070042030A1, 2007.
10. Myschik J, Rades T, Hook S. Advances in lipid based subunit vaccine formulations. Curr Immunol Rev. 2009 ; 5 : 42–48.
11. Swarnlata S , Gunjan J, Chanchal DK and Shailendra S. Development of novel herbal cosmetic cream with Curcuma longa extract loaded transfersome for anti-wrinkle effect. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2011; 5(8) : 1054-62.
12. Jain NK. Advances in Controlled and Novel Drug Delivery. CBS Publishers and Distributers. New Delhi, 2001; First edition : pp.426-451.
13. Modi CD, Bharadia PD. Transfersomes: New Dominants for Transdermal Drug Delivery. Am. J. PharmTech Res. 2012 ; 2 (3): 71-91.
14. Prajapati ST, Patel CG, Patel CN. Transfersomes: A Vesicular Carrier System For Transdermal Drug Delivery. Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2011; 2 (1): 507-524.
15. Kombath RV , Minumula SK, Sockalingam A et al. Critical issues related to transfersomes – novel Vesicular system, Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment. 2012; 11 (1): 67-82.
16. Walve JR , Bakliwal SR, Rane BR, Pawar SP. Transfersomes : A surrogated carrier for transdermal drug delivery system. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology. 2011; 2 (1) : 201-214.
17. Panchagnula R. Transdermal delivery of drugs. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 1997; 29 : 140-56.
18. Bain KR , Hadgkraft AJ, James WJ and Water KA. R. Prediction of percutaneous penetration Cardiff. STS Publishing. 1993; 3b : 226-34.
19. M. M. Elsayed , O. Y. Abdallah, V. F. Naggar and N. M. Khalafallah. Deformable liposomes and ethosomes as carriers for skin delivery of ketotifen. Pharmazie. 2007;62 : 133.
20. Cevc G, Blume G, Schatzlein A: Transfersomes-mediated transepidermal delivery improves the regiospecificity and biological activity of corticosteroids in vivo. J Controlled Release. 1997; 45: 211-216.
21. G. Cevc, D. Grbauer, A. Schatzlein and G. Blume. Biochem. Acta. 1998; 1368: 201.
22. M. Gamal, M. Maghraby, A. C. Williams, B. W. Barry. Journal of Pharmacy &Pharmacology. 1999; 51: 1123.
23. Cevc G, “Isothermal lipid phase”, Transitions Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 1991; 57: 293-299.
24. Honeywell-Nguyen PL, Bouwstra JA. Vesicles as a tool for transdermal and dermal delivery. Drug Discovery Today: Technologies. 2005; 2(1) : 67-74.
25. Bangham AD, Standish MM, Watkins JC. Diffusion of univalent ions across the lamellae of swollen phospholipids. J Mol Biol. 1965; 13 : 238–252.
26. Singh H Utreja P, Tiwary A, et al. Elastic liposomal formulation for sustained delivery of colchicine: in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation of anti-gout activity. Aaps J. 2009 ; 11 : 54–64.
27. Abdallah M. Transferosomes as a transdermal drug delivery system for enhancement the antifungal activity of nyastatin. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 4(5) : 560-567.
28. Sazoka F, Papahadjopoulos D. Procedure for preparation of liposomes with large internal aqueous space and high capture by reverse-phase evaporation. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1978 ; 75 : 4194–4198.
29. Shashank J, Niketkumar P, Mansi KS, et al. Recent advances in lipid-based vesicles and particulate carriers for topical and transdermal application. J Pharm Sci. 2016; 116 (2) : 423 – 445.
30. Kumar A, Adde S, Kamble R, et al. Development and characterization of liposomal drug delivery system for nimesulide. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2010 ; 2 : 87–89.
31. Charcosset C , Juban A, Valour J, et al. Preperation of liposomes at large scale using ethanol injection method: effect of scale up and injection devices. Chem Eng Res Des. 2015; 94 : 508–515.
32. Patel R , Singh SK, Singh S, Sheth NR, Gendle R. Development and Characterization of Curcumin Loaded Transfersome for Transdermal Delivery. J Pharm Sci Res. 2009; 1(4) : 71-80.
33. Maestrelli F, Rodriguez M, Rabasco A, et al. Effect of preparation techniques on the properties of liposomes encapsulating ketoprofen- cyclodextrine complexes aimed for transdermal delivery. Int J Pharm. 2006; 312 : 53–60.
34. Rai K. Transfersomes: self-optimizing carriers for bioactives. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol. 2008 ; 62 : 362–379.
35. Sheo DM , Shweta A, Ram CD, Ghanshyam M, Girish K, Sunil KP. Transfersomes- a Novel Vesicular Carrier for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Stavudine: Development, Characterization and Performance Evaluation. J Scientific Speculations and Res. 2010; 1(1) : 30 – 36.
36. Sheo Datta Maurya , Shweta Aggarwal, Vijay Kumar Tilak et al. Enhanced Transdermal delivery of indinavir sulfate via transfersomes. International Journal Of Comprehensive Pharmacy (IJCP). 2010; 1 (06) : 1-7.
37. Gamal M , EI Maghraby M, Williams AC and Barry BW. Skin delivery of oestradiol from deformable and traditional liposomes. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 1999; 51(10) : 1123-34.
38. Gavali MS , Pacharane SS, Jadhav RK and Kadam JV . Transferosome: A new technique for transdermal drug delivery. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry. 2011; 1(3) : 735-40.
39. Pandey S , Goyani M, Devmurari V, Fakir J. Transferosomes: A Novel Approach for Transdermal Drug Delivery, Der Pharmacia Letter, 2009; 1 (2) : 143-150.
40. Jalon GE , Ygartua P, Santoyo S. Topical application of acyclovir-loaded microparticles: quantification of the drug in porcine skin layers. J. Control Release. 2001; 75: 191-197.
41. Schatzlein A, Cevc G. Skin penetration by phospholipids vesicles, Transfersomes as visualized by means of the Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy, in characterization, metabolism, and novel biological applications. AOCS Press. 1995 : 191-209.
42. Mahmoud M Omar , Omiya Ali Hasan, and Amani M El Sisi . Preparation and optimization of lidocaine transferosomal gel containing permeation enhancers: a promising approach for enhancement of skin permeation. Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14 : 1551–1562.
43. Planas ME , Gonzalez P, Rodriguez L, Sanchez S, Cevc G. Non-invasive percutaneous induction of topical analgesia by a new type of drug carrier, and prolongation of local pain insensitivity by anesthetic liposomes. 1992; 75(4) : 615-621.
44. Shaji J and Lal M. Preparation, optimization and evaluation of transferosomal formulation for enhanced transdermal delivery of a COX-2 inhibitor. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014 ; 6 : 467-477.
45. Sureewan Duangjit , Praneet Opanasopit, Theerasak Rojanarata, and Tanasait Ngawhirunpat. Characterization and In-Vitro Skin Permeation of Meloxicam-Loaded Liposomes versus Transfersomes. Journal of Drug Delivery Volume 2011; 1-9
46. B. S. Makhmalzadeh , A. Salimi , A. Nazarian and G. Esfahani. Formulation, characterization and in vitro / ex vivo evaluation of trolamine salicylate - loaded transfersomes as transdermal drug delivery carriers. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2018; 9(9) : 3725-3731.
47. Pravin K. Shende , Ravindra L. Bakal, R.S. Gaud, Kiran N. Batheja and Madhugandha S. Kawadiwale. Modulation of serratiopeptidase transdermal patch by lipid-based transfersome. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology. 2015; volume 29 (23): 2622-2633.
48. Prem N. Gupta, Vivek Mishra, Paramjit Singh et al. Tetanus toxoid‐loaded transfersomes for topical immunization. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2005 ; Volume 57(3) : 295-301.
49. Benson HA. Transfersomes for transdermal drug delivery. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 2006; 3 (6) : 727-37.
50. Z. Zhang, X. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Wo, Y. Zhang, and Ewelina Biskup. 5-Fluorouracil-Loaded Transfersome as Theranostics in Dermal Tumor of Hypertrophic Scar Tissue. Journal of Nanomaterials. 2015: 1-9.
51. Lu Y , Hou SX, Zhang LK, Li Y, He JY, Guo DD. Transdermal and lymph targeting transfersomes of vincristine. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007; 42(10) :1097-1101
52. Gregor Cevc, Gabriele Blume and Andreas Schatzlein. Transfersomes-mediated trans epidermal delivery improves the regio-specificity and biological activity of corticosteroids in vivo . Journal of Controlled Release. 1997; 45(3) : 211-226.
53. Maghraby EI , Williams GM and Barry BW. Skin delivery of oestradiol from lipid vesicles : importance of liposome structure. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2000; 204 (1-2) : 159-69.
54. Trotta M Trotta M, Peira E, Carlotti ME and Gallarate M. Deformable liposomes for dermal administration of methotrexate. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2004 ; 270 : 119-25.
55. De Marco Almeida , Flavia; Silva, Carolina N.; de Araujo Lopes, Savia Caldeira; Santos, Daniel Moreira; Torres, Fernanda Silva; Cardoso, Felipe Lima; Martinelli, Patricia Massara; da Silva, Elizabeth Ribeiro; de Lima, Maria Elena; Miranda, Lucas A. F.; Oliveira, Monica Cristina . Physicochemical Characterization and Skin Permeation of Cationic Transfersomes Containing the Synthetic Peptide PnPP-19. Current Drug Delivery. 2018;15(7) : 1064-1071(8)
56. Laxmi MV and Zafaruddin MD. Design and characterization of transferosomal gel of repaglinide. Int Res J Pharm 2015 ; 6 : 38-42.
57. Hafer C , Goble R, Deering P, Lehmer A, Breut J. Formulation of interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha containing ultra-deformable carriers for potential transdermal application . Anticancer Res. 1999; 19 (2c) : 1505-7.
58. Mona Qushawy , Ali Nasr, Mohammed Abd-Alhaseeb and Shady Swidan. Design, Optimization and Characterization of a Transfersomal Gel Using Miconazole Nitrate for the Treatment of Candida Skin Infections. Pharmaceutics 2018; 10(1) : 26.
59. Sakshi Sharma Dogra and Simran Chaurasia. Transfersomes: Novel Approach for Intranasal Delivery . EJPMR . 2017 ; 4(3) : 192-203.