Vinoth Kumar. S, Senthil Kumar. R, Sudhakar. P, Baskar. N
Vinoth Kumar. S1, Senthil Kumar. R2, Sudhakar. P2, Baskar. N3
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Thanthai Roever College of Pharmacy, Affiliated to The TN Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Perambalur, Tamil Nadu - 621212, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Swamy Vivekanandha College of Pharmacy, Affiliated to The TN Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu - 637210, India.
3Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Thanthai Roever College of Pharmacy, Affiliated to The TN Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Perambalur, Tamil Nadu - 621212, India.
Volume - 13,
Issue - 4,
Year - 2020
Background: The object of the study was to investigate the possible antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of aerial parts ethanol and aqueous extract of Rhynchosia minima using in vitro and in vivo methods. Materials and Methods: Shade dried, pulverized aerial parts of R. minima was extracted with ethanol and water separately and subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis using standard procedures. The antioxidant potential of the plant extracts was assessed using ABTS, DPPH radical scavenging assay. Antinociceptive activity was assessed by acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate analgesic method. Anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by using carrageenan-induced acute paw edema model. Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, phytosterols, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Ethanol and aqueous extracts of R. minima potentially scavenge the free radicals in ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assay methods. The results obtained are comparable with ascorbic acid and rutin. Diclofenac sodium (20 mg /kg p.o.) and codeine (5 mg/kg p.o.) was used as reference standard. The AERM and EERM at 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. showed significant inhibition of abdominal writhing evoked by acetic acid and also increased the pain threshold towards the thermal source in a dose dependent manner. In carrageenan induced acute rat paw edema the AERM and EERM at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. showed significant (p<0.001) decrease in paw edema volume in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that the ethanol and aqueous extracts of R. minima possess in vitro antioxidant effects. AERM and EERM showed antinociception in acetic acid induced writhing method may be by inhibiting peripheral pain receptor present on cell lining of peritoneal cavity. In hot plate method, may be by involvement of opioid receptor. In the carrageenan induced inflammation AERM and EERM possibly act by inhibiting release and/or action of histamine, serotonin, kinin and prostaglandin like substances. Further studies could reveal metabolites of the extracts responsible for the observed effects.
Cite this article:
Vinoth Kumar. S, Senthil Kumar. R, Sudhakar. P, Baskar. N. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory activities of Rhynchosia minima (L) DC. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(4):1853-1858. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00334.0
1. Chaturvedi A, Kumar MM, Bhawani G, Chaturvedi H, Kumar M, Goel KR. Effect of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;51:131-140.
2. The wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products; CSIR. New Delhi: 1976. Vol. IX: Rh-So, p.23.
3. Krishnamurthy HG, Krishnaswami L and Rangaswamy NS. Hydroquinone diacetate from Rhynchosia minima. Phytochemistry.1975; 14: 2518-2519.
4. Krishnamurthy et al C-Glycosyl flavones from Rhynchosia Minima Phytochemistry, 1977; 16: 498.
5. Adinarayana D, Gunasekar D, Seligmann O and Wagner H. Rhyncosin- A new 5-deoxyflavonol from Rhynchosia minima. Phytochemisry; 1980; 19:483-484.
6. Adinarayana D, Ramachanraiah P and Rao KN. Flavonoid profiles of certain species of Rhychosia of the family Leguminosae (Fabeceae). Experirntia; 1985; 41:251-252.
7. M. Gundidza et al Phytochemical composition and biological acivities ofessential oils of Rhynchosia minima (L) (DC) (Fabaceae). African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009; 8 (5): 721-724.
8. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Textbook of pharmacognosy. Nirali Prakasan Publication, Pune, India; 2004.
9. Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. Bailliere Tindall Press, London; 1983. P.309–706.
10. Kumar RS, Rajkapoor B, Perumal P. 2012. Antioxidant activities of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC. using various in vitro assay models. Asian Pacific Journal Tropical Biomedicine, 2(4): 256-261.
11. Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reaction. The Japanese journal of nutrition and dietetics. 1986;44(6):307-15..
12. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free radical biology and medicine. 1999 May 1;26(9-10):1231-7.
13. Ecobichon DJ. The basis of toxicology testing. CRC Press, New York; 1997.
14. Koster R, Anderson M, De-Beer EJ. Acetic acid for analgesic screening. Federation Proceedings.1959;18:412–418.
15. Eddy NB, Leimbach D. Synthetic analgesics. II. Dithienylbutenyl- and dithienylbutylamines. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1953;107:385-393.
16. Venkatesa Perumal R, Adiraj M, Shanmuga Pandiyan P. Synthesis, analgesic and anti-inflammatory evaluation of substituted4- piperidones. Indian Drugs. 2001;38:156.
17. Ikeda Y, Ueno A, Naraba H, Oh-ishi S. Involvement of vanilloid receptor VR1 and prostanoids in the acid-induced writhing responses of mice. Life Sci. 2001;69: 2911-2919.
18. Chakraborty A, Devi RKB, Rita S, Sharatchandra K, Singh TI. Preliminary studies on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Spilanthes acmella in experimental animal models. Indian J Pharmacol. 2004;36:148-150.
19. Sabina EP, Chandel S, Rasool MK. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic effect of Withaferin A. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2009;6 (2):52-56.
20. Ibironke GF, Ajiboye KI. Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaf extract in rats. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2007;3:111-115.
21. Brooks PM, Day RO. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Difference and similarities. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:1716-25.
22. Vane J, Booting R. Inflammation and the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs, FASEB J. 1987;1:89-96.