Amirah S, Haniza H. Mohd Zain, Husni I, Nur K. Kassim2, Amin I
Amirah S1, Haniza H. Mohd Zain1*, Husni I1, Nur K. Kassim2, Amin I3
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia.
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
Volume - 13,
Issue - 4,
Year - 2020
The study was performed to investigate the antioxidant capacities of Peperomia pellucida (L.) collected from two different locations using different solvents extraction. Antioxidant capacity was analyzed by 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ß-carotene bleaching and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The ability to scavenge free radical in DPPH assay showed that methanol extract of Penang (ground) sample depicted the highest value of 1108 ± 5.568 mg/ml compared to the other samples. In ß-carotene bleaching assay, the ethyl acetate extract of Penang (ground) sample offered the highest percentage of scavenging activity from free radical (86.111%). In ORAC assay, methanol extract of Penang (ground) sample showed the highest value 397.691 µmol of Trolox equivalent/µl. Results between two locations showed no significant difference as compared to the samples from Selangor except for DPPH scavenging assay which depicted a highly significant difference (p<0.05) in Penang. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of DPPH scavenging, ß-carotene bleaching and ORAC assay. Findings showed that ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited a good solvent for antioxidant capacity of P. pellucida. Thus, P. pellucida could be a potential source of antioxidant substance.
Cite this article:
Amirah S, Haniza H. Mohd Zain, Husni I, Nur K. Kassim2, Amin I. In vitro Antioxidant Capacity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth Plant from two different locations in Malaysia using different Solvents Extraction. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(4):1767-1773. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00319.4
1. Parekh J, Jadeja D, Chanda S. Efficacy of aqueous and methanol extracts of some medicinal plants for potential antibacterial activity. Turkish Journal of Biology. 2005; 29: 203-210.
2. Amin M, Jassal MMS, Tygi SV. Phytochemical screening and isolation of Eugenol from Syzygium aromaticum by gas chromatography. International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. 2013; 3(1): 74-77.
3. Vaishali Rai M, Pai VR, Pratapchandra Kedilaya H, Hedge S. Preliminary phytochemical screening of members of Lamiaceae family: Leucas linifolia, Coleus aromaticus and Pogestemon patchouli. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2013; 21(1): 131-137.
4. Raina H, Soni G, Jauhari N, Sharma N, Bharadvaja N. Phytochemical importance of medicinal plants as potential sources of anticancer agents. Turkish Journal of Botany. 2014; 38: 1027-1035.
5. Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2005; 53(6): 1841-1856.
6. Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2010; 4(8): 118-126.
7. Mahantesh SP, Gangawane AK, Patil CS. Free radicals, antioxidants, diseases and phytomedicines in human health: Future perspects. World Research Journal of Medicinal Aromatic Plants. 2012; 1(1): 6-10.
8. Tan MC, Tan CP, Ho CW. Effects of extraction solvent system, time and temperature on total phenolic content of henna (Lawsonia inermis) stems. International Food Research Journal. 2013; 20(6): 3117-3123.
9. Crişan CC, Cãlinescu I, Zãlaru C, Moldovan Z. Techniques for extracting polyphenols from Coreopsis tinctoria nutt. fruits. University Politehnica of Bucharest Scientific Bulletin. 2013; 75(4): 169-178.
10. Dai J, Mumper RJ. Plant phenolics: extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules. 2010; 15: 7313-7352.
11. Sultana B, Anwar F, Ashraf M. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts. Molecules. 2009; 14: 2167-2180.
12. Rojas-Martínez R, Arrieta J, Cruz-Antonio L, Arrieta-Baez D, Velázquez-Méndez AM, Sánchez-Mendoza ME. Dillapiole, isolated from Peperomia pellucida, shows gastroprotector activity against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in Wistar rats. Molecules. 2013; 18: 11327-11337.
13. Lee SW, Sim KY, Wendy W, Zulhisyam AK. Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as immunostimulator in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis spp. farming. Veterinary World. 2016; 9(3): 231-234.
14. Wei LS, Wee W, Yong JFS, Syamsumir DS. Characterization of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical compositions of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract. Acta Medica Iranica. 2011; 49(10): 670-674.
15. Habsah Mohamad, Yosie Andriani, Kamariah Bakar, Chow CS, Syamsumir, DF, Asmah Alias et al. Effect of drying method on anti-microbial, anti-oxidant activities and isolation of bioactive compounds from Peperomia pellucida (L) Hbk. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2015; 7(8): 578-584.
16. Mutee AF, Salhimi SM, Yam MF, Lim CP, Abdullah GZ, Ameer OZ., et al. In vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activities of Peperomia pellucida. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2010; 6(5): 686-690.
17. Igwe OU, Mgbemena NMA. Chemical investigations and antibacterial activity of the leaves of Peperomia pellucida L. HBK (Piperaceae). Asian Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2014; 2(1): 78-86.
18. Ooi DJ, Iqbal S, Maznah Ismail. Proximate composition, nutritional attributes and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L. (Ketumpangan Air) grown in Malaysia. Molecules. 2012; 17: 11139-11145.
19. Egwuche RU, Odetola AA, Erukainure OL. Preliminary investigation into the chemical properties of Peperomia pellucida L. Research Journal of Phytochemistry. 2011; 1-6.
20. Khan A, Rahman M, Islam MS. Neuropharmacological effects of Peperomia pellucida leaves in mice. Daru. 2008; 16(1): 35-40.
21. Oloyede GK, Onocha PA, Olaniran BB. Phytochemical, toxicity, antimicrobial and antioxidant screening of leaf extracts of Peperomia pellucida from Nigeria. Advances in Environmental Biology. 2011; 5(12): 3700-3709.
22. Khan A, Rahman M, Islam S. Antipyretic activity of Peperomia pellucida leaves in rabbit. Turkish Journal of Biology. 2008; 32: 37-41.
23. Ali HS, Caballero CE, Maunting NG, Patricio MJS, Reyes LDD. The Effect of Peperomia pellucida (Shiny Bush) leaf crude extract on the body temperature of boiled milk-induced male white mice. Advancing Pharmacy Research. 2014; 1: 70-82.
24. Sheikh H, Sikder S, Paul SK, Hasan AMR, Rahaman MM, Kundu SP. Hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Peperomea pellucida (L.) Hbk (Piperaceae). International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2013; 4(1): 458-463.
25. Ojo OO, Ajayi SS, Owolabi LO. Phytochemical screening, anti-nutrient composition, proximate analyses and the antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and organic extracts of bark of Rauvolfia vomitoria and leaves of Peperomia pellucida. International Research Journal of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. 2012; 2(6): 127-134.
26. Anokwuru CP, Anyasor GN, Ajibaye O, Fakoya O, Okebugwu P. Effect of extraction solvents on phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant activities of three nigerian medicinal plants. Nature and Science. 2011; 9(7): 53-61.
27. Shalaby EA, Shanab SMM. Antioxidant compounds, assays of determination and mode of action. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2013; 7(10): 528-539.
28. Rao USM, Muhammad Abdulrrazak, Khamsah Suryati Mohd. Phytochemical screening, total flavonoid and phenolic content assays of various solvent extracts of tepal of Musa paradisiaca. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences. 2016; 20(5): 1181-1190.
29. Benhammou N, Ghambaza N, Benabdelkader S, Atik-Bekkara F, Panovska FK. Phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of extracts from the root and stems of Anabasis articulata. International Food Research Journal. 2013; 20(5): 2057-2063.
30. Pandey A, Tripathi S. Concept of standardization, extraction and pre phytochemical screening strategies for herbal drug. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2014; 2(5): 115-119.
31. Geetha TS, Geetha N. Phytochemical screening, quantitative analysis of primary and secondary metabolites of Cymbopogan citratus (DC) Stapf. leaves from Kodaikanal hills, Tamilnadu. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research. 2014; 6(2): 521-529.
32. Chen G, Wang S, Huang X, Hong J, Du L, Zhang L, et al. Environmental factors affecting growth and development of Banlangen (Radix Isatidis) in China. African Journal of Plant Science. 2015; 9(11): 421-426.
33. Crouse K, Denny G. Soil ph and fertilizers. Available from https://extension.msstate.edu/sites/default/files/publications/information-sheets/is0372_1.pdf/2015.
34. McKenzie RH. Soil pH and plant nutrients. Agri-Facts: Practicle Information for Alberta’s Agriculture Industry. Available from https://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex6607/$file/soilph.pdf?OpenElement/2003.
35. County K. Garden tips, soil: It’s more than just dirt! Available from https://web.extension.illinois.edu/hkmw/downloads/65475.pdf/ 2014.
36. Nur Kartinee Kassim, Mawardi Rahmani, Amin Ismail, Mohd Aspollah Sukari, Ee, G. C. L., Nadiah Md Nasir et al. Antioxidant activity-guided separation of coumarins and lignan from Melicope glabra (Rutaceae). Food Chemistry. 2013; 139(1-4): 87-92.
37. Nur Kartinee Kassim, Mawardi Rahmani, Amin Ismail, Aminah Abdullah Khalid Hamid Musa. The Measurement of Antioxidant Capacity of Melicope glabra by ORAC-FL and DPPH and its Chemical Constituents. Paper presented in 3rd International Conference on Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Singapore. Available from http://www.ipcbee.com/vol38/007-ICCCE2012-A011.pdf/ 2012.
38. Ou B, Hampsch-Woodill M, Prior RL. Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2001; 49: 4619-4626.
39. Dávalos A, Bartolomé B, Suberviola J, Gómez-Cordovés C. ORAC-fluorescein as a model for evaluating antioxidant activity of wines. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2003; 12(53): 133-136.
40. Mammadov R, Ili P, Ertem Vaizogullar H, Afacan Makascı A. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Gagea fibrosa and Romulea ramiflora. Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. 2011; 30(3): 57-62.
41. Khokra SL, Parashar B, Dhamija HK, Chandel A, Rekha C. A review describing various in vitro methods for evaluation of antioxidant activity. Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2011; 4(1): 94-99.
42. Barchan A, Bakkali M, Arakrak A, Pagán R, Laglaoui A. The effects of solvents polarity on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of three Mentha species extracts. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2014; 3(11): 399-412.
43. Siramon P, Ohtani Y. Antioxidative and antiradical activities of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf oils from Thailand. Journal of Wood Science. 2007; 53: 498-504.
44. Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP, Sakariah KK. Antioxidant activity of grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro. Food Chemistry. 2001; 73(2001): 285-290.
45. Maisarah AM, Nurul Amira B, Asmah R, Fauziah O. Antioxidant analysis of different parts of Carica papaya. International Food Research Journal. 2013; 20(3): 1043-1048.
46. Azizah Othman, Nor Juwariah Mukhtar, Nurul Syakirin Ismail, Chang SK. Phenolics, flavonoids content and antioxidant activities of 4 Malaysian herbal plants. International Food Research Journal. 2014; 21(2): 759-766.
47. Apak R, Gorinstein S, Böhm V, Schaich KM, Özyürek M, Güçlü K. Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural antioxidant capacity/activity (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2013; 85(5): 957-998.
48. Badarinath AV, Rao KM, Chetty CMS, Ramkanth S, Rajan TVS, Gnanaprakash K. A review on in-vitro antioxidant methods: Comparisions, correlations and considerations. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research. 2010; 2(2): 1276-1285.
49. Shimamura T, Sumikura Y, Yamazaki T, Tada A, Kashiwagi T, Ishikawa H, et al. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives–inter-laboratory evaluation study–. Analytical Sciences. 2014; 30: 717-721.
50. Decoteau D. Plant physiology: Environmental factors and photosynthesis. In Greenhouse Glazing Solar Radiation Transmission Workshop, Department of Horticulture, Pennsylvania State University, USA. Available from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=455C463C5368E7C57259710BD9B593B0?doi=10.1.1.499.2367rep=rep1type=pdf/1998.
51. Hotra L, Kolasky E, Voss J. Abiotic factors influencing the abundance and distribution of marsh marigolds along Carp Creek. Available from https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/54986/3427.pdf?sequence=1/2003.
52. Badrulhadza Amzah. Bab 8: Pengurusan penyakit dan perosak (pp 64). Available from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315696807_Pengurusan_Penyakit_dan_Perosak/2016.
53. Ritchie GSP, Dolling PJ. The role of organic matter in soil acidification. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 1985; 23(4): 569-576.
54. Phongtongpasuk S. Poadang S. Extraction of antioxidants from Peperomia pellucida L. Kunth. Thammasat International Journal of Science Technology. 2014; 19(3): 38-43.
55. Chanda S, Dave R. In vitro models for antioxidant activity evaluation and some medicinal plants possessing antioxidant properties: An overview. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009; 3(13): 981-996.
56. Pappachen LK, Chacko A. In-vitro antioxidant activity and determination of total phenolic, flavonoid contents of Peperomia pellucida Linn. American Journal of Pharmacy and Health Research. 2013; 1(7): 93-101.
57. Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, Watson DG, Lightfoot DA. Phytochemicals: Extraction, isolation, and identification of bioactive compounds from plant extracts. Plants. 2017; 6: 1-23.
58. Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2005; 53: 4290-4302.