Author(s): Som K. Madhvi, Manik Sharma, Javaid Iqbal, Mohd Younis, Razda Sheikh


DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00307.8   

Address: Som K. Madhvi1*, Manik Sharma1, Javaid Iqbal1, Mohd Younis2, Razda Sheikh3
1Department of Zoology, Bhoj Mahavidyalaya Bhopal, Barkatullah University, Bhopal- 462003, Madhya Pradesh, India.
2Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore- 641046, Tamil Nadu, India.
3Department of Zoology, Govt. M.L.B. Girls College, Bhopal- 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2020

The free radical production in excess amount leads to oxidative stress. The plant phytochemicals are natural antioxidants that reduce free radicals and diseases resulted from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to determine in vitro antioxidant activity and concentration of phenol and flavonoids in the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum. The phytochemical extraction was done successively with a soxhlet apparatus and the extracts were screened for the presence of phytochemicals. Further, the extracts were quantitatively estimated for phenol and flavonoids via the spectroscopic method. The antioxidant activity was performed by reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals method. The presence of phenol, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides and coumarins were detected in the extracts. The phenolic contents equivalent to the gallic acid/gram extract were high in the hydroethanolic extract (ethanol-water 70/30) 135.10 ± 0.12mg than ethanol extract 102.3±0.05 mg and water extract 19.23±0.13mg. However, the flavonoid contents equivalent to quercetin/gram extract were high in the ethanol extract 67.70±0.10mg as compared to the hydroethanolic extract 31.53±0.06mg. The order for reducing power of extracts was recorded as ascorbic acid > hydroethanolic > ethanol > water > chloroform > petroleum ether and the same order was found in the DPPH assay having 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values as 24.34±0.09, 40.08±0.06, 70.58±0.04, 182.63±0.66, 666.52±9.45 and 675.99±5.89µg/ml respectively. In conclusion, the results suggest that Rhododendron arboreum leaf extracts have the ability to decrease free radicals and could be used as a natural antioxidant.

Cite this article:
Som K. Madhvi, Manik Sharma, Javaid Iqbal, Mohd Younis, Razda Sheikh. Phytochemical analysis, Total Flavonoid, Phenolic contents and Antioxidant activity of extracts from the Leaves of Rhododendron arboreum. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(4):1701-1706. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00307.8

1.    Gutteridge JM, Halliwell B. Invited review free radicals in disease processes: a compilation of cause and consequence. Free radical Research Communications. 1993; 19(3): 141-158.
2.    Zheng M, Storz G. Redox sensing by prokaryotic transcription factors. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2000; 59(1):1-6.
3.    Ignarro LJ, Cirino G, Casini A, Napoli C. Nitric oxide as a signaling molecule in the vascular system: an overview. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 1999; 34(6): 879-886.
4.    Fridovich I. Fundamental aspects of reactive oxygen species, or what's the matter with oxygen? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1999; 893(1):13-18.
5.    Sevanian A, Nordenbrand K, Kim E, Ernster L, Hochstein P. Microsomal lipid peroxidation: the role of NADPH—cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome P450. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1990; 8(2):145-152.
6.    Valko M, Izakovic M, Mazur M, Rhodes CJ, Telser J.  Role of oxygen radicals in DNA damage and cancer incidence. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2004; 266(1-2): 37-56.
7.    Kim C, Kim JY, Kim JH. Cytosolic phospholipase A (2), lipoxygenase metabolites, and reactive oxygen species. BMB Reports. 2008; 41(8): 555-559.
8.    Nathan C, Xie QW. Regulation of biosynthesis of nitric oxide. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1994; 269(19): 13725-13728.
9.    Sharma N. Free radicals, antioxidants and disease. Biology and Medicine. 2014; 6(3): 1.
10.    Frei B. Cardiovascular disease and nutrient antioxidants: role of low‐density lipoprotein oxidation. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1995; 35(1-2): 83-98.
11.    Halliwell B. Free radicals and antioxidants: a personal view. Nutrition Reviews. 1994; 52(8): 253-265.
12.    Sharma M, Iqbal J, Kailash S, Asgher M, Younis M, Tripathi J, Shezad F, Hura MUD. Multi-therapeutic activity of Berberis lycium royle: a review. International Journal of Advanced research. 2016; 4(12): 2419-31.
13.    Madhvi SK, Sharma M, Iqbal J, Younis M. Phytochemistry, Traditional uses and Pharmacology of Rhododendron arboreum: A Review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(9): 4565-4574.
14.    Purohit CS. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. - An Economically Important Tree of Sikkim. Popular Kheti. 2014; 2(3):193-198.
15.    Middelkoop TB, Labadie RP. Evaluation of Asoka Aristha an indigenous medicine in Sri Lanka. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1983; 8(3): 313-320.
16.    Sharma M, Iqbal J, Kailash S and Hura MUD. Extraction, phytochemical investigation and antioxidant activity of various extracts from root bark of Berberis lycium royle. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 5(4): 630-636.
17.    Iqbal E, Salim KA, Lim LB. Phytochemical screening, total phenolics and antioxidant activities of bark and leaf extracts of Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw) from Brunei Darussalam. Journal of King Saud University-Science. 2015; 27(3): 224-232.
18.    Saxena M, Mir  AH, Sharma M, Malla MY, Qureshi S, Mir MI and Chaturvedi Y. Phytochemical Screening and In-vitro Antioxidant Activity Isolated Bioactive Compounds from Tridax procumbens Linn. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2013; 16(24): 1971-1977.
19.    Nair S, Dixit S, Ganesh N. A comparative analysis of in vitro antioxidant potential of crude extracts of Tridax procumbens L. in different solvents and in vitro hypoglycemic potential of its hydro-alcoholic extract. Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research. 2016; 2(3): 47-55.
20.    Ferreira IC, Baptista P, Vilas-Boas M, Barros L. Free-radical scavenging capacity and reducing power of wild edible mushrooms from northeast Portugal: Individual cap and stipe activity. Food Chemistry. 2007; 100(4): 1511-1516.
21.    Olajuyigbe OO, Afolayan AJ. Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011; 11(1): 130.
22.    Sánchez‐Moreno C, Larrauri JA, Saura‐Calixto F. Free radical scavenging capacity of selected red, rose and white wines. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1999; 79(10): 1301-1304.
23.    Vani T, Rajani M, Sarkar S, Shishoo CJ. Antioxidant properties of the ayurvedic formulation triphala and its constituents. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1997; 35(5): 313-317.
24.    Zhang X, He D, Xu L, Ling S. Protective effect of tanshinone IIA on rat kidneys during hypothermic preservation. Molecular Medicine Reports. 2012; 5(2): 405-409.
25.    Yu X, Tao W, Jiang F, Li C, Lin J, Liu C.  Celastrol attenuates hypertension-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells via induction of heme oxygenase-1. American Journal of Hypertension. 2010; 23(8): 895-903.
26.    Biju PG, Devi VG, Lija Y, Abraham A.  Protection against selenite cataract in rat lens by drevogenin D, a triterpenoid aglycone from Dregea volubilis. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2007; 10(2): 308-315.
27.    Wijeratne SS, Cuppett SL. Potential of rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) diterpenes in preventing lipid hydroperoxide-mediated oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007; 55(4): 1193-1199.
28.    Koo KA, Kim SH, Lee MK, Kim YC. 15-Methoxypinusolidic acid from Biota orientalis attenuates glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat cortical cells. Toxicology in vitro. 2006; 20(6): 936-941.
29.    Rong ZT, Gong XJ, Sun HB, Li YM, Ji H.  Protective effects of oleanolic acid on cerebral ischemic damage in vivo and H2O2-induced injury in vitro. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2011; 49(1):78-85.
30.    Saravanan R, Viswanathan P, Pugalendi KV. Protective effect of ursolic acid on ethanol-mediated experimental liver damage in rats. Life Sciences. 2006; 78(7): 713-718.
31.    Sohn SI, Rim HK, Kim YH, Choi JH, Park JH, Park HJ, Choi JW, Kim SD, Jeong SY, Lee KT. The ameliorative effect of 23-hydroxytormentic acid isolated from Rubus coreanus on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2011; 34(9): 1508-1513.
32.    Tang F, Wu X, Wang T, Wang P, Li R, Zhang H, Gao J, Chen S, Bao L, Huang H, Liu P. Tanshinone II A attenuates atherosclerotic calcification in rat model by inhibition of oxidative stress. Vascular Pharmacology. 2007; 46(6): 427-438.
33.    Kim TD, Thanh HN, Thuy DN, Duc LV, Thi TV, Manh HV, Boonsiri P, Thanh TB. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2016; 6(9): 795-800.
34.    Guo N, Tong T, Ren N, Tu Y,  Li B. Saponins from seeds of Genus Camellia: Phytochemistry and Bioactivity. Phytochemistry. 2018; 149: 42-55.
35.    Podolak I, Galanty A, Sobolewska D. Saponins as cytotoxic agents: a review. Phytochemistry Reviews. 2010; 9(3): 425-474.
36.    Singh B, Singh JP, Singh N,  Kaur A. Saponins in pulses and their health promoting activities: a review. Food Chemistry. 2017; 233: 540-549.
37.    Singh D, Chaudhuri PK. Structural characteristics, bioavailability and cardioprotective potential of saponins. Integrative Medicine Research. 2018; 7(1): 33-43.
38.    Marangoni F, Poli A. Phytosterols and cardiovascular health.  Pharmacological Research. 2010; 61(3): 193-199.
39.    Shahzad N, Khan W, Shadab MD, Ali A, Saluja SS, Sharma S, Alallaf FA, Abduljallel Z, Ibrahim IAA, Wahab AFA, Afify MA, Alghamdi SS. Phytosterols as a natural anticancer agent: Current status and future perspective. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2017; 88: 786-794.
40.    Patel S. Plant-derived cardiac glycosides: Role in heart ailments and cancer management. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2016; 84: 1036-1041.
41.    Rohini K, Srikumar PS. Therapeutic role of coumarins and coumarin-related compounds. Journal of Thermodynamics and Catalysis. 2014; 5(2): 1.
42.    Tungmunnithum D, Thongboonyou A, Pholboon A,  Yangsabai A. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from medicinal plants for pharmaceutical and medical aspects: An overview. Medicines. 2018; 5(3): 93.
43.    Romagnolo DF, Selmin OI. Flavonoids and cancer prevention: a review of the evidence. Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2012; 31(3): 206-238.
44.    Tewari D, Sah AN, Bawari S. Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. from Uttarakhand. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2018; 10(3): 527-532.
45.    Roy JD, Handique AK, Barua CC, Talukdar A, Ahmed FA, Barua IC. Evaluation of phytoconstituents and assessment of adaptogenic activity in vivo in various extracts of Rhododendron arboreum (leaves). Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research. 2014; 2(2): 49-56.
46.    Liu W, Yin D, Li N, Hou X, Wang D, Li D,  Liu J. Influence of environmental factors on the active substance production and antioxidant activity in Potentilla fruticosa L. and its quality assessment. Scientific Reports. 2016; 6: 28591.
47.    Azwanida NN. A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2015; 4(196): 2167-0412.
48.    Bhandari L, Rajbhandari M. Isolation of quercetin from flower petals, estimation of total phenolic, total flavonoid and antioxidant activity of the different parts of Rhododendron arboreum smith. Scientific World. 2014; 12(12): 34-40.
49.    Mohsen SM,  Ammar AS. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of corn tassel extracts. Food Chemistry. 2009; 112(3): 595-598.
50.    Zhou K, Yu L. Effects of extraction solvent on wheat bran antioxidant activity estimation. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2004; 37(7): 717-721.
51.     Mitra K, Uddin N. Total phenolics, flavonoids, proanthrocyanidins, ascorbic acid contents and in-vitro antioxidant activities of newly developed isolated soya protein. Discourse Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2014; 2(5): 160-168.
52.    Eklund PC, Långvik OK, Wärnå JP, Salmi TO, Willför SM, Sjöholm RE. Chemical studies on antioxidant mechanisms and free radical scavenging properties of lignans. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry. 2005; 3(18): 3336-3347.
53.    Stalin N. Screening of phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston. Clinical Phytoscience. 2018; 4(3): 2-13.
54.    Venugopala KN, Rashmi V, Odhav B. Review on natural coumarin lead compounds for their pharmacological activity. BioMed Research International. 2013; 2013.
55.    Banjarnahor SD, Artanti N. Antioxidant properties of flavonoids. Medical Journal of Indonesia. 2015; 23(4): 239-44.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): A. S. K. Sankar, B. Datchayani, N. Balakumaran, Mohammed Rilwan, R. Subaranjani

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00047.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Amurdhavani. B.S

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00299.7         Access: Closed Access Read More

Author(s): Jino Elsa Thomas, Usha Y Nayak*, Jagadish PC, Koteshwara KB

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00007.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): P.Maheshwari, D.Pavithra, Neethu.T.T, T.S. Shanmugarajan, P. Shanmugasundaram

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00011.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): R. Narayana Charyulu, P. Parvathy Devi, Jobin Jose, A. Veena Shetty

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Fatemeh Abbasi, Malahat Nikravan Mofrad, Fariba Borhani, Malihe Nasiri

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00045.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Koushika Das, Pranit Krishna, Avipsha Sarkar, Shanmuga Sundari Ilangovan, Shampa Sen

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00267.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Abhirup Dey, Mangala Lakshmi Ragavan, Sanjeeb Kumar Mandal, Nilanjana Das

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00136.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Karthikeson P.S , Gayathri.R, Vishnu Priya.V

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00289.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): U.S Mahadeva Rao, Khamsah Suryati Mohd, Abdurrazaq Muhammad, Bashir Ado Ahmad, Mohaslinda Mohamad, Rosmawati Mat Ali

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Leelavathi D Acharya, N R Rau, N Udupa, Surulivel Rajan M, Vijayanarayana K

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00162.1         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): H. Firdus Fareen, M.S. Thenmozhi

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00146.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): P. Geetha, M. Kousalya, S. Geetha Lakshmi, R. Gopi.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00046.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles