Author(s): Nimish S. Khandekar, Rajesh S. Jagtap, Sachin J. Sajane, Sneha R. Jagtap

Email(s): rajeshjagtap10@gmail.com , nimishschool@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00282.6   

Address: Nimish S. Khandekar, Rajesh S. Jagtap*, Sachin J. Sajane, Sneha R. Jagtap
Annasaheb Dange College of B Pharmacy, Ashta, Sangli - 416301 Maharashtra, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2020


ABSTRACT:
Sporopollenin is an ubiquitous and extremely chemically inert biopolymer .The surface of sporopollenin is richly sculptured, ornamented and porous and is species specific. It is stable in organic and aqueous solvents. It is insoluble in common acids and in most organic solvents. Sporopollenins have very similar chemical structures and to be identical in structure to the synthetic carotenoid polymes. The sporopollenins derived from angiosperms, gymnosperms and ferns and lower plant spores have similar chemical structures and also they are similar to synthetic polymers. Sporopollenins are strongly osmophilic. Sporopollenins react with basic dyes suggesting the presence of weakly amnionic groups such as acidic-enolic compounds. Sporopollenin can be isolated from spores or pollen grain by treating with solvents or enzymes that remove intine and cytoplasm. Purified sporopollenin retains the similar shape, size, and surface features as in its spore or pollen grain and remains an empty shell i.e sporopollenin microcapsules. The different methods developed to isolate sporopollenin from L. clavatum proved its exceptional stability and chemical inertness. Wiermann et al has proved that, the sporopollein survived a wide range of enzymes. This may explain why it does not easily submit to bacterial decomposition or digestion. Its principle function is to protect against oxidation and desiccation. The study led by Maak proved that sporopollenin by Chlorella vulgaris was harmless and could be rubbed on skin with no irritation, swallowed without any danger or even injected in blood stream. The sporopollenin particles were found to cause an antigenic reation and bind to antibodies. The sporopollenin remains unchanged when heated up to 3000C or treated with concentrated acids and bases. Sporopollenin appears to undergo carbonization and coalification with haet. The sporopollenin decomposes by chemolyses and ozonolysis. An unknown enzymatic sequence linked to the clotting cascade has also been discovered that degrades sporopollenin in the blood, both in vitro and in vivo.


Cite this article:
Nimish S. Khandekar, Rajesh S. Jagtap, Sachin J. Sajane, Sneha R. Jagtap. Sporopollenin: The Ground Discussion. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(3):1555-1564. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00282.6

Cite(Electronic):
Nimish S. Khandekar, Rajesh S. Jagtap, Sachin J. Sajane, Sneha R. Jagtap. Sporopollenin: The Ground Discussion. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(3):1555-1564. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00282.6   Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2020-13-3-87


REFERENCES:
1.    Fu-Shaung Li, Pyae Phyo, Josep Jacobowtiz, Mei Hong & Jing-Ke Weng. The molecular structure of plant sporopollenin, Journal of Biorxiv 2018.URL: https://doi.org/10.1101/415612
2.    Available form: URL: https://hydra.hull.ac.uk/assets/hull:6412a/content
3.    Prateeksha L. Composition of Sporopollenin in Spores and Pollen | Plants; .URL: http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plant-anatomy/composition-of-sporopollenin-in-spores-and-pollen-plants/68924
4.    Sporopollenin: From Wikipedia, from free encyclopedia.
5.    Chapter One: Introduction and review of literature:1-29. URL: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/142575/9/07_chapter%201.pdf
6.    E. Domínguez,José A. Mercado,Miguel A. Quesada,A. Heredia. Pollen sporopollenin: degradation and structural elucidation, Journal of Spinger Link 1999;12(3):171-177
7.    Phillip E.Jardine,Feargus A.J.Abernethy,Barry H.Lomax,William D.Gosling,Wesley T.Fraser.Shedding light on sporopollenin chemistry, with reference to UV reconstructions, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 2017;238:1-6
8.    Andrea Meuter-Gerhards, Claus Schwerdtfeger, Sabine Wilmesmeier and Rolf Wiermann, Studies on Sporopollenin Structure during Pollen Development, , Journal of De Gruyter 2014; 50(7-8)
9.    Brooks, J. & Shaw, G. 19680. The post-tetrad ontogeny of the pollen wall and the chemical structure of the sporopollenin of Lilium henryi. - Grana 8: 227-234.
10.    Brooks. J. & Shaw, G. 1977. Recent advances in the chemistry and geochemistry of pollen and spore walls. -In: Sir J. C. Bose hlemorial Lecture, Bose Research Institute, Calcutta, India. - Proc. Rose Res. Inst. 40, (in press).
11.    Brooks, J., Grant. P. R.. hluir, hf. D., van Gijzel. P. & Shaw. G. 1971. Sporopollenin. - Academic Press, London and New York.
12.    Brooks, J.. hluir, hl. D. & Shaw. G. 1973. Chemistry and morphology of Precambrian microorganisms. - Nature 244: 215-217.
13.    Achari, R. G.. Shaw. G. & Holleyhead. R. 1973. Identification of lonene and other carotenoid degradation products from the pyrolysis of sporopollenins derived from some pollen exines. a spore coal and the Green River Shale. - Chem. Geol. 12: 229-233.
14.    Southworth, D. 1973. Cytochemical reactivity of pollen walls. - J. Histochem. Cytochem. 21: 73-78.
15.    Southworth, D. 1%9. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of pollen and spore walls. - Gnna Palynol. 9: 5-10.
16.    Ford, J. €1. 1971. Ultrastructure and chemical studies of pollen wall development in the Epacridaceae. - In: Sporopollenin (ed. J. Brooks, P. R. Grant, hl. D. hluir, P. van Gijzel & G. Shaw). pp. 130-173. - Academic Press, London and New York.
17.    Heslop-Hamson, J. 1%8. Pollen wall development. - Science 161: 230-237.
18.    Brooks, J. 1970. Chemical constitutents of various plant spore walls. - Ph.D. thesis. University of Bradford.
19.    Gray, J. & Boucot, A. J. 1975. Colour changes in pollen and spores: a review. - Geol. SOC. Am. Bull. 86: IOIP-1033.
20.    Gutjahr. C. C. hf. 1966. Carbonisation measurements of pollen grains and spores and their application. - Leidse Geol. hlededel. 38: 1-29.
21.    Correia, hl. 1971. Diagenesis of sporopollenin and other comparable organic substances: application to hydrocarbon research. - In: Sporopollenin (ed. J. Brooks, P. R. Grant, hl. D. hluir. P. van Gijzel & G. Shaw), pp. 561-588. - Academic Press, London and New York.
22.    Comhaz. A. 1971. Thermal degradation of sporopollenin and genesis of hydrocarbons. - In: Sporopollenin (ed. J. Brooks. P. K. Grant, hl. D. hluir, P. von Gijzel & G. Shaw), pp. 621-659. - Academic Press, London and New York.
23.    Sengupta. S. 1974. The effects of temperature and pressure on Lycopodium clavatum. - In: Advances in organic geochemistry 1973 (ed. B. Tissot and F. Bienner), pp. 305-306. - Editions Technip, Pans, France.
24.    Cook, A. C., hlurchison, D. G. & Scott. E. 1972. A British metaanthracite coal of Devonian age. - Geol. J. 8: 83-94
25.    Holleyhcad, R. 1972. Chemical and geochemical studies of natural and synthetic sporopollenins. - Ph. D. Thesis, University.of Bradford.
26.    Brooks. J. 19776. Chemical studies on the thermal products from sporopollenin and their probable geochemical significance. - In: Proc. 4th International Palynological Conference. - Lucknow. India (in press).
27.    Brooks. J. & Niklas, K. J. 1977. The chemistry of fossils: biochemical stratigraphy of fossil plants. - In: Riostratigraphy of fossil plants. - Paleontol. Soc.. USA. (In press.)
28.    J.Brooks and G.Shaw, Sporopollenin: A review of its chemistry,palaeochemistry ,and geochemistry,Journal of Grana 2009; 17(2):91-97.
29.    Amro K. F. Dyab, Elham M. Abdallah, Salwa A. Ahmed, Mai M. Rabee.Fabrication and Characterisation of Novel Natural Lycopodium clavatum Sporopollenin Microcapsules Loaded In-Situ with Nano-Magnetic Humic Acid-Metal Complexes: Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences 2016: 6(04):10.4236/jeas.2016.64009
30.    Edwards MD, et al. (2014) Interactions between chromosomal and nonchromosomal elements reveal missing heritability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A111(21):7719-22
31.    The Evolutionary Origin of the Plant Spore in Relation to the Antithetic Origin of the Plant Sporophyte by Paul K. Strother, Wilson A. Taylor, Journal of Research Gate, from  Book of Transformative Paleobotany;2018:3-20
32.    Dr.Edward Group.Heath Benefits of Sporpollenin, Global Healing Centre 2013. URL: https://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/health-benefits-of-sporopollenin/
33.    Rajurkar RM, Jain RG, Bedmohta PA, Khadbadi SS. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Extract from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizome. Asian J. Research Chem. 2(3): July-Sept. 2009 page 260-261
34.    Stephen Lawrence Atkin, Stephen Thomas Beckett, Grahame Mackenzie. Uses of Sporopollenin, European Patent Office:EP19097,
35.    Rudra Shekhar Bose, Subin Santosh, Nishi Vasa, Samprita Das, Kriti Balodi, Suneetha V. Exopolysaccharide and Culture Analysis of Pullulan producing Fungus and prevention of Oxidation of Product. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(9): 3035-3042.
36.    Stephen Lawrence Atkin, Stephen Thomas Beckett, Grahame Mackenzie. Uses of Sporopollenin, United States: US7846654B2
37.    Natalya P. Kobzar, Irina A. Sych, Lina O. Perekhoda. Search for Biologically Active Substances with Antimicrobial and Antifungal Action in the series of 2.5-disubstituted 1, 3, 4-tiadiazoles. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(6): 2871 – 2876.
38.    Ranabir Chanda, S. K. Mahapatro, Tutun Mitra, Amit Roy, Sanjib Bahadur. Development of Oral Mucoadhesive Tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate Using Some Natural Materials Extracted from Albelmoschus esculeatus and Tamarindus indica. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 1(1): Jan.-Mar. 2008; Page 46-51.
39.    Kristina E.Steffens, Karl G.Wagner. Improvement of  tabletability via twin-scew melt granulation: Focus on binder distribution. International Journal of Pharmaceutics,Elsevier.570: October 2019 page 118649.
40.    Soumya Verma, Vamshi Krishna Tippavajhala. A Review on the Polymers for Vegetarian Soft Gel Capsule Films. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(9): 3217-3222.
41.    Sisira Padavala, M.G. Aarthy. MTA- An Elixir for Root Perforations -A Short Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(5): 1577-1579.
42.    Vijay D Havaldar, Adhikaro V Yadav, Remeth J Dias, Kailas K Mali, Smita S Kale, Preeti P Pujari. Rectal Suppository of Mucoadhesive Microspheres of Alverine Citrate for İrritable Bowel Disease: In vitro Evaluation. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(7): 3091-3098.
43.    Rukhmakova Olga, Yarnykh Tatyana, Tykhonov Olexander. The Development of Identification and Quantitative Definition Methodic of Active substances of the Ointment “Allergolic”. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(12): 5332-5336.
44.    Thiyagarajan.B, Jamuna.I, Keerthana.G, Krithika.B. Elixir for medicine. International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology: April 2019 page 911-914
45.    Sahar H. Al-Hindawi, Noori M. Luaibi, Batool H. Al-Ghurabi. Estimation of Alkaline Phosphatase level in the Serum and Saliva of Hypothyroid Patients with and without Periodontitis. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(7): 2993-2996.
46.    S. Pillai, I.Singhvi, Mousumi Kar. Simultaneous Estimation of Atorvastatin calcium and Nicotinic acid from Tablet Formulation. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 1(2): April-June. 2008;Page83-85.
47.    Stephen Lawrence Atkin, Stephen Thomas Beckett, Grahame Mackenzie. Dosage form comprising an exine coating of sporopollenin or derivatized sporopollenin, Australia:AU2004251496B2.
48.    Sugandha G.Sporopollenin: Distribution, Production and Functions. URL: http://www.biologydiscussion.com/palynology/sporopollenin-distribution-production-and-functions-2/64378

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

0.38
2018CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags


Not Available