Author(s): V. Chitra, Mohammed Anwar Ali M


DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00280.2   

Address: Dr. V. Chitra, Mohammed Anwar Ali M
Department of Pharmacology, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRMIST, Kattankulathur - 603203.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2020

Osteoporosis is a long term systemic bone disease of developing relevance due to the change in current demography. If left untreated it even leads to the mortality of a person. Osteoporosis is becoming a major public health threat globally. Since the mechanism of this disease are still not fully understood and the treatment options are not satisfactorily involved, the research in osteoporosis was needed especially in an animal model. OVX rodents are commonly used to study the osteoporosis model. Some aspects can only be labeled in larger models only. Among the larger animal model sheep is used and have been used for orthopedic implants. There is no perfect animal model for osteoporosis, the appropriateness of an animal model is not only defined regarding the similarity to the human physiology and disease itself. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis is understood by establishing the various animal model and the pre-clinical testing of the anti-resorptive drugs. The animal model is required to simulate the osteoporotic behaviour has been always different from that of the pharmacological testing. This review aims to have an idea on the current animal models in osteoporosis research and their assessment of bone mass and microarchitecture.

Cite this article:
V. Chitra, Mohammed Anwar Ali M. Animal Models for Osteoporosis-A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(3):1543-1548. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00280.2

V. Chitra, Mohammed Anwar Ali M. Animal Models for Osteoporosis-A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(3):1543-1548. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00280.2   Available on:

1.    Faienza MF, Ventura A, Marzano F, Cavallo L. Review Article Postmenopausal Osteoporosis : The Role of Immune System Cells. Clin Dev Immunol. 2013;2013(575936):1–6.
2.    Mithal A, Kaur P. Osteoporosis in Asia : A Call to Action. 2012;245–7.
3.    Annas Alyasiry, Zainab Mahmood Aljammali, Ahmed M. Almosawy, DSabbah Alrubbaie. Dental Health in Osteoporotic Women. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 8(10): Oct., 2015; Page 1383-1388.
4.    Malhotra N, Mithal A. Osteoporosis in Indians. Indian J Med Res. 2008;127(3):263–8.
5.    Mithal A, Ebeling P, Kyer CS. The Asia-Pacific Regional Audit: Epidemiology, costs & burden of osteoporosis in 2013. Int Osteoporos Found. 2013;124.
6.    Tandon V, Gillani Z, Khajuria V, Mahajan S, Mahajan A, Raina K, et al. Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency among Indian menopausal women and its correlation with diabetes: A first Indian cross sectional data. J Midlife Health. 2014;5(3):121.
7.    Ritu G, Gupta A. Vitamin D deficiency in India: Prevalence, causalities and interventions. Nutrients. 2014;6(2):729–75.
8.    Srivastava AK, Mukerjee A, Gupta P, Srivastava N. Osteoporosis and its Management : A Timely Update. 2014;1(3):26–41.
9.    Sanwalka NJ, Khadilkar A V., Mughal MZ, Sayyad MG, Khadilkar V V., Shirole SC, et al. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(3):324–9.
10.    Sipos W, Pietschmann P, Rauner M, Kerschan-schindl K, Patsch J. Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. 2009;230–4.
11.    Article O. Bone health in healthy Indian population aged 50 years and above. 2011;25:2829–36.
12.    Niveditha, Srikanth, Singh H., Srinivasa R. Antiepileptic drug use and risk of development of fracture - A case control study. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 6(11): November 2013; Page 1237-1239.
13.    Kling JM, Clarke BL, Sandhu NP. Osteoporosis Prevention, Screening, and Treatment: A Review 1. 2014;23(7):563–72.
14.    Padmanabhan. K, Jibi Paul, Sudhakar. S, Senthil Selvam. P, Sathya Priya. V, Veena Kirthika. S. Which is more prevalent among the female population - Osteopenia or Osteoporosis? A cross sectional study. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(3): 1163-1168.
15.    Sugimoto T, Sato M, Dehle FC, Brnabic AJM, Weston A, Burge R. Lifestyle-Related Metabolic Disorders, Osteoporosis, and Fracture Risk in Asia: A Systematic Review. Value Heal Reg Issues [Internet]. 2016;9:49–56. Available from:
16.    Al-Bashaireh AM, Haddad LG, Weaver M, Chengguo X, Kelly DL, Yoon S. The Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Bone Mass: An Overview of Pathophysiologic Mechanisms. J Osteoporos. 2018;2018.
17.    Atmaca H, Aydin A, Musaoglu R. Experimental model of osteoporosis: Comparison between ovariectomy and botulinum toxin a. Acta Ortop Bras. 2013;21(6):340–3.
18.    Dawson AB. The age order of epiphyseal union in the long bones of the albino rat. Anat Rec. 1925;31(1):1–17.
19.    L.V. Siva Athitya, V. Muthu Vijai Bharath, Jayshree Nellore, P. Prakash. Screening of Gracilaria corticata Extracts for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(9): 3848-3850.
20.    Hartke JR. Preclinical development of agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. Toxicol Pathol. 1999;27(1):143–7.
21.    Acheson RM, Macintyre MN, Oldham E. Techniques in longitudinal studies of the skeletal development of the rat. Br J Nutr.  1959;13(3):283–92.
22.    Zohreh Khoshnood, Monireh Anoosheh, Ebrahim Haji Zadej. A Description of Osteoporosis Preventive Behaviors in Iranian   Adolescent Girls. Asian J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2016; 6(1): 1-4.
23.    L R-J, M S. A Review of Major Animal Models Relevant to Contemporary Orthopaedic. Ec Orthop. 2016;2:483–510.
24.    Thompson DD, Simmons HA, Pirie CM, Ke HZ. FDA Guidelines and animal models for osteoporosis Do the Recommended Preclinical Animal Models Address the Efficacy and Safety of Agents for the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis ? Are the Preclinical Animal Study Designs and Endpoints Appropriate . 1995;17(4):125–33.
25.    Cortet B. Bone repair in osteoporotic bone: Postmenopausal and cortisone-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22(6):2007–10.
26.    Jee WS, Yao W. Overview: animal models of osteopenia and osteoporosis. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2001;1(3):193–207.
27.    Turner RT. Editorial Mice, Estrogen, and Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. 1999;14(2).
28.    Babinet C, Cohen-Tannoudji M. Genome engineering via homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells: An amazingly versatile tool for the study of mammalian biology. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2001;73(3):365–83.
29.    Joss EE, Sobel EH, Zuppinger KA. Skeletal maturation in rats with special reference to order and tme of epiphysical closure. Endocrinology. 1963;72(November):117–22.
30.    Goulding A, Gold E. Effects of chronic prednisolone treatment on bone resorption and bone composition in intact and ovariectomized rats and in ovariectomized rats receiving β-estradiol*. Endocrinology. 1988;122(2):482–7.
31.    Schapira D, Linn S, Sarid M, Mokadi S, Kabala A, Silbermann M. Calcium and vitamin D enriched diets increase and preserve vertebral mineral content in aging laboratory rats. Bone. 1995;16(5):575–82.
32.    Bauss F. Animal models in osteoporosis research. Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Res. 1998;48(3):327–8.
33.    Butcher RL, Collins WE, Fugo NW. Plasma concentration of LH, FSH, prolactin, progesterone and estradiol-17beta throughout the 4-day estrous cycle of the rat. Endocrinology. 1974;94(6):1704–8.
34.    Lu KH, Hopper BR, Vargo TM. Chronological Changes Secretion in Sex Steroid , in Aging Displaying Different repetitive. Biol Reprod. 1979;203(21):193–203.
35.    Gao X, Ma W, Dong H, Yong Z, Su R. Establishing a rapid animal model of osteoporosis with ovariectomy plus low calcium diet in rats. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7(8):5123–8.
36.    Bramm E. Effect of la-Vitamin. 1996;137(4).
37.    Wronski TJ, Lowry PL, Walsh CC, Ignaszewski LA. Calcified Tissue International Skeletal Alterations in Ovariectomized Rats. Calcif Tissue lnt [Internet]. 1985;37:324–8. Available from:
38.    Turner  a S. Animal models of osteoporosis--necessity and limitations. Eur Cell Mater. 2001;1:66–81.
39.    Division R. Correspondence to: Dr. Webster S.S. Jee, Ph.D., Radiobiology Division, University of Utah, Building 586, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. 1992;18:227–36.
40.    Kalu DN, Liu CC, Hardin RR, Hollis BW. The aged rat model of ovarian hormone deficiency bone loss. Endocrinology. 1989;124(1):7–16.
41.    Kalu DN. The ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. Bone Miner. 1991;15(3):175–91.
42.    Castañeda S, Largo R, Calvo E, Rodríguez-Salvanés F, Marcos ME, Díaz-Curiel M, et al. Bone mineral measurements of subchondral and trabecular bone in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits. Skeletal Radiol. 2006;35(1):34–41.
43.    Stoker NG, Epker BN. Age Changes in Endosteal Bone Remodeling and Balance in the Rabbit. J Dent Res. 1971;50(6):1570–4.
44.    Wancket LM. Animal Models for Evaluation of Bone Implants and Devices: Comparative Bone Structure and Common Model Uses. Vet Pathol. 2015;52(5):842–50.
45.    Baofeng L, Zhi Y, Bei C, Guolin M, Qingshui Y, Jian L. Characterization of a rabbit osteoporosis model induced by ovariectomy and glucocorticoid. 2010;81(3):396–401.
46.    Zhang J, Chen SG, Habaerxi K, Alimujiang S, Chen Y, Peng MZ, et al. Reinforcing effect of calcium sulfate cement bovine bone morphogenetic protein on vertebral in the rabbit model of osteoporosis. Asian Pac J Trop Med [Internet]. 2014;7(5):382–5. Available from:
47.    Wen B, Zhu F, Li Z, Zhang P, Lin X, Dard M. The osseointegration behavior of titanium-zirconium implants in ovariectomized rabbits. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014;25(7):819–25.
48.    Oue H, Doi K, Oki Y, Makihara Y, Kubo T, Perrotti V, et al. Influence of Implant Surface Topography on Primary Stability in a Standardized Osteoporosis Rabbit Model Study. J Funct Biomater. 2015;6(1):143–52.
49.    Li GW, Tang GY, Liu Y, Tang RB, Peng YF, Li W. MR spectroscopy and micro-CT in evaluation of osteoporosis model in rabbits: Comparison with histopathology. Eur Radiol. 2012;22(4):923–9.
50.    Wanderman NR, Mallet C, Giambini H, Bao N, Zhao C, An KN, et al. An ovariectomy-induced rabbit osteoporotic model: A new perspective. Asian Spine J. 2018;12(1):12–7.
51.    Oheim R, Beil FT, Köhne T, Wehner T, Barvencik F, Ignatius A, et al. Sheep model for osteoporosis: Sustainability and biomechanical relevance of low turnover osteoporosis induced by hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection. J Orthop Res. 2013;31(7):1067–74.
52.    Oheim R, Amling M, Ignatius A, Pogoda P. Large animal model for osteoporosis in humans: The ewe. Eur Cells Mater. 2012;24:372–85.
53.    Zarrinkalam MR, Beard H, Schultz CG, Moore RJ. Validation of the sheep as a large animal model for the study of vertebral osteoporosis. Eur Spine J. 2009;18(2):244–53.
54.    Cabrera D, Wolber FM, Dittmer K, Rogers C, Ridler A, Aberdein D, et al. Glucocorticoids affect bone mineral density and bone remodelling in OVX sheep: A pilot study. Bone Reports. 2018;9(June):173–80.
55.    Hao H. Application of bone transgenic zebrafish in anti - osteoporosis chemical screening. 2018;(September 2017):53–61.
56.    Zhang W, Xu J, Qiu J, Xing C, Li X, Leng B, et al. Novel and rapid osteoporosis model established in zebrafish using high iron stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;496(2):654–60.
57.    Huang H, Lin H, Lan F, Wu Y, Yang Z, Zhang J. Application of bone transgenic zebrafish in anti-osteoporosis chemical screening. Anim Model Exp Med. 2018;1(1):53–61.
58.    Carnovali M, Luzi L, Terruzzi I, Banfi G, Mariotti M. Metabolic and bone effects of high-fat diet in adult zebrafish. Endocrine. 2018;61(2):317–26.
59.    Barrett R, Chappell C, Quick M, Fleming A. A rapid , high content , in vivo model of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. 2006;651–5.
60.    Walker MB, Kimmel CB. A two-color acid-free cartilage and bone stain for zebrafish larvae. 2007;23–8.
61.    De Vrieze E, Van Kessel MAHJ, Peters HM, Spanings FAT, Flik G, Metz JR. Prednisolone induces osteoporosis-like phenotype in regenerating zebrafish scales. Osteoporos Int. 2014;25(2):567–78.
62.    Shen V, Dempster DW, Birchman R, Mellish RWE, Church E, Kohn D, et al. Lack of changes in histomorphometric, bone mass and biochemical parameters in ovariohysterectomized dogs. Bone. 1992;13(4):311–6.
63.    V. I. Strukov, A. I. Kislov, N. V. Eremina, G. P. Deriabina, M. Yu. Sergeeva-Kondrachenko, A. Yu. Antropov, Ya. V. Kuzmina, K. R. Tayrova, E. V. Petrova8, D. G. Elistratov, O. V. Strukova-Jones. The use of Bone Tissue Non-Steroid Anabolizators in Treatment of Osteoporosis. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(5):2195-2199.
64.    Martin RB, Butcher RL, Sherwood LL, Buckendahl P, Boyd RD, Farris D, et al. Effects of ovariectomy in beagle dogs. Bone. 1987;8(1):23–31.
65.    Khushali K. Shah. Survey on Relation between Menopause and Oral Health. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 8(8): August, 2015; Page 1150-1152.
66.    Mackey MS, Stevens ML, Ebert DC, Tressler DL, Combs KS, Lowry CK, et al. The ferret as a small animal model with BMU-based remodelling for skeletal research. Bone. 1995;17(4 SUPPL.):191–6.
67.    Komori T. Animal models for osteoporosis. Eur J Pharmacol [Internet]. 2015;1–8. Available from:
68.    Lafage MH, Balena R, Battle MA, Shea M, Seedor JG, Klein H, et al. Comparison of alendronate and sodium fluoride effects on cancellous and cortical bone in minipigs. A one-year study. J Clin Invest. 1995;95(5):2127–33.
69.    Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. MS, Cao SS, Wastney ME, Lachcik PJ, Weaver C. Federation proceedings. [Internet]. Vol. 31, The FASEB Journal. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology; 2017 [cited 2017 May 23]. 46.8-46.8. Available from:
70.    Bonucci E, Ballanti P. Osteoporosis--Bone Remodeling and Animal Models. Toxicol Pathol [Internet]. 2013;(November 2013):1–13. Available from:
71.    Bray DL, Briggs GM. Decrease in bone density in young male guinea pigs fed high levels of ascorbic acid. J Nutr. 1984;114(5):920–8.
72.    Witkowska A, Alibhai A, Hughes C, Price J, Klisch K, Sturrock CJ, et al. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: Architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development. PeerJ. 2014;2014(1).
73.    Kim HM, Galatz LM, Patel N, Das R, Thomopoulos S. Recovery potential after postnatal shoulder paralysis: An animal model of neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Bone Jt Surg - Ser A. 2009;91(4):879–91.
74.    Velasco O, James AW, Asatrian G, Ajalat M, Pritchard T, Novshadian S, et al. High Resolution X-Ray: A Reliable Approach for Quantifying Osteoporosis in a Rodent Model. Biores Open Access. 2014;3(4):192–6.
75.    Nagy TR, Clair AL. Precision and accuracy of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for determining in vivo body composition of mice. Obes Res. 2000;8(5):392–8.
76.    Kim HS, Jeong ES, Yang MH, Yang S-O. Bone mineral density assessment for research purpose using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteoporos Sarcopenia [Internet]. 2018;4(3):79–85. Available from:
77.    Suman. VB, Pratik Kumar Chattterjee, Vinodini NA, Kunal K, Megha Gokul, Ramesh M Bhat. Effect of variable Diet and Physical Activity on Bone Mineral Density in Adults using Peripheral–Dexa Scan. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(6): 2404-2407.
78.    Breen SA, Loveday BE, Millest AJ, Waterton JC. Stimulation and inhibition of bone formation: Use of peripheral quantitative computed tomography in the mouse in vivo. Lab Anim. 1998;32(4):467–76.
79.    Helfrich MH, Ralston SH. Bone Research Protocols. Bone Res Protoc. 2003;816.
80.    Bouxsein ML, Boyd SK, Christiansen BA, Guldberg RE, Jepsen KJ, Müller R. Guidelines for assessment of bone microstructure in rodents using micro-computed tomography. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(7):1468–86.
81.    Bhagyashri T. Sakat, R B. Sakhare, U C. Suryvanshi, P. S. Kore, . S. K. Mohite, . C. S. Magdum. Osteoporosis: The Brittle Bone. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2018; 8(1):39-43.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Niha Naveed, Karthikeyan Murthykumar, Subasree Soundarajan, Sripradha Srinivasan

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Prasad V. Patrekar, Sachin S. Mali

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Koushika Das, Pranit Krishna, Avipsha Sarkar, Shanmuga Sundari Ilangovan, Shampa Sen

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00267.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Yarnykh T. G., Kotvitska A. A., Tykhonov A. I., Rukhmakova O. A.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00614.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Shrivastava Alankar, Jain R., Agrawal R.K., Ahirwar D.

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): U.S Mahadeva Rao, Khamsah Suryati Mohd, Abdurrazaq Muhammad, Bashir Ado Ahmad, Mohaslinda Mohamad, Rosmawati Mat Ali

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Gopinath G, Thirumal M, P. R. Kumar

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00362.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Manoj S. Pagare, Leena Patil, Vilasrao J. Kadam

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Avinash Bhagwat, Suhas M Kakade, Chirag V Naval, Mukesh Tilker, Ravindra M Walture, Sagar A Adichwal and Atul P Chaudhari

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Raj Kumar R, Praveen D, Palani Shanmugasundaram

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00164.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): D. Benito Johnson, Appalaraju Gorle

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): A. Rajendra Kumar, N. J. Muthukumar, A. Faridha

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00081.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): A. Julius, Ramachandran Vedasendiyar, Archana Devakannan, Sujatha Rajaraman, Balamurugan Rangasamy, V. Saravanan

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00062.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Neha Rajput, Dinesh Sachan, Shikha Gangwar, Dipti Sachan

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Kousalya M., Geetha P., Jesuraja A., Vinoth Kumar M

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00014.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): P Shanmugasundaram, Bavenro, T Rujaswini

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00421.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Mohammed Ehtesham Ur Rahman, Mohammed Abdul Haseeb, Mohammed Saleem, Abdul Naveed

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Suleiman Danladi, Mohammed Alkassim Hassan, Idris Aliyu Masa’ud, Umar Idris Ibrahim

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00768.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles