Author(s): Sivakumar Kannan, Anup Naha, Robindra Ramnarine Singh, Punit Bansal, Vinod C Nayak, Sandeep Goud, Usha Rani

Email(s): anupnaha.mahe@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01090.2   

Address: Sivakumar Kannan1, Anup Naha1*, Robindra Ramnarine Singh2, Punit Bansal3, Vinod C Nayak4, Sandeep Goud5, Usha Rani6
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India,
2Robin Singh Sports Academy, Dubai, UAE,
3Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.
4Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College,Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.
5University of West Indies-Bahamas.
6Department of Health Innovation, Prasanna School of Public Health, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal – 576104, Karnataka, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 12,     Year - 2020


ABSTRACT:
Dietary supplements play a crucial part of wellbeing and lifestyle. Better nutritionfacilitates abetter immune systems and results in lower risk of non-communicable diseases and ultimately longer lifespan. According to a grand view research report, the worldwide market size of dietary supplementsis expected to reach USD 20.73 billion by 2027, showing a compound yearly growth rate of 8.2 percent over the forecast period. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDA) describes a dietary ingredient as vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or any botanical dietary content for a human by increasing the overall consumption of food, or, metabolite, concentrate, extract, constituent or combined effect of the above substances. In comparison to medicinal products, supplements are not recommended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease. In Sports, nutritional supplements products are primarily formulated and aimed at athletes to boost their nutritional intake, performance, and muscle mass. Each of the macronutrients needed in relatively large amounts has unique properties that affect health, but all of them are sources of energy.Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals are important for several essential functions in the body and have to be consumed along with food, asthe body cannot produce it.A large number of supplements contain banned substances and consumption of same leads to Doping. Sports Pharmacist playsa significant role to create awareness and counseling among the athlete with respect to safe consumption of dietary and nutritional supplements and medication.


Cite this article:
Sivakumar Kannan, Anup Naha, Robindra Ramnarine Singh, Punit Bansal, Vinod C Nayak, Sandeep Goud, Usha Rani. Role of Dietary Supplements in Sports Performance. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(12):6259-6265. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01090.2


REFERENCES:
1.    Nutrition [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jun 10]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/facts-in-pictures/detail/nutrition
2.    Infant and young child feeding [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 11]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/ detail/infant-and-young-child-feeding
3.    What you need to know first about dietary supplements [Internet]. [cited 2019 Dec 13]. Available from: https://www.cancer.org/ treatment/treatments-and-side-effects/complementary-and-alternative-medicine/dietary-supplements/intro.html
4.    Dietary Supplements Market Size Worth $230.7 Billion By 2027 [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jun 24]. Available from: https:// www.grandviewresearch.com/press-release/global-dietary-supplements-market
5.    Dietary Supplement Products and Ingredients | FDA [Internet]. [cited 2020 Mar 9]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/ dietary-supplements/dietary-supplement-products-ingredients
6.    Medications vs. Supplements | U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) [Internet]. [cited 2019 Dec 13]. Available from: https://www.usada.org/spirit-of-sport/education/medications-vs-supplements/
7.    FDA regulation of drugs versus dietary supplements [Internet]. [cited 2020 Feb 8]. Available from: https://www.cancer.org/ treatment/treatments-and-side-effects/complementary-and-alternative-medicine/dietary-supplements/fda-regulations.html
8.    GUIDELINES ON RECALL AND RAPID ALERT SYSTEM FOR DRUGS (Including Biologicals and Vaccines) Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation.
9.    Kårlund A, Gómez-Gallego C, Turpeinen AM, Palo-Oja OM, El-Nezami H, Kolehmainen M. Protein supplements and their relation with nutrition, microbiota composition and health: Is more protein always better for sportspeople? Nutrients. 2019;11(4):1–19.
10.    Carreiro AL, Dhillon J, Gordon S, Jacobs AG, Higgins KA, Mcarthur BM, et al. The macronutrients, appetite and energy intake.
11.    Odphp. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2020 Mar 3]. Available from: http://health.gov/ dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/.
12.    Cermak NM, Van Loon LJC. The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid. Sport Med. 2013;43(11):1139–55.
13.    Wildman R, Kerksick C, Campbell B. Carbohydrates, physical training, and sport performance. Strength Cond J. 2010;32(1):21-9.
14.    Carbohydrates - The Master Fuel | U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) [Internet]. [cited 2020 Feb 6]. Available from: https://www.usada.org/athletes/substances/nutrition/carbohydrates-the-master-fuel/
15.    Mata F, Valenzuela PL, Gimenez J, Tur C, Ferreria D, Domínguez R, et al. Carbohydrate Availability and Physical Performance: Physiological Overview and Practical Recommendations. Nutrients [Internet]. 2019 May 16 [cited 2020 May 12];11:1084. Available from: www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients
16.    McLain TA, Escobar KA, Kerksick CM. Protein applications in sports nutrition - Part I: Requirements, quality, source, and optimal dose. Strength Cond J. 2015;37(2):61–71.
17.    Williams M. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids. J Int Soc Sport Nutr A Natl Libr Congr Index Journal ISSN [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2020 May 12];2(2):63–7. Available from: www.sportsnutritionsociety.org
18.    Martinez IG, Skinner SK, Burd NA. Protein Intake for Optimal Sports Performance [Internet]. Second Edi. Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance: Muscle Building, Endurance, and Strength. Elsevier Inc.; 2018. 461–470 p. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813922-6.00039-4
19.    Puglisi M. Dietary Fat and Sports Performance. Nutr Enhanc Sport Perform Muscle Build Endur Strength. 2018;555–69.
20.    David R. Pendergast JJL& JTV. A Perspective on Fat Intake in Athletes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Jun 14;19(3):345–50.
21.    Ogan D, Pritchett K. Vitamin D and the Athlete: Risks, Recommendations, and Benefits. Nutrients [Internet]. 2013 May 8 [cited 2020 Jan 28];5:1856–68. Available from: www.mdpi.com/ journal/nutrients
22.    De La Puente Yagüe M, Collado Yurrita L, Cabañas MJC, Cenzual MAC. Role of Vitamin D in Athletes and Their Performance: Current Concepts and New Trends. Nutrients [Internet]. 2020 Feb 23 [cited 2020 Apr 11];(12):579. Available from: www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients
23.    Shuler FD, Wingate MK, Moore GH, Giangarra C. Sports Health Benefits of Vitamin D. 2012;6:496–501.
24.    Williams MH. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Introduction and Vitamins. J Int Soc Sport Nutr A Natl Libr Congr Index J [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2020 Feb 18];1(2):1550–2783. Available from: www.sportsnutritionsociety.org
25.    Braakhuis AJ. Effect of vitamin C supplements on physical performance. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2012;11(4):180–4.
26.    Gerster H. Review: The Role of Vitamin C in Athletic Performance. J Am Coll Nutr. 1989;8(6):636–43.
27.    Telford RD. Vitamin E and athletic performance. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr . 1993 Nov 2;2(1):37–42.
28.    Heffernan SM, Horner K, De Vito G, Conway GE. The role of mineral and trace element supplementation in exercise and athletic performance: a systematic review. Nutrients. 2019;11(3).
29.    Clénin GE, Cordes M, Huber A, Schumacher Y, Noack P, Scales J, et al. Iron deficiency in sports - definition, influence on performance and therapy. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Sport und Sport. 2016;64(1):6–18.
30.    Alaunyte I, Stojceska V, Plunkett A. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Oct 6;12(38).
31.    Kunstel, Katherine RD, LD C. Calcium Requirements for the Athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005;4(4):203–6.
32.    The Importance of Calcium in Athletes – GTHL [Internet]. [cited 2020 Feb 23]. Available from: https://www.gthlcanada.com/ article/the-importance-of-calcium-in-athletes
33.    Goldstein ER, Ziegenfuss T, Kalman D, Kreider R, Campbell B, Wilborn C, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2020 May 12]; Available from: http://www.jissn.com/ content/7/1/5
34.    Kreider RB, Kalman DS, Antonio J, Ziegenfuss TN, Wildman R, Collins R, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14(1):1–18.
35.    Ahmet M, Kerim YA, Kür A, Mür B, Gökhan I. Does nitric oxide intake affect post-exercise recovery in ath- letes ? A study on cocoa , caffeine and nitric oxide supplement. J Nutr Intern Med. 2020;22(4).
36.    David Cosgrove S, Black KE. Sodium supplementation has no effect on endurance performance during a cycling time-trial in cool conditions: a randomised cross-over trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2013 Jun 3 [cited 2020 Mar 18];10(30). Available from: http://www.jissn.com/content/10/1/30
37.    Williams MH. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Minerals. J Int Soc Sport Nutr A Natl Libr Congr Index Journal ISSN [Internet]. 2005 May 15 [cited 2020 Jan 9];2(1):43–9. Available from: www.sportsnutritionsociety.org
38.    Micheletti A, Rossi R, Rufini S. Zinc Status in Athletes Relation to Diet and Exercise. Sport Med. 2001 Nov 13;31(8):577–82.
39.    Copper - Health Professional Fact Sheet [Internet]. [cited 2020 Feb 15]. Available from: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Copper-HealthProfessional/
40.    George R. Role of Nutrition and Balanced Diet in Enhancing Sports Performance. 2014;(December). Available from: www.stannsannquest.com
41.    Vitale K, Getzin A. Nutrition and supplement update for the endurance athlete: Review and recommendations. Nutrients. 2019;11(6):1–20.
42.    Maughan RJ, Depiesse F, Geyer H. The use of dietary supplements by athletes. J Sports Sci. 2007;25(SUPPL. 1):103–13.
43.    Pasiakos SM, Mclellan TM, Lieberman HR, Pasiakos SM, Lieberman ÁHR, Mclellan TM. The Effects of Protein Supplements on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Aerobic and Anaerobic Power in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review. Sport Med. 2015 Jan;45:111–31.
44.    Kårlund A, Gómez-Gallego C, Turpeinen AM, Palo-Oja O-M, El-Nezami H, Kolehmainen M. Protein Supplements and Their Relation with Nutrition, Microbiota Composition and Health: Is More Protein Always Better for Sportspeople? Nutrients [Internet]. 2019 Apr 12 [cited 2020 Feb 20];11:829. Available from: www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients
45.    Morton RW, Murphy KT, Mckellar SR, Schoenfeld BJ, Henselmans M, Helms E, et al. A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults. Br J Sport Med [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2020 Apr 15];52:376–84. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-097608
46.    Pooyandjoo M, Nouhi M, Shab-Bidar S, Djafarian K, Olyaeemanesh A. The effect of (L-)carnitine on weight loss in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev [Internet]. 2016 Oct 1 [cited 2020 May 1];17(10):970–6. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ obr.12436
47.    Hector AJ, Phillips SM. Protein recommendations for weight loss in elite athletes: A focus on body composition and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018;28(2):170–7.
48.    Rawson ES, Miles MP, Larson-Meyer DE. Dietary supplements for health, adaptation, and recovery in athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018;28(2):188–99.
49.    Heaton LE, Davis JK, Rawson ES, Nuccio RP, Oliver •, Witard C, et al. Selected In-Season Nutritional Strategies to Enhance Recovery for Team Sport Athletes: A Practical Overview. Sport Med. 2017 Jul 12;47.
50.    Martínez-Sanz JM, Sospedra I, Ortiz CM, Baladía E, Gil-Izquierdo A, Ortiz-Moncada R. Intended or unintended doping? A review of the presence of doping substances in dietary supplements used in sports. Nutrients. 2017;9(10):1–22.
51.    Who We Are | World Anti-Doping Agency [Internet]. [cited 2019 Mar 13]. Available from: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/who-we-are
52.    Managing supplement risks | UK Anti-Doping [Internet]. [cited 2020 Feb 12]. Available from: https://www.ukad.org.uk/athletes/ managing-supplement-risks
53.    How to Reduce Your Risk from Supplements | USADA [Internet]. [cited 2020 Mar 15]. Available from: https://www.usada.org/spirit-of-sport/how-to-reduce-your-risk-from-supplements/
54.    National Anti Doping Agency - Anti Doping Disciplinary Panel candidate list [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 3]. Available from: https://www.nadaindia.org/en/anti-doping-disciplinary-panel-candidate-list
55.    Supplements in sport | Australian Sports Anti-doping Authority - ASADA [Internet]. [cited 2020 Mar 16]. Available from: https:// www.asada.gov.au/substances/supplements-sport
56.    Recalls, Market Withdrawals, and Safety Alerts | FDA [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 2]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/safety/ recalls-market-withdrawals-safety-alerts
57.    Four Reasons Why ‘All-Natural’ Supplements Might Still Be Risky for Athletes | USADA [Internet]. [cited 2020 Mar 19]. Available from: https://www.usada.org/spirit-of-sport/education/ reasons-natural-supplements-risky-athletes/
58.    Hooper A, Cooper J, Schneider J, Kairuz T. Current and Potential Roles in Sports Pharmacy: A Systematic Review. Pharmacy. 2019;7(1):29.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Rakhi Mehra, Renu Makhija, Neera Vyas

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Amina Mehrin Bano, Vishnupriya. V, Gayathri. R

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00171.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rahar Sandeep, Nagpal Navneet, Swami Gaurav, Arora Manisha, Bansal Suraj, Goyal Sandeep, Singla Shwali, Singh Preeti, Kapoor Reni

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Som K. Madhvi, Manik Sharma, Javaid Iqbal, Mohd Younis

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00785.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Preethi Krishnan, Muralidharan

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00376.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): U.S MahadevaRao, Khamsah Suryati Mohd, Siti Zulaikha Bt Abd Halim, Masitah Bt Khamis

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Saravanan R.*, Senthilkumar K., Dhachinamoorthi D., Heena Neha S.D., Benarjee K., Narendra K., Prudhvi Ch

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): A Ranganadha Reddy, R. Bharath Kumar, M. Deepthi, KP Sastry

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00378.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Nurul Diana Dzaraly, Nor Iza A. Rahman, Nordin Simbak, Suhaimi Ab. Wahab, Omar Osman, Salwani Ismail, Mainul Haque

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): A. Arun, S. Kanimozhi, M. Vijayakumar

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00715.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): RA Hajare, KS Parwani, SA Bajad, NA. Chandekar, AVChandewar

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): M. Krishna Moorthy, Bijaya Kumar Nayak, Anima Nanda

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00790.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Krishnaveni M, G. Krishna Kumari, M. Kalaivani, C. Ragina Banu

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00294.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Narumi Sekar Sukmandari, Gouri Kumar Dash, Wan Hafizah W. Jusof, Muhammad Hanafi

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00498.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Deivendran Kalirathinam, Hairul Anuar Hashim, Mohamed Saat Bin Ismail

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00703.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Giang Vo, Dung Nguyen, Tu Nguyen

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00593.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

0.38
2018CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags