Author(s): Jaganathan Murugasan Kuppuswamy, Barathi Seetharaman


DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00844.6   

Address: Jaganathan Murugasan Kuppuswamy, Barathi Seetharaman*
Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu – 603203, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 10,     Year - 2020

Mancozeb one of the most widely used dithiocarbamates fungicide in countries like India, Pakistan, and Brazil to protect the various crops. This present study aimed to evaluate the effects of mancozeb on the expression of mRNA of the related to the apoptosis pathway in the brain of the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). The acute toxicity test was performed, and lethal concentration 50 (LC50) values were estimated. The effect of sublethal concentrations of pesticides was evaluated by exposing to 1/4th, 1/2th, and 3/4th of the LC50 for 8 days. Significant changes in the level of mRNA expression of genes (Bcl-2, Bax, Casp-3, and casp-9) related to the apoptosis pathway were observed. Therefore, the finding of the present study shows that mancozeb has the potential to cause apoptosis in the brain of adult zebrafish.

Cite this article:
Jaganathan Murugasan Kuppuswamy, Barathi Seetharaman. Mancozeb exposure at sublethal concentration alters the transcription of the genes related to apoptosis in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(10):4801-4804. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00844.6

Jaganathan Murugasan Kuppuswamy, Barathi Seetharaman. Mancozeb exposure at sublethal concentration alters the transcription of the genes related to apoptosis in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(10):4801-4804. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00844.6   Available on:

1.    Fishel FM. Pesticide Toxicity Profile : Carbamate Pesticides 1. 2017:2-4.
2.    Xu S. Environment fate of mancozeb. Environ fate mancozeb. 2000.
3.    Kumar A, Ali W, Singh R, et al. Mancozeb-induced genotoxicity and apoptosis in cultured human lymphocytes. Life Sci. 2012;90(21-22):815-824.
4.    Casida JE, Quistad GB. Organophosphate Toxicology: Safety Aspects of Nonacetylcholinesterase Secondary Targets. Chem Res Toxicol. 2004;17(8):983-996.
5.    Jindal R, Kaur M. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and assessment of its recovery response in some organs of Ctenopharyngodon idellus induced by chlorpyrifos. Int J Sci Environ Technol. 2014;3(2):473-480.
6.    Ansari S, Ansari BA. Embryo and Fingerling Embryo and Fingerling Toxicity of Dimethoate and Effect on Fecundity, Viability, Hatchability, and Survival of Zebrafish, Danio rerio (Cyprinidae). World J Fish Mar Sci. 2011;3(2):167-173.
7.    Maniyar RA, Ahmed RN, David M. Monocrotophos: Toxicity Evaluation and Respiratory Responses Of Cyprinus Carpio (Linnaeus). Recent Res Sci Technol. 2011;3(1):51-54.
8.    Abraham J, Mukherjee P, Bose D, Dutta A. Utilization of monocrotophos by Aspergillus sojae strain JPDA1 isolated from sugarcane fields of Vellore district in India. Res J Pharm Technol. 2016;9(12):1451-1456.
9.    Damalas C, Koutroubas S. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention. Toxics. 2016;4(1):1.
10.    Singh S, Sharma N. Neurological Syndromes Following Organophosphate Poisoning. Neurol India. 2000;48:308-313.
11.    Ghimire SR, Parajuli S. Chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder: A case report. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016;12:275-277.
12.    Uttara B, Singh A V, Zamboni P, Mahajan RT. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Diseases : A Review of Upstream and Downstream Antioxidant Therapeutic Options. 2009:65-74.
13.    Xu S, Zhang R, Niu J, Cui D, Xie B, Zhang B. Oxidative Stress Mediated-Alterations of the MicroRNA Expression Profile in Mouse Hippocampal Neurons. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13:16945-16960.
14.    Bouayed J, Rammal H, Soulimani R. Oxidative stress and anxiety: relationship and cellular pathways. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009;2(2):63-67.
15.    Possamai FP, Fortunato JJ, Feier G, et al. Oxidative stress after acute and sub-chronic malathion intoxication in Wistar rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;23(2):198-204.
16.    Zhang X, Xie P, Li D, Tang R, Lei H, Zhao Y. Time-dependent oxidative stress responses of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to intraperitoneal injection of extracted microcystins. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009;82(5):574-578.
17.    Valavanidis A, Vlahogianni T, Dassenakis M, Scoullos M. Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress in aquatic organisms in relation to toxic environmental pollutants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2006;64:178-189.
18.    Mattson MP. Apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000;1(2):120-129.
19.    Gomathi S, Shanmuga Sundaram R, Vijayabaskaran M, Kannan C, Sambathkumar R. Pedalium murexLinn leaves against LPS-induced oxidative stress, anxiety and depression behavioral alterations in rats. Res J Pharm Technol. 2017;10(5):1333-1338.
20.    Calviello G, Piccioni E, Boninsegna A, et al. DNA damage and apoptosis induction by the pesticide Mancozeb in rat cells: Involvement of the oxidative mechanism. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;211(2):87-96.
21.    Nikonov A A, Caprio J. Electrophysiological evidence for a chemotopy of biologically relevant odors in the olfactory bulb of the channel catfish. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86(4):1869-1876.
22.    Levin ED, Chrysanthis E, Yacisin K, Linney E. Chlorpyrifos exposure of developing zebrafish: Effects on survival and long-term effects on response latency and spatial discrimination. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2003;25(1):51-57.
23.    Levin ED, Swain HA, Donerly S, Linney E. Developmental chlorpyrifos effects on hatchling zebrafish swimming behavior. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2004;26(6 SPEC. ISS.):719-723.
24.    Crosby EB, Bailey JM, Oliveri AN, Levin ED. Neurobehavioral impairments caused by developmental imidacloprid exposure in zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015;49:81-90.
25.    OECD. OECD guideline for testing of chemicals. 1992;(July):1-9.
26.    Rossi G, Buccione R, Baldassarre M, MacChiarelli G, Palmerini MG, Cecconi S. Mancozeb exposure in vivo impairs mouse oocyte fertilizability. Reprod Toxicol. 2006;21(2):216-219.
27.    Jin Y, Zhang X, Shu L, et al. Oxidative stress response and gene expression with atrazine exposure in adult female zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2010;78(7):846-852.
28.    Jin Y, Zheng S, Pu Y, et al. Cypermethrin has the potential to induce hepatic oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2011;82(3):398-404.
29.    Jiang J, Wu S, Wu C, An X, Cai L, Zhao X. Embryonic exposure to carbendazim induces the transcription of genes related to apoptosis, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014;41(2):493-500.
30.    Livingstone DR. Contaminant-stimulated reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage in aquatic organisms. Mar Pollut Bull. 2001;42(8):656-666.
31.    Merlin N, Parthasarathy V, Manavalan R, Devi P, Meera R. Apoptosis Significance and Molecular Mechanisms- A Review. Asian J Res Chem. 2009;2(4):369-375.
32.    Hockenbery DM, Oltvai ZN, Yin XM, Milliman CL, Korsmeyer SJ. Bcl-2 functions in an antioxidant pathway to prevent apoptosis. Cell. 1993;75(2):241–251.
33.    Deng J, Yu L, Liu C, et al. Hexabromocyclododecane-induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;93(1):29-36.
34.    Zhang Z, Lapolla SM, Annis MG, et al. Bcl-2 homodimerization involves two distinct binding surfaces, a topographic arrangement that provides an effective mechanism for Bcl-2 to capture activated Bax. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(42):43920-43928.
35.    Anggraini D, Hendarto H, Widjiati. Pomegranate fruit extract administration in mice induced by formaldehyde to folliculogenesis observation and caspase-3 expression. Res J Pharm Technol. 2018;11(2):773-776.
36.    Juliprihanto A, Hendrawan VF, Wulansari D, Oktanella Y, Widjiati. Placental cells number and caspase-9 expression in white rat (Rattus norvegicus) apoptosis exposed with carbon black. Res J Pharm Technol. 2019;12(4):1935-1942.
37.    Saquib Q, Attia SM, Siddiqui MA, et al. Phorate-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and transcriptional activation of p53 and caspase genes in male Wistar rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;259(1):54-65.
38.    Ahmad MI, Zafeer MF, Javed M, Ahmad M. Pendimethalin-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and activation of anti-inflammatory and apoptotic markers in male rats. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):17139.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Muhammad Hamdan, Noorhamdani AS, Masruroh Rahayu, Mohammmad Hasan Machfoed

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.01020.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Mythili. L, GNK. Ganesh, C. Monisha, Kayalvizhi. R

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00426.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Siripurapu Sriram, Venkata Ravibabu Mandla, Chaithanya Sudha M, Saladi S.V. Subba Rao, Nagaveni Ch, Vani V., Gobinath P., Raj Kumar KVG., Jaydeep Lella, Sannidhi Krishna Praveen, Debjit Datta

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00078.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Archana Kushwaha, Jayanti Jaiswal, Priya Singh, Neha Rathore, Jai Prakash Dhruw, Ishu Sahu, Chhaya Singh, Krinsha Kumar Sahu, Mukta Agrawal, D. K. Tripathi, Ajazuddin, Amit Alexander

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00270.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ankita Chatterjee, Jayanthi Abraham

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00125.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Priti Patel, Ashok Kumar P., Hemil Shah, Nikunj Patel, Pratik Kheni, Someshwara Rao B., Suresh V. Kulkarni, Babitha S.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Saranya, Parthasarathy V, Hariprasad B, Shobha Rani H

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00233.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Mettu Srikanth Reddy, Mallikarjun Setty

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rao Rekha, Goswami Anju, Shekhar Shishant, Mahant Sheefali, Nanda Sanju

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): A. Khuntia, S.K. Mohanty

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Mohamed Akram Melakhessou, Naima Benkiki, Salah Eddine Marref

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00952.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): RS Kamble, BV Bakde, MA Channawar, RL Bakal, SR Gawande, AV Chandewar

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Deepak H B, Sabina Evan Prince

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00491.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Kabra A. O., Bairagi G. B., Mandade R. J., Wanare R. S.

DOI: Not Available         Access: Open Access Read More

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles