Zahrah S. Mahdi, Mohammad Oda Selman, Shiemaa M. Mohammad, Anwar M. Suhail
Zahraalmossawi@gmail.com , email@example.com , Dr.firstname.lastname@example.org , email@example.com
Zahrah S. Mahdi1, Mohammad Oda Selman1*, Shiemaa M. Mohammad2, Anwar M. Suhail3
1High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and ART, Al-Nahrain University.
2College of Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah.
3Ministry of Health. IRAQ/BAGHDAD dranwar.
Volume - 13,
Issue - 10,
Year - 2020
Background: Miscarriage is considered the most common adverse outcome in early pregnancy. Thyroid auto antibodies are involved in both these areas and are associated with major alterations in the course of pregnancy affecting the mother, the fetus, and the neonate. Methods: The present study included 140 women who were already diagnosed with recurrent miscarriage. Following complete clinical workup, including history, examination and investigations, enrolled women were classified into two main subgroups, explained group (n = 85) and unexplained group (n = 55). Then they were classified according to Thyroid peroxidase antibody: positively group (n=28) and negatively group (n=112) and then they are treated with thyroxine and follow up for 14 weeks. Results: recurrent miscarriage rate increased in women with positive anti-phospholipids where Women with only Anti-APS antibody positive results accounted for 72 (51.4%). Where the remaining represent the other causes such as bicornuate uterus and thyroid abnormality. Thyroid peroxidase antibody represent important cause of abortion, in addition successful pregnancy was encountered in 26 out of 28 women treated with low doses thyroxin accounting for 92.9% successful rate; however, there was no significant difference in successful pregnancy rate between explained and unexplained groups, 9 (81.8%) versus 17 (100.0%), respectively. Conclusion: Women with positive thyroid peroxidase antibody can be mean cause of pregnant loss and treatment with thyroxine can lead to increasing the live-birth rate in recurrent miscarriage women with positive thyroid peroxidase antibody.
Cite this article:
Zahrah S. Mahdi, Mohammad Oda Selman, Shiemaa M. Mohammad, Anwar M. Suhail. The Impact of Positive Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody in patients with unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(10):4702-4706. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00827.6
Zahrah S. Mahdi, Mohammad Oda Selman, Shiemaa M. Mohammad, Anwar M. Suhail. The Impact of Positive Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody in patients with unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(10):4702-4706. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00827.6 Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2020-13-10-30
1. El Hachem, H., Crepaux, V., May-Panloup, P., Descamps, P., Legendre, G. and Bouet, P. E. Recurrent pregnancy loss: current perspectives. International journal of women's health, 2017, 9, 331.
2. Ruf, J., and Carayon, P. Structural and functional aspects of thyroid peroxidase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 2006, 445(2), 269-277
3. Gupta A., Wajdi, N., Verma, A. and Pal, M. Role of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol, 2016, 5(9):3001-3005.
4. Shand, A.W., Bell, J.C., McElduff, A., Morris, J. and Roberts, C.L. Outcomes of pregnancies in women with pre‐gestational diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus; a population‐based study in New South Wales, Australia, 1998–2002. Diab. Med., 2008, 25(6): 708-715.
5. McNamara, K., Meaney, S., O’Connell, O., McCarthy, M., Greene, R. A. and O’Donoghue, K. Healthcare professionals’ response to intrapartum death: a cross-sectional study. Arch. Gynecol. Obst., 2017, 295(4): 845-852.
6. Morris, A., Meaney, S., Spillane, N. and O’Donoghue, K. The postnatal morbidity associated with second-trimester miscarriage. J. Maternal-Fetal Neonat. Med., 2016, 29(17), 2786-2790.
7. Vissenberg, R., Van Dijk, M. M., Fliers, E., van der Post, J. A. M., van Wely, M., Bloemenkamp, K. W. M. and Rombout-de Weerd, S. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study). Contemporary clinical trials, 2015, 44: 134-138.
8. Ticconi, C., Giuliani, E., Sorge, R., Patrizi, L., Piccione, E. and Pietropolli, A. Gestational age of pregnancy loss in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. J. Obst. Gynaecol. Res., 2016, 42(3), 239-245.
9. Checko, A., Christiansen, H.L., Yan, Y., Scolari, L., Kardaras, G., Berger, M.S. and Dittmann, L. Cloud RAN for mobile networks—A technology overview. IEEE Communications surveys and tutorials, 2014, 17(1), pp.405-426.
10. Dobson, S. J. A. and Jayaprakasan, K. M. Aetiology of recurrent miscarriage and the role of adjuvant treatment in its management: a retrospective cohort review. J. Obstet. Gynaecol., 2018, 38(7), 967-974.
11. Twig, G., Shina, A., Amital, H. and Shoenfeld, Y. Pathogenesis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss in thyroid autoimmunity. J. Autoimm., 2012, 38(2-3): J275-J281.
12. Stagnaro-Green, A. Thyroid antibodies and miscarriage: where are we at a generation later?. Journal of thyroid research, 2011.
13. Challis, J. R., Lockwood, C. J., Myatt, L., Norman, J. E., Strauss III, J. F. and Petraglia, F. Inflammation and pregnancy. Reprod. Sci., 2009, 16(2): 206-215.
14. Lejeune, B., Grun, J. P., De Nayer, P. H., Servais, G. and Glinoer, D. (1993). Antithyroid antibodies underlying thyroid abnormalities and miscarriage or pregnancy induced hypertension. BJOG: An Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol., 1993, 100(7): 669-672.
15. Bramson, J. and Stagnaro-Green, A. Thyroid antibodies and fetal loss: an evolving story. Thyroid, 2001, 11(1): 57-63.
16. Thompson, W., Russell, G., Baragwanath, G., Matthews, J., Vaidya, B. and Thompson‐Coon, J. Maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Clin. Endocrinol., 2018, 88(4): 575-584.
17. Abalovich, M., Amino, N., Barbour, L. A., Cobin, R. H., De Groot, L. J., Glinoer, D. and Stagnaro-Green, A. Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metabol., 2007, 92(8-supplement): s1-s7.
18. Zahran, A. B. H. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies in recurrent miscarriage women, 2010.
19. Poppe, K., Glinoer, D., Tournaye, H., Devroey, P., Schiettecatte, J., Haentjens, P. and Velkeniers, B. Thyroid autoimmunity and female infertility. Verhandelingen-Koninklijke Academie voor Geneeskunde van Belgie, 2006, 68(5-6): 357-377.
20. Wang, S., Teng, W. P., Li, J. X., Wang, W. W. and Shan, Z. Y. Effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on obstetrical outcomes during early pregnancy. J. Endocrinol. Investigat., 2012, 35(3): 322-325.
21. Negro, R., Formoso, G., Mangieri, T., Pezzarossa, A., Dazzi, D. and Hassan, H. Levothyroxine treatment in euthyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease: effects on obstetrical complications. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metabol., 2006, 91(7): 2587-2591.
22. Mosaddegh, M. H., Ghasemi, N., Jahaninejad, T., Mohsenifar, F. and Aflatoonian, A. Treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss by Levothyroxine in women with high Anti-TPO antibody. Iranian Reprod. Med., 2012, 10(4): 373.