Author(s): Fatima Grace Xavier, Anbarasan Balu, Shanmuganathan Seetharaman, Akila Lakshmikandhan, Arul Amutha Elizabeth Lawrence

Email(s): drakilasenthil@gmail.com

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00786.8   

Address: Fatima Grace Xavier1, Anbarasan Balu1, Shanmuganathan Seetharaman1, Akila Lakshmikandhan2*, Arul Amutha Elizabeth Lawrence2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Porur, Chennai 600116.
2Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chromepet, Chennai 600044, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 12,      Issue - 9,     Year - 2019


ABSTRACT:
The use of animals for research has increased with increase in advancement of Research & Development in science. Year after year millions of animals are used for carrying out experiments. Since long time it has been a debating issue about the pain, distress and death underwent by the animals during scientific experiments. Beyond ethical considerations to carry out animal experiments, requirement of skilled man power, protocol which are time consuming and high cost are other disadvantages faced. Thus, to overcome these difficulties various alternatives to animal testing have been utilised. Reduction, Refinement and Replacement is applied for use of animals in laboratory. Various alternative methods and organisms are used to overcome the ethical issues and difficulties faced with use of animal experiments. This review is focused to elaborate an insight towards the use of alternative methods and their advantages over animal experimentation such that we can minimize the use of animals in scientific experiments.


Cite this article:
Fatima Grace Xavier, Anbarasan Balu, Shanmuganathan Seetharaman, Akila Lakshmikandhan, Arul Amutha Elizabeth Lawrence. Alternatives to In vivo Experiments – A Pandect. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(9):4575-4577. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00786.8

Cite(Electronic):
Fatima Grace Xavier, Anbarasan Balu, Shanmuganathan Seetharaman, Akila Lakshmikandhan, Arul Amutha Elizabeth Lawrence. Alternatives to In vivo Experiments – A Pandect. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(9):4575-4577. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00786.8   Available on: https://rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2019-12-9-86


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RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

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