Biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. As a consequence, biofilm-based infections are recalcitrant and their treatment is very difficult. Many factors contribute to the biofilm resistance to antimicrobials. The mechanisms of resistance include delayed diffusion of antibiotics through the biofilm matrix, low oxygen and nutrient, reduced growth rates and metabolism. Other resistance mechanisms involved are biofilm-specific phenotypic variants, stress response activation, over expression of efflux pumps, formation of persisters and quorum sensing.
Cite this article:
Hisham A. Abbas, Fathy M. Serry, Eman M. EL-Masry. Biofilms: The Microbial Castle of Resistance. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 6(1): Jan. 2013; Page 01-03.