Author(s): Jignesh B. Patel, Kiran M. Patel, Divyang H. Shah, Jimit S. Patel, Charoo S. Garg, Kinjal J. Brahmbhatt, Dhrubo Jyoti Sen


DOI: Not Available

Address: Jignesh B. Patel*, Kiran M. Patel, Divyang H. Shah, Jimit S. Patel, Charoo S. Garg, Kinjal J. Brahmbhatt and Dhrubo Jyoti Sen
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shri Sarvajanik Pharmacy College, Gujarat Technological University, Arvind Baug, Mehsana-384001, Gujarat, India
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 4,      Issue - 8,     Year - 2011

The recent discovery that magnetic resonance imaging can be used to map changes in brain hemodynamics that correspond to mental operations extends traditional anatomical imaging to include maps of human brain function. The ability to observe both the structures and also which structures participate in specific functions is due to a new technique called functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI, and provides high resolution, noninvasive reports of neural activity detected by a blood oxygen level dependent signal. This new ability to directly observe brain function opens an array of new opportunities to advance our understanding of brain organization, as well as a potential new standard for assessing neurological status and neurosurgical risk. Functional MRI is based on the increase in blood flow to the local vasculature that accompanies neural activity in the brain. These results in a corresponding local reduction in deoxyhemoglobin because the increase in blood flow occurs without an increase of similar magnitude in oxygen extraction. Thus, deoxyhemoglobin is sometimes referred to as an endogenous contrast enhancing agent, and serves as the source of the signal for fMRI. Consequently, the number of medical and research centers with fMRI capabilities and investigational programs continues to escalate. The main advantages to fMRI as a technique to image brain activity related to a specific task or sensory process include 1) the signal does not require injections of radioactive isotopes, 2) the total scan time required can be very short, i.e., on the order of 1.5 to 2.0 min per run (depending on the paradigm), and 3) the in-plane resolution of the functional image is generally about 1.5 x 1.5 mm although resolutions less than 1 mm are possible. To put these advantages in perspective, functional images obtained by the earlier method of positron emission tomography, PET, require injections of radioactive isotopes, multiple acquisitions, and, therefore, extended imaging times. Further, the expected resolution of PET images is much larger than the usual fMRI pixel size. Additionally, PET usually requires that multiple individual brain images are combined in order to obtain a reliable signal. Consequently, information on a single patient is compromised and limited to a finite number of imaging sessions. Although these limitations may serve many neuroscience applications, they are not optimally suitable to assist in a neurosurgical or treatment plan for a specific individual.

Cite this article:
Jignesh B. Patel, Kiran M. Patel, Divyang H. Shah, Jimit S. Patel, Charoo S. Garg, Kinjal J. Brahmbhatt, Dhrubo Jyoti Sen. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A New Diversion in Medical Diagnosis. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 4(8): August 2011; Page 1167-1176.


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