Design, Development, and Usability Testing of a Mobileapp for Medication reminder among patients with Chronic conditions

 

Muhammad Thesa Ghozali1, Satibi2*, Gerhard Forthwengel3

1Department of Pharmaceutical Management, School of Pharmacy,

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, 55183, Indonesia.

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia.

3Fakultat III, Hochschule Hannover - University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Expo Plaza,

Hannover, 30539, Lower Saxony, Germany.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: satibi@ugm.ac.id

 

ABSTRACT:

Medication adherence is essential for treating acute and chronic illnesses. In order to address Indonesian patient’s medication adherence issues, this study will develop and test a medication reminder app utilizing a User-Centered Design (UCD) approach. This research and development study sought to improve patients' quality of life, medical care, and society's health. Understanding the context of usage, identifying user requirements, designing solutions, and evaluating against requirements comprised the study’s UCD approach. User’s expectations were collected through a demographic questionnaire and open-ended questions to determine the app's features and functions. The app was created and constructed based on the user needs assessment with the requested functionality. Medication reminders, dose information, doctor's visit schedules, and medication history were included in the app. The design phase prioritized simplicity, navigation, and configurable themes. Login, reminder settings, status updates, and history reviews were evaluated. The app's durability and applicability were shown by black-box testing. The app's usability was tested using the USE (Usefulness, Satisfaction, and Ease of Use) questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, the app was informative, user-friendly, and easy to learn, resulting in high user satisfaction. The app scored “Worthy” in usability, demonstrating its ability to meet user requirements. The app's development and evaluation improve patient’s medication adherence, treatment outcomes, and quality of life. The UCD guarantees that the proposed app meets user’sneeds. According to the study, UCD is crucial to creating successful and user-friendly medication reminder solutions. The medication reminder app's usability, utility, and user experience can be improved with user feedback, perhaps making it “Very Worthy” and encouraging better medication adherence.

 

KEYWORDS: Chronic condition, Medication adherence, Medication reminder, Usability, User centered design.

 

 


INTRODUCTION: 

Medication adherence is crucial for the treatment of both acute and chronic health conditions. It refers to a patient's ability to adhere to the treatment guidelines specified by his or her doctors and healthcare professionals1. It plays a role in the healing and recovery of patients from disease. According to previous studies, medication adherence can improve the effectiveness of treatment2–4.

 

In simple terms, medications prescribed by the doctors usually have specific dosages and schedules designed to help the patients recover from their conditions5,6. When patients do not adhere to the prescribed schedule and dosage, the medicationscannot work optimally and the chances of treatment success decrease. On the other hands, medication adherence also helps prevent medication resistance7,8, hindering treatment effectiveness and make the patient’s condition more difficult to treat.By adhering to the treatment, both dosage and schedule, patients can avoid more serious side effects of the medications. Additionally, it was found that medication adherence helps in evaluating treatment response9,10. Compliance with taking medication allows doctors to evaluate their patient’s response to the treatment and can make changes as needed. In certain situations, doctors may advise their patients to stop or change the drugs if they experience serious side effects or the drug is ineffective. Therefore, medication adherence is highly essential to improve patient recovery and assist doctors in providing treatment according to patient needs11.

 

In actual practice, unfortunately, patients often have difficulty complying with predetermined treatment regimens. This medication nonadherence can probably be caused by various factors, including difficulty remembering the regular medication schedule, reluctance to take medication due to unwanted or adverse side effects, or difficulty understanding the dosage suggested by doctors. In order to improve adherence, the technology of mobile phone apps can be an effective solution12. In this modern era, this technology has become an essential part of everyday life. It is not only to entertain its users but also to help improve medication adherence. One of the advantages of the technology is automatic medication reminder13,14. Users can individually set reminders on their mobile phone app to remind them when to take their medication15. It is beneficial for those who have busy schedules or have trouble remembering to take their medication regularly. In addition, they can use the app to monitor drug doses consumed and avoid overdosage16.

 

Indonesia is a country with a large population and complex health issues. Many studies found that a number of Indonesian patients have difficulty remembering and adhering to medication schedules, which can worsen their health condition17–19. With a medication reminder app, patients in Indonesia can more efficiently and effectively manage their adherence, therefore improving patient’s quality of life, the effectiveness of medical treatment, and the health of society as a whole. The novelty of this research is developing a medication reminder mobile phone app that helpsusers remember and adhere to their medication schedules. Although various medication reminder apps are available, the proposed app developed in this study tries to provide complete and practical features for increasing medication adherence. Therefore, this project primarily aimed to develop a medication remindermobile phone app that met the needs of the end-users – in this case, caregivers of patients with chronic health condition.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Materials:

It was a research and development study with a User-Centered Design or UCD approach to develop a medication reminder app. Almost similar to the ADDIE12, the UCD consists of four phases, including (a) understanding the context of use, (b) specifying user requirements, (c) designing solutions, and (d) evaluating against requirements20, shown in Figure 1. In this project, based on the approach, the phases of mobile phone app development can be simplified into three outlines: a needs assessment, mobile app design and development, and conducting a usability study. The following sections provide a detailed explanation of each phase in the process.

 

Figure 1: The four main phases of User Centered Design (UCD) models

 

User Needs Assessment:

The first step in developing a user-centered medication reminder app is to conduct a needs assessment by collecting users' expectations regarding the contents, including features and functions that will be added. In order to collect the expectations, a questionnaire containing 14 question items was created. The question items consist of two categories, namely demographic information and needs assessment question items. Regarding the forms of the question items, the demographic information was multiple choice questions, while the needs assessment was in the form of open questions.

 

The variables of the demographic information (Q1–Q6) include many various characteristics, such as: sex, age, educational levels, employment status, annual income, and experience in the mHealth apps. The other six question items were the needs assessment questionnaire (Q7 – Q12)21, including:

a)     What content would you like to see in a medication reminder app?

b)    What chronic health issues do you plan to manage with this medication reminder app?

c)     What type of user interface works best for you in the proposed medication reminder app?

d)    Do you expect to see an overview dashboard to show the summary of medication you have taken in this app?

e)     If you plan to manage your medication records in this medication reminder app, what is the desired format for showing the medication records?

f)     What security protection do you expect in this proposed app to protect your personal health information?

 

 

This phase involves participants, selected by a purposive sampling approach with the following eligibility criteria: caregivers who care for patients with chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, cancer, asthma, and others), living in the rural areas of the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, owning a Google Android mobile phone, having experience in operating any kinds of mHealth apps, and willing to be the participant during the study. Apart from the caregivers, this study involved healthcare professionals (a doctor or specialist, a pharmacist, and a nurse) as the expert advisor in terms of the contents (including functions and features) that will be embedded in the proposed medication reminder app.

 

Mobile App Design and Development:

The design and development of a medication reminderapp in this project implemented a User-Centered Design (UCD) approach22. Literally, UCD explains an app development approach primarily aimed at providing optimal solutions according to the user’s needs. In the development process, it is intended to ensure that users are actively involved in every development phase and that the developed app can meet the user's requirements.

 

Designing and developing a medication reminder app begins with identifying user requirements, known as user needs assessment. Identification of their needs was made through interviews, observation, and research. The needs assessment results were then used to determine the contents and features that should be present in the app. After the required contents and features had been determined, the next step was to create an app’s mock-up. This mock-up describes a rough idea of the user interface design, contents, and features that will be present in the app. The proposed mock-up is further evaluated by involving users to ensure that the mock-up meets user needs.

 

After the mock-up is evaluated, the app prototype development is the next phase. As the phase’s name suggests, the accepted app’s user interface designs, contents, and features were used to develop the prototype. In order to ensure that it works properly and meets predetermined standards, a usability analysis was carried out by involvingseveral users. After passing all the tests, the final phase is the app launch. After launch, the developed app will be continuously monitored and evaluated to ensure it functions properly and meets user needs.

 

Functionality and Usability Testing:

To ensure that the proposed medication reminder app runs properly, this study performed a functionality testing using a black box testing. Additionally, a usability testing was conducted utilizing a Usefulness, Satisfaction and Ease of Use (USE) questionnaire, developed by Arnold Lund23, to gather data from the participants on usefulness, satisfaction, and ease of use of the app. A total of 12 study participants, consisting of 7 caregivers, 2 IT experts, 1 doctor, 1 pharmacist, and 1 nurse, was involved to complete the black box testing and USE questionnaire.

 

RESULTS:

Needs Assessment:

This study conducted a needs assessment utilizing a questionnaire to collect ideas directly from theparticipants. It also integrated the features and functions that users requested to see in the proposed medication reminder mobile app and evaluated the app’s usability. The initial result of the purposive sampling found 45 eligible participants; however, 9 participants were considered to have withdrawn from this study due to many reasons, including: not being able to be re-contacted (n=7) and technical reasons, i.e., their mobile phones could not install the proposed medication reminder app (n=2). Finally, the needs assessment of this study involved 36 participants. The details of the participant’s demographic information were shown in Table 1.

 

Table 1: Demographic information of participants in the user needs assessment (n=36)

Demographic Information (n=36)

n (%)

Sex

 

a)      Male

8 (22.22)

b)     Female

28 (77.78)

Age (years old)

 

a)      20 – 25

4 (11.12)

b)     26 – 30

8 (22.22)

c)      31 – 35

15 (41.66)

d)     36 – 40

7 (19.45)

e)      > 40

2 (5.55)

Educational levels

 

a)      High school or lower

5 (13.89)

b)     Bachelor’s degree

27 (75.00)

c)      Master’s degree

3 (8.33)

d)     Doctoral degree

1 (2.78)

Employment status

 

a)      Professional caregivers

22 (61.10)

b)     Household wives

7 (19.45)

c)      Private employees

7 (19.45)

Annual income (US$)

 

a)      1000 – 1499

8 (22.22)

b)     1500 – 1999

4 (11.12)

c)      2000 – 2499

12 (33.33)

d)     2500 – 3999

12 (33.33)

Experience in the mHealth apps

 

a)      Yes

36 (100.00)

b)     No

0 (0.00)

 

The majority of 36 study participants, as seen in Table 2, would like to see the following content in a medication reminder mobile app: reminders for medication times (94.4%; n=34), dose of each medication (83.3%; n=30), doctor’s visit schedule (77.8%; n=28), a list of doctor’s name (66.7%; n=24), and medication history (61.1%; n=22). They intend to use the app to manage a variety of chronic health conditions, including diabetes (33.3%; n=12), hypertension (27.8%; n=10), heart disease (22.2%; n=8), mental health conditions, such as:depression and anxiety (19.4%; n=7), and chronic pain (16.7%; n=6). Regarding the user interface, the majority of the participants prefer it to be simple and straightforward to navigate (83.3%; n=30), with customizable themes and typefaces (50.0%; n=18), voice command capability (41.7%; n=15), and large font size with high contrast for easy readability (33.3%; n=12). A significant proportion of the study participants (88.9%; n=32) anticipate a summary interface for medication. Regarding the management of medication records, most participants prefer a list format with the time and date of medication consumed (83.3%; n=30). In contrast, others prefer graphical representations such as pie charts or bar graphs (41.7%; n=15) and a calendar view displaying medication times (33.3%;n=12). All the study participants (100%; n=36) deem user authentication a necessary security measure to protect the confidential health information. The encryption (94.4%; n=34) and data backup (88.9%; n=32) are also frequently cited as additional security features.

 

Table 2: The results of user needs assessment (n=36)

Question Items

Responses

n (%)

Q1

Reminder for medication times

34 (94.4)

Dose of each medication

30 (83.3)

Doctor visit schedules

28 (77.8)

A list of doctor’s name

24 (66.7)

Medication history

22 (61.1)

Q2

Diabetes

12 (33.3)

Hypertension

10 (27.8)

Heart Disease

8 (22.2)

Mental health conditions

(such as depression, anxiety)

7 (19.4)

Chronic pain

6 (16.7)

Q3

Simple and easy to navigate

30 (83.3)

Customizable themes and fonts

18 (50.0)

Voice command capability

15 (41.7)

Large font size and high contrast for easy readability

12 (33.3)

Q4

Yes, would like to see an overview dashboard

32 (88.9)

No, don't need an overview dashboard

4 (11.1)

Q5

List format with time and date of medication taken

30 (83.3)

Graphical representation (like pie charts or bar graphs)

15 (41.7)

Calendar view showing medication times

12 (33.3)

Q6

User authentication

36 (100.0)

Encryption

34 (94.4)

Data backup

32 (88.9)

 

 

Mobile App Design and Development

The design and development of the medication reminder app were aimed at maximizing the app's usability and functionality, following the user's needs. During the user needs assessment, five essential features were identified for this interactive app: a medication reminder, dose information, doctor visit schedules, a catalogue of doctors with visit schedules, and medication history.

 

 

Figure 2: User interface concept of a medication reminder mobile app: (a) navigation menu, (b) medication reminder information; (c) medication schedule form; (d) doctor’s visit schedule form; (e) medication history form; (f) notes

 

The design phase centered on developing an intuitive and user-friendly interface. The main objective was to ensure users could easily establish medication times and dose reminders. Under consideration of user experience (UX) best practices, the development procedure began with preliminary designs and low-fidelity wireframes. The app’s interface includes an interactive calendar for scheduling doctor visit and the ability to add, edit, and delete doctor's information, all designed to facilitate more efficient management of medical appointment. The development phase gave substance to the conceptualized features. Each feature was independently developed, analyzed, and refined before being integrated into the app. By utilizing local notifications, the medication reminder ensures that users are reminded of their medication times even when the app is not actively operating.

Similarly, the medication history and doctor visit schedules were created using database management systems to facilitate the efficient retrieval and storage of user data. After the development phase was completed, a functional prototype was constructed. This prototype was evaluated by a select group of users, whose feedback helped to identify areas of the app that required improvement. Multiple iterations of user testing improved the overall UX, and the corresponding changes were implemented.

 

The prototype was then evaluated based on the initial user requirements assessment. It ensured that the developed mobile phone app corresponds to the identified requirements, allowing the users to manage their medication intake and doctor's visits effectively. The medication reminder app was developed with a user-centered design approach to provide a personalized and efficient platform for managing medication and health regimens.

 

 

Figure 3. Medication reminder mobile app’s user interface: (a) navigation menu, (b) medication reminder information; (c) medication schedule form; (d) doctor’s visit schedule form; (e) medication history form; (f) notes

 

Functionality and Usability Testing:

According to the demographic information, shown in Table 2, the functionality and usability test for the proposed app included a diverse group of participants. The study involved 12 participants, 4 of whom were male (33.33%) and 8 of whom were female (66.67%). Most participants were between the ages of 31 and 40, with 41.67% in the 31 – 35 age bracket (n=5) and 58.33% in the 36 – 40 age bracket (n=7). The majority of participants (75%, n=9) held a Bachelor's degree, while a small percentage held a Master (8.33%, n=1), and an even smaller percentage held Doctoral (16.67%, n=2). Regarding employment, 50% of the participants (n=6) were professional caregivers, while 8.33% (n=1) and 41.67% (n=5) were domestic wives and private employees, respectively. In terms of annual income, the majority of participants earned between $1500 and $1999 (58.33%, n=7), while fewer earned between $2000 and $2499 (25%, n=3) and $2500 and $3999 (16.67%, n=2). All 12 participants had prior experience with mobile health (mHealth) apps, indicating familiarity and comfort with this technology.

 

Table 2: Demographic information of participants in the functionality and usability test (n=12)

Demographic Information (n=12)

n (%)

Sex

 

a)      Male

4 (33.33)

b)     Female

8 (66.67)

Age (years old)

 

a)      31 – 35

5 (41.67)

b)     36 – 40

7 (58.33)

Educational levels

 

a)      Bachelor’s degree

9 (0.75)

b)     Master’s degree

1 (8.33)

c)      Doctoral degree

2 (16.67)

Employment status

 

a)      Professional caregivers

6 (50.00)

b)     Household wives

1 (8.33)

c)      Private employees

5 (41.67)

Annual income (US$)

 

a)      1500 – 1999

7 (58.33)

b)     2000 – 2499

3 (25.00)

c)      2500 – 3999

2 (16.67)

Experience in the mHealth apps

 

c)      Yes

12 (100)

d)     No

0 (0)

 

Functionality Testing:

The medication reminder mobile app’s black-box testing was completed successfully, with all test cases passing as expected (Table 3). The app’s login feature successfully provided the desired outputs, providing access to the main dashboard with valid details and displaying an error message otherwise. Activities, such as adding, deleting, and editing, on medication reminders also worked efficiently, with the app appropriately updating the medication list based on user inputs. The app’s reminder capability was then tested and successfully triggered notifications at the specified time. The “snooze” functionality also effectively informed the user after the specified interval. The “medicine taken” feature, which allows users to indicate medication as taken, also passed the test, appropriately updating medication status. The app accurately displayed a list of medications identified as taken while reviewing the history of taken medications. Finally, the logout capability was tested and worked as expected, returning the user to the login screen. All of these tests prove the app’s resilience and fitness for use.


 

Table 3: The results of Blackbox test of medication reminder app

Test Case

Input

Expected Output

Status

Testing Login

Correct user ID and Password

Access to main dashboard

Passed

Testing Login with wrong credentials

Incorrect user ID and/or Password

Error message

Passed

Adding a new medication reminder

Medication details

New medication added to list

Passed

Deleting a medication reminder

Select medication, click delete

Medication deleted from list

Passed

Editing a medication reminder

Select medication, modify details

Updated medication details

Passed

Testing reminder notification

Set reminder time

Notification at set time

Passed

Testing snooze functionality

Snooze a reminder notification

Reminder re-alerts after interval

Passed

Testing medication taken functionality

Mark medication as taken

Medication marked as taken

Passed

Testing history of taken medication

Check history

Display list of taken medication

Passed

Testing logout functionality

User logs out

Return to login screen

Passed

 


Usability Testing:

The Usefulness, Satisfaction, and Ease of Use (USE) questionnaire was the second instrument used in this study. The objective of this instrument was to determine whether the suggested mobile app met the user's requirements in terms of usability. The utility of the USE questionnaire is basically based on its capacity to enhance participant’s comprehension of the material and elicit accurate responses. In turn, it contributes to the reliability of the study’s conclusions.


 

Table 4: The results of usefulness, satisfaction, and ease of use (USE) questionnaire 23

Items

Question Items

1

2

3

4

5

OS*

UP*

Usefulness

U1

It helps me be more effective.

0

2

4

5

1

U2

It helps me be more productive.

0

1

4

4

3

U3

It is useful.

0

1

4

3

4

U4

It gives me more control over the activities in my life.

0

2

4

3

3

U5

It makes the things I want to accomplish easier to get done.

0

2

3

4

3

U6

It saves me time when I use it.

0

2

3

3

4

U7

It meets my needs.

0

2

3

3

4

U8

It does everything I would expect it to do.

0

2

3

4

3

Average

0

14

28

29

25

311

64.8

Ease of Use

EU1

It is easy to use.

0

2

4

3

3

EU2

It is simple to use.

0

2

3

4

3

EU3

It is user friendly.

0

1

3

5

3

EU4

It requires the fewest steps possible to accomplish what I want to do with it.

0

1

3

4

4

EU5

It is flexible.

0

1

3

4

4

EU6

Using it is effortless.

0

2

2

5

3

EU7

I can use it without written instructions.

0

2

2

4

4

EU8

I don't notice any inconsistencies as I use it.

0

1

4

2

5

EU9

Both occasional and regular users would like it.

0

1

6

2

3

EU10

I can recover from mistakes quickly and easily.

0

2

4

2

4

EU11

I can use it successfully every time.

0

2

4

2

4

Average

0

17

38

37

40

496

75.2

Ease of Learning

EL1

I learned to use it quickly.

0

2

4

2

4

EL2

I easily remember how to use it.

0

2

4

2

4

EL3

It is easy to learn to use it.

0

2

4

2

4

EL4

I quickly became skillful with it.

0

2

4

2

4

Average

0

8

16

8

16

176

73.3

Satisfaction

S1

I am satisfied with it.

0

2

4

2

4

S2

I would recommend it to a friend.

0

2

3

3

4

S3

It is fun to use.

0

1

4

3

4

S4

It works the way I want it to work.

0

1

4

3

4

S5

It is wonderful.

0

1

4

3

4

S6

I feel I need to have it.

0

1

4

3

4

S7

It is pleasant to use.

0

2

3

2

5

Average

 

 

 

 

 

319

76.0

OS*: Observation scores; UP*: Usability Percentage

 


The USE questionnaire, based on the 5-item Likert scale, will give all participants in the research study an option between five possible responses for each item included in the instrument. This method will be used to collect data. Formula 1 outlines the evaluation of an app’s usability by estimating the mean values of four essential factors: usefulness, ease of use, ease of learning, and satisfaction.

                                Observed scores

Usability (%) = ---------------------------- × 100% ------(1)

                                Ecpected scores

 

The outcomes of the equation (formula 1) above are transformed into a table that displays the feasibility categories, which can be seen in Table 5.

 

Table 5: Categories of usability percentage of the study

Score

Categories

< 21

Very Unworthy

21 – 40

Not Worthy

41 – 60

Enough

61 – 80

Worthy

81 – 100

Very Worthy

 

The USE Questionnaire survey findings for the medication reminder app, shown in Table 4, gave useful insights into the app's functionality and overall user experience. The app's usefulness, as judged by its ability to meet users' needs and effectively remind them to take their prescriptions, received a score of 64.8, firmly putting it in the “Worthy” category. It suggests that, despite potential improvements, users found the program useful for its intended purpose. The app's simplicity of use achieved a score of 75.2 and scored in the “Worthy” category, indicating its user-friendliness and simple design. It implies that users found navigating and interacting with the application simple. Similarly, the ease of learning score, which assesses how quickly and readily users can comprehend the app's operations and features, was 73.3. It implies that customers can learn how to use the application quickly, highlighting its intuitive and user-centric design. The mobile app received a commendable 76.0 satisfaction rating, representing its customers' pleasure and happiness. It denotes high user satisfaction with the application, emphasizing the successful integration of vital functions and an easy-to-use interface. These ratings indicate that the software was well welcomed by its users; however, there is still space for improvement, particularly in terms of usability.

Usability (%) = Usefulness + Ease of use + Usefulness + Satisfaction × 100 %                      --------------------(2)

 

 

Figure 3: Average usability percentage of each USEquestionnaire factor

Based on Formula 2, the medication reminder app received an overall usability score of 72.3 out of a possible 100 points. This result places the app in the “Worthy” category, indicating that users found it useful and capable of meeting their requirements. Users valued the app's ability to remind them of medication regimens, contributing to its perceived utility. Additionally, they praised its dependable performance and intuitive interface. The score indicates that while the app is generally well-received, there is room for development to enhance the user experience and possibly push the score into the “Very Worthy” category. Future developments may refine the app's features based on user feedback to increase its utility, user satisfaction, and usability.

 

DISCUSSION:

Treatment failure24, higher healthcare expense25, and even death26 can result from patients not following their prescribed regimens. One of the main reasons for this problem is forgetfulness, as many patients (49.6%) struggle to remember to take medications as prescribed27–29. In order to address this issue, medication reminders have been developed to prompt patients to take their medications on time. Regular medication reminders are vital for improving medication adherence as they prompt individuals to take their medication as prescribed, reducing the risk of missed doses and treatment interruptions, and helping those with chronic conditions to remember to take medication on time30.

 

Several different kinds of medication reminders are available to patients31–33. Electronic alarms, text messages, and reminders built into mobile apps are just a few examples. Patients can also rely on personal reminders from family or caregivers, as well as printed reminders like pillboxes and calendars. Medication reminder apps for smartphones have gained in popularity in recent years because to technological advancements. The apps can be easily installed on a user's smartphone and set to send alerts at certain intervals to remind them to take their prescription. There are a number of benefits to using mobile applications to manage medicine that make them an interesting and appealing choice for patients searching for a simple and accessible solution.

 

While the mobile apps have the potential to reduce missed doses and improve patient compliance, they still face a number of obstacles that must be conquered before they can be widely used. Creating a medicine reminder app that is both easy to use and adapts to the individual needs of each patient is a significant issue in this area. UCD, which takes into account the needs and constraints of the patients, is one approach that might be taken in this direction. Incorporating feedback from actual users helps make sure the final product is something patients will actually want to use. Users (whether patients or caregivers) can have a say in the app's design by participating in usability tests, providing comments, and having their ideas incorporated into the final product.

 

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE APP:

Increased medication adherence may result from using this app since patients are more likely to take their medications as prescribed when they get regular prescription reminders. As non-adherence causes exacerbated symptoms, disease progression, and increased healthcare consumption, improving adherence can lead to better health outcomes and lower healthcare costs. In addition, the app may encourage patients to be more active participants in their own treatment. Patients may be better satisfied with their therapy and more likely to take their medication as prescribed if they receive regular reminders to do so. The app's potential for widespread use and scalability are also important factors to think about. Because of the widespread availability of mobile phones and other devices, the app has the potential to reach a huge segment of the population living with chronic diseases.

 

However, further research is needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of the app and its impact on patient outcomes. It will also be important to consider technical issues, such as: data privacy and security, as well as the potential for patient fatigue or disengagement with the app over time. Overall, the development of a highly usable and effective mobile health app for medication reminder using a UCD method represents a promising step towards improving medication adherence and patient outcomes.

 

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:

As a project highlighting on the development of a medication reminder mobile app with a user-centered design approach, some limitations should be considered. First, this project only focused on the mobile app with the Google Android operating system. Therefore, another operating system, such as Apple iOS, has yet to be covered. Second, usability testing of this project did not cover patients with specific conditions requiring special attention in taking medication (e.g., Alzheimer's or Parkinson's). Third, this project requires sufficient resources and time. Sometimes, the available resources and time are limited, thus affecting the quality and ability of mobile app development. Last, it did not guarantee that the developed mobile app would successfully improve the levels of medication adherence. Many factors, such as lifestyle and health conditions, cause it. For this reason, further research on the application's effects on user compliance in taking medication.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, developing the medication reminder app with a user-centered design approach has been an important step in addressing the problem of medication non-adherence. Through a comprehensive needs assessment, the app's design and development phase effectively incorporated key features such as medication reminders, dose information, doctor visit schedules, a list of doctors, and a medication history database. The usability study revealed that users found the application beneficial, user-friendly, and satisfactory. The app's overall usability score indicates that it meets user requirements, but there is room for refinement. With the medication reminder app, patients in Indonesia can now effectively manage their medication adherence, ultimately enhancing their quality of life and treatment efficacy and contributing to improved health outcomes for the population. Additional refinements based on user feedback can improve the app's utility, user satisfaction, and overall usability.

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

UGM Directorate of Research and UGM Reputation Improvement Team towards World Class University and the Directorate of Research (Grant Number 13602/UN1.P.II/Dit-Lit/PT.01.04/2022).

 

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Received on 20.05.2023            Modified on 13.09.2023

Accepted on 17.11.2023           © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2024; 17(5):2146-2154.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00339