Fluctuations due to Altitude, Season and Time on Potency of Stigmasterol content of Jamun

 

Palshikar Gautam1,2*, Soni Gauravkumar2, Otari Kishor2, Shanmugapandiyan Pitchaimuthu3

1Department of Pharmacy, Centre for Research and Development (CRD), PRIST Deemed To Be University,

Thanjavur 613403, Tamil Nadu, India.

2Navsahyadri Education Society’s, Navsahyadri Institute of Pharmacy, Naigaon,

Pune - 412213, Maharashtra, India.

3Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai - 600 119. Tamilnadu, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: gautampalshikar@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Now a day, more number of individuals from all over the world get suffered from diabetes which is an endocrine and metabolic disorder. Herbal medicines are used for treatment of such a chronic diseases from hundreds of years and are continuously rising in todays era due to less adverse effects, treats root cause and low cost. Jamun acts as a promising herb due to its proven hypoglycemic action and ability to prevent many adverse conditions due to it. Stigmasterol, an active phytoconstituent from Jamun has been credited for its antidiabetic potential. Seasonal fluctuations have impact on availability of active components in herbs which also influence its therapeutic efficacy. For getting yield with more potency, the harvesting should be done properly at accurate altitude, month and duration. Research objective is to find out changes in contents of medicinal plant Jamun leaves for antidiabetic potential. Plant sample used in different seasons, time and places, identification and analysis was performed. Macroscopy, microscopy, proximate phytochemistry, extraction yield and estimation of the yield of stigmasterol. Morphological, microscopical and extractive values appears fluctuations Maximum levels of ethanol extract with higher concentration of stigmasterol were obtained in August month.

 

KEYWORDS: Metabolites, Herbal medicines, Alkaloids, Antidiabetic, fluctuations.

 

 


INTRODUCTION: 

Jamun is a medicinal herb that is being used in alternative system to treat various human diseases from ancient era and is used in currently also for treatment of mankind diseases. In India approximately 75% of peoples uses medicinal plants for their treatment, from these about 65% peoples take help of herbal medicines commonly for cure certain disorders, approximately 45% peoples procure herbs in manufacturing of medicinal dosage forms1. As per the report of WHO herbal medicine used as labeled medicinal products that obtained from different plant parts.

 

On earth near about 3,00,000 higher plant species are found, of these more than 1,00,000 herbs are proved and noted for having different medicinal activities in treatment of diseases2. From ancient times, peoples use plants to fulfill primary needs such as ayurvedic medicines, food, shelters, clothing, transport systems, natural pesticides, flavoring and fragrances in different parameters. Medicinal herbs are used in ayurveda from ancient times and are continuously used by human being in the form of newer remedies and dosage forms3. Herbs are found from the origin of human being on the earth. According to Ayurvedic literatures these medicinal plants are identified by human. So herbs can be useful as an important source of medicine, along with synthetic source of medicines in allopathy4.

 

Currently, the requirement for medicinal plants in Ayurvedic system of medicine is rising in the World and different pharmaceutical manufacturers investigating on herbs for their usw in treatment of human diseases5. For the curing of Diabetes and increased sugar in blood the available allopathic medicines shows side effects and are not used for prolong duration6.

 

Herbal medicines that are in use for treatment of increased blood sugar involve medicinal plants with absence of side effects7.  Diabetes mellitus acts as increasing disorder in universe and also disturbs on economical condition of each nation in the world8. As per the report of World Diabetes Association, in 2010 there are more than 375 million patients diseased with diabetes, and approximately 4.5 million patients died yearly9. World Health Organization (WHO) reports that, more than 80% peoples in countries like India consumes herbal medicines with different components as Ayurvedic system for initial treatment case10. WHO has reported 22,000 herbs that are used for treatment of human diseases in the globe. In these approximately 3500 varieties are of Indian origin11. Approximately 900 medicinal herbs having shown as remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus. There are number of herbal active components are shown their importance in treating increased blood sugar level in humans12.  HPTLC study helps to gain idea about chromatographic pattern of the components. Current study involves use of HPTLC parameters to study changes in phytoconstituents. Macroscopic and microscopic study was performed13. The present study involves results to analyses changes in the stigmasterol content in jamun leaves.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Collection and Identification of Plant material:

The plant material was collected in every month of the year from places of different places and time. A voucher specimen was deposited in the Herbarium of Botanical Survey of India, Pune.

 

Assessment of quality of plant materials:

The plant materials were assessed as per WHO guideline for macroscopy, microscopy and leaf constants, proximate analysis and Phytochemical screening.

 

Establishment of qualitative phytoprofile of successive solvent extracts:

The extracts obtained from successive solvent extraction were then subjected to various qualitative chemical tests to determine the presence of various phytoconstituents like alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolics and tannins, proteins and amino acids, saponins and phytosterols using reported methods (Table 1).

 

Table 1: HPTLC study

Plant Name

Phyto Constituent

Std. Area

(Under Curve)

Mobile Phase

Wavelength

(nm)

Jamun

Stigmasterol

2300.1 AU

Ethanol: Toluene (8:2)

254

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Plant leaf color is green, Characteristic odor and taste, shape is oblong simple, petiolate, exstipulated. entire margin, a tapering base and acuminate apex, leathery touch, smooth and shining texture. Cell wall is single layered epidermis made up of compactly arranged barrel shaped parenchymatous cells. Vascular Bundle is Arc shaped, conjoint, collateral and closed. Enclosed by a parenchymatous bundle sheath. Vessels with pitted thickening, anomocytic or anisocytic Stomata, glandular, multicellular uniseriate (40 to 110µ) trichomes, Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and starch grains are present.

 

Chemical constituents in leaf shows presence of alkaloids and its percentage varies at different season, time and places (Table 2; Figure 1).

 

Med.= Medium (Altitude)

Fig. 1: Monthly Variation with Altitude time


 

Table 2: Monthly Variation in alkaloids with high place and time n= 3 P< 0.05.

A.

Month

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L.

5.33

±0.37

6.00

±1.30

6.00

±1.00

6.00

±1.00

6.00

±1.00

6.00

±1.00

6.33

±1.52

6.33

±1.52

6.33

±1.15

6.00

±1.00

5.67

±1.15

5.67

±1.15

M.

5.33

±0.57

6.00

±1.00

6.00

±1.00

6.00

±1.00

6.00

±1.00

6.00

±1.00

6.33

±1.52

6.33

±1.52

6.33

±1.15

6.00

±1.00

5.67

±1.15

5.67

±1.15

H.

5.67

±0.47

6.33

±0.77

6.33

±0.57

6.33

±0.57

6.33

±0.57

6.33

±0.57

6.67

±1.15

6.67

±1.15

6.67

±0.57

6.33

±0.57

6.00

±1.00

6.00

±1.00

A= Altitude, L= Low, M= Medium, H= High

 

 

Table 3: Monthly Variation in Yield mg/g with place and time n= 3 P< 0.05.

A.

Month

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

 

L.

2.97

±0.51

2.83

±0.72

2.80

±0.50

2.93

±0.15

2.73

±0.50

2.87

±0.49

2.93

±0.28

3.20

±0.60

3.27

±0.46

3.03

±0.49

2.90

±0.51

2.87

±0.55

 

M.

2.30

±0.17

2.17

±0.15

2.13

±0.28

2.23

±0.15

1.87

±0.30

2.43

±0.32

2.50

±0.36

2.53

±0.50

2.60

±0.20

2.37

±0.58

2.23

±0.55

2.20

±0.68

 

H.

2.43

±0.05

2.33

±0.15

2.27

±0.05

2.50

±0.10

2.23

±0.05

2. 80

±0.10

2.77

±0.15

2.87

±0.05

2.93

±0.11

2.70

±0.10

2.57

±0.05

2.53

±0.05

 

A= Altitude, L= Low, M= Medium, H= High, Mg/gm= Milligram/ gram,

 


 

Med= Medium (altitude)

Fig. 2: Monthly Variation of with place and time

 

 

Fig. 3: Calibration curve

 

 

Standard stigmasterol

 

Ethanolic extract (April)

 

 

Ethanolic extract (July)

 

Ethanolic extract (November)

Fig. 4: Chromatogran of stigmasterol

Table 4 HPTLC analysis of S. cumini Leaf extract

Rf Value

Season

Area (AU)

Yield (mg/g)

 

0.51

Summer

3302.7

0.98

Rainy

8819.5

2.63

Winter

5292.8

1.57

 

HPTLC analytical method was used to confirm the availability of stigmasterol in ethanolic plant extract with its percentage obtained as 2.63 mg/gm at Rf value 0.51 (Tab. 4; Fig. 4).

 

Qualitative chemical examination of extracts shows presence of alkaloids such as stigmasterol, oils, lipids, glycosides etc. It was observed that, at every month of the year, at different time and places, there is a change in HPTLC pattern. Stigmasterol content is significantly variable in Rainy season i.e. in August, at morning time and high altitude. Current research work can be useful for selection of month, place and time of harvesting crude drugs.

 

CONCLUSION:

From the study it is concluded that as the seasonal variation is related with the season, time and place of collection of the plant and it is proportional to the changes in herbal active components. In the month of August stigmasterol content found to be more at 6 am and at high place.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

Authors expressed gratitude to thank Botanical Survey of India for the identification of crude drug. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy for the study of extracts, Navsahyadri Institute of Pharmacy, to made available experimentation permission to do the project work.

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST STATEMENT:

Author notify that experimental study carried out without any financial or non-financial support for the procedures mentioned in the report.

 

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Received on 16.11.2022            Modified on 06.05.2023

Accepted on 10.08.2023           © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2024; 17(3):1320-1323.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00207