A Comprehensive study on 2022 Monkey Pox Outbreak


Shaik Ashfaq Hussain1*, Shaik Mazhar Hussain2, Madhav Prabhu3, Rolito Asuncion4

1Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University (JNTU), Hyderabad.

2,3,4Middle East College/Department of Computing and Electronics, Muscat, 124, Oman.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sk.ashfaq.hussain@gmail.com, mazhar@mec.edu.om, madhav@mec.edu.om, rolito@mec.edu.om



Monkeypox has been discovered in most of the US, except a few states, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The states with the most occurrences are Florida, New York, California, Illinois, and Illinois. It was first observed in laboratory monkeys in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1958, and was later recognized as a distinct illness. Numerous animal species are thought to act as a natural reservoir for the virus. Monkeypox was first identified in colonies of captive monkeys after two outbreaks of a disease that resembled the pox. The cause of the illness, known as "monkeypox," is still unknown. However, the virus can infect humans if it is carried by nonhuman primates (such as monkeys) or African rodents. These monkeypox viruses could be diagnosed using a variety of general methods. As a result, the researchers analyzed the symptoms of the monkeypox virus, an outbreak of the disease in various nations, risk factors for monkeypox infection, and several methods for monkeypox virus identification. This article also looks at the development of monkeypox virus cases in the month and year of May 2022.


KEYWORDS: Machine learning, deep learning, computer vision, natural language processing, MPXV, MSM.




In the modern day, viruses significantly contribute to a large variety of ailments that are arising and reemerging 1. Some viruses can cause deadly diseases in humans, propagate quickly, and turn those diseases into contagious illnesses that affect the entire world. The virus that causes smallpox is known as the orthopox virus. A smallpox outbreak that occurred in the 1960s was discovered on January 11, 1962. In the United States, the last smallpox outbreak occurred in 1949 because of vaccine success. There haven't been any cases of smallpox arising on its own since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the disease eradicated in 19801. However, a different illness is known as "Monkeypox" that belongs to the same family (variola virus) as smallpox breaks prevalent in the 1970s. Monkeypox is a zoonotic illness that frequently presents with fever, rash, and enlarged lymph nodes. HIV is mostly spread through direct contact with contaminated bodily fluids, bodily secretions, or respiratory droplets.


It might result in a serious sickness1. Monkey pox is less severe than smallpox. Although it resembles smallpox in symptoms, it may be treated in three weeks and is self-limiting1. Two outbreaks of a disease mimicking the pox in groups of monkeys used for research led to the identification of monkey pox in 1958. In central and western Africa, it was created. Although skin-to-skin contact with an infected person can occasionally spread the disease, human contact with infected rodents accounts for most of its transmission1. Lymph nodes or glands, which are found in the body and assist us in differentiating between the two, increase because of monkey pox. One of the distinctions between smallpox and monkey pox is this. Monkey pox is spread through intimate personal contact between people. This implies that anyone is susceptible to monkey pox. However, based on the current outbreak, some groups are more severely affected by monkey pox than others, particularly men who have intercourse with men (MSM) 1. The MPXV (monkey pox virus) has recently spread to several countries on almost every continent. No source of infection has yet been identified, in contrast to sporadic incidences connected to travel to endemic areas 2. Preventative strategies for monkey pox are discussed in3. Several widely used methods, including Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)4,5, can be used to predict, detect, or diagnose monkey pox. The PCR method uses DNA to identify infections caused by the monkey pox virus in variable quantities, and it provides a qualitative result of positive, negative, or inconclusive. AI is a different technique that helps in monkey pox diagnosis. Some of the subfields of AI (NLP) include machine learning (ML), neural networks (NN), deep learning (DL), computer vision, and natural language processing6-16.



1 The cause of a recent skin rash illness outbreak in Nigeria was revealed, as well as the monkey pox virus. 262 suspected, 115 confirmed, and 7 death cases from the large pandemic were dispersed over 26 states. The results show that vaccination against monkey pox only provides fair protection, with serious adverse events occurring more frequently in the unprotected group (74%) than in the vaccinated group (39.5%). The index patient and two of her siblings claimed to have meet a monkey in their neighborhood, but it was impossible to determine if the monkey was the cause of the infection, especially since it had no history of the illness2 A global outbreak of human monkey pox in 2022 was investigated. Research was conducted using earlier textbooks and studies to gather and synthesize the pertinent knowledge surrounding the epidemic. Animal studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of brincidofovir and tecovirimat against monkey pox. On the other hand, clinical care for monkey pox needs to be considerably improved to reduce symptoms, handle challenges, and prevent negative outcomes.3 A real-time PCR technique for detecting the human monkey pox virus was described (MPXV). The MPXV test was not often used in diagnostic labs. To demonstrate the accuracy of our real-time PCR, five DNA samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo that had MPXV positive results were used. Additionally, the MPXV pandemic was detected in five out of ten clinical samples, with Ct levels ranging from 20.6 to 34.9. The tests can only detect active disease; they cannot determine whether a person has already contracted the sickness.4 brought attention to the potential for a monkey pox pandemic by pointing out that 9 individuals passed away from the disease in the Congo in 2022, while Nepal documented the first fatality from the disease and confirmed 21 of 66 probable cases. In 16 European nations, including the United Kingdom, there were 218 confirmed cases as of May 26, 2022. There were also 26 cases in Canada, ten cases in the United States of America, two cases in Australia, and one case in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Everyone should use caution and avoid negative encounters with others.5 The neuro-fussy-based method for detecting monkey pox infections was discussed. Monkey pox has similar symptoms to other types of smallpox, including flu-like symptoms, fever, lethargy, back pain, headaches, and a distinctive rash. The foggy results were sent into the neural network of the architecture. The Neuro-Fuzzy software was built with Java 1.8 and NetBeans IDE 8.0.2. It was advised that for the actual application of this suitable system, all signs and symptoms be gathered as inputs.


3. Outbreak of Monkey Pox And Detection of Monkeypox Using Ai Approach And Other Approaches:

A monkeypox patient will experience fever and other nebulous symptoms a week or two after exposure, followed by a rash with blisters that may linger for a few weeks before disappearing. Before this outbreak, 1-3% of people with diagnosed diseases passed away (without treatment). According to the US Centers for Disease Control, approximately 9424 confirmed cases of monkeypox have been reported in non-endemic nations since the pandemic began in May 2022. A hybridization experiment utilizing an MGB Eclipse brand (Epoch Biosciences) probe successfully identifies the monkey pox virus by concentrating on the envelope protein gene (B6R) (MPXV). The techniques were validated using coded orthopox viral DNA samples and then used to lesion samples from five confirmed cases of monkey pox in the United States. The use of AI in infection detection and animal conservation may be beneficial. There was a total of six phases, which included a rash, macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, and scabs. The rash often appears on the face and limbs rather than the trunk. 95% of the time, the face, hands, and feet are the most affected areas (in 75percent of cases). Instead of the trunk, the rash typically shows up on the face and extremities. 95% of the time, the face, hands, and feet are the most affected areas (in 75percent of cases). Flat-based macules, slightly elevated firm papules, clear fluid-filled vesicles, yellowish fluid-filled pustules, and crusts that finally dry out and peel off are the many stages of the rash's development.


3.1. Outbreak of Monkey Pox Virus:

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are monitoring a monkeypox outbreak that has spread to several countries, including the United States, where the disease is not typically reported. People with monkeypox in the current epidemic claim to have had frequent, close physical contact with other monkey pox sufferers17. Although gays, bisexuals, and other males who have sex with men make up most individuals affected by the current global outbreaks, everyone who has come into touch with a monkey pox patient runs the risk of contracting the disease. Unofficial sources of information, like ProMED mail or other epidemic reporting systems, are quick and crucial. The Program for Monitoring New Diseases is one of the world's largest programs for reporting emerging diseases and outbreaks to the public (commonly known as ProMED-mail or ProMED). It permits quick response to and treatment of monkey pox virus epidemics. cases of monkey pox that ProMED sent. A recent rise in the frequency of monkey pox cases as well as a greater geographic spread are both revealed by the summary of reported cases. However, because to the data's frequent fragmentation and lack of support, it is difficult to come up with meaningful estimates of the frequency and incidence of monkey pox over time 18. As of July 10th, 2008, 39 instances had been reported in Bokungu, DRC, but none had been verified18. For the year 2022, the ProMED mail has received numerous reports of monkey pox19. These circumstances endanger people's lives. The Likouala department saw an increase in instances in September 200720. Monkey pox incidences in the province of Equaetor were initially quite rare, but as of January 12th, 2011, 114 cases have been reported.


3.2.  Monkey Pox Cases in Non-Endemic Countries:

Monkey pox cases have been reported to the WHO since May 13, 2022, from 23 Member States that span four WHO regions and are not endemic for the monkey pox virus. Epidemiology research is continuing. The majority of reported cases up to this date have presented at sexual health or general medical clinics and have no known travel ties to an endemic region. The following specific activities must be taken, such as ensuring the data provided is accurate because it may be used to categorize and identify people. Among the 23 countries that are not endemic are Argentina, Canada, French Guiana, the United States, the United Arab Emirates, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Australia, Solvenia, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Italy, Finland, and Czechia. A list of cases of monkey pox in non-endemic countries can be found in18. Australia, Canada, Nigeria, Singapore, the United States, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland have all had their complete or partial genomes made public. The most recent pandemic has not yet been connected to any recorded deaths in countries where the disease is not common. Most occurrences were found at basic care and sexual health clinics, and they primarily, though not solely, included the population of men who have sex with men (MSM). Aside from cases reported in non-endemic countries, the World Health Organization continues to receive information on monkeypox outbreaks in endemic African nations through established surveillance procedures (Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response).


3.3. Monkey Pox Infection Risk Factors:

Consuming raw meat and other animal products from sick animals may be harmful. Even though monkeypox usually resolves on its own, people in non-endemic nations are unlikely to be protected as the virus has not yet been discovered there. Young infants, newly born babies, and those with compromised immune systems are more prone to have severe symptoms from monkeypox and, in rare cases, even die from it. According to Rosamund Lewis, WHO Technical Lead for Monkey Pox, close contact with individuals who have the disease is the biggest risk factor for contracting the monkeypox virus. Even in endemic areas, the virus is spreading among elderly populations. An inquiry and case study were carried out to determine risk variables impacting the monkeypox virus in the community and transmission within the family. Several behavioral characteristics increase the probability of monkeypox infection within the family, according to19. Sharing the same plate for meals (P = 0.015), sharing a cup for drinks (P = 0.003), and sharing a bed or room (P = 0.001) all significantly enhanced the probability of contracting MPXV. Close contact includes touching, cuddling, kissing, licking, sharing a sleeping space, and eating together. For 21 days following their most recent interaction with a symptomatic human with monkeypox, animals should be kept indoors and away from humans and other animals. Money pox infection has a few critical qualities in the family, just like in a home. The primary contributing factors to a household's increased risk of monkeypox infection are described in9. Care of exposed dogs should not be performed by infected persons. When feasible, ask a family member to take care of the animal while the person with monkeypox recovers from the illness. The person with monkeypox should avoid close contact with the exposed animal. among the elements. A higher point rating is assigned to REST ON FLOOR and P value.


3.4. Monkey Pox Detection Approaches:

To determine if a person is infected with the virus, tests for the monkey pox virus, an orthopox virus variant that causes monkey pox, are conducted. The CDC's non-variola orthopox viral test, which has FDA clearance, may identify monkey pox from a sample of a lesion. Animals can be afflicted by monkey pox. A wide range of animal species, including monkeys, anteaters, hedgehogs, prairie dogs, squirrels, and shrews, are susceptible to the monkey pox virus. One of the major methods for diagnosing monkey pox is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which uses DNA to make DNA copies of itself. Among the animals that were infected were African Rope Squirrels9, African Dormice10, Elephant Shrews22, Cambian Pouched Cat23, Cynomolgus Macaque24, Giant anteaters25, and Prairie dogs26. These diseased animals are infected with the monkeypox virus, which has been found using the methods listed above, such as PCR and viral isolation, Quantitative PCR, and viral isolation, etc. If viral spillover needs to be controlled before it spreads and becomes a pandemic, early detection of emerging zoonoses is essential. Thanks to pandemics like COVID-19 and swine flu, we are more aware than ever of the tremendous potential of AI-enabled disease surveillance and prediction (influenza H1N1). Prior to recently spreading to other countries, the monkey pox virus had been primarily affecting African countries. AI often supports clinical diagnosis through the processing of visual data. It was unable to find any publicly accessible monkey pox dataset25 on an AI-based method to accurately detect and prevent the monkey pox disease. As a result, it was difficult to identify the monkey pox virus using AI approaches. In addition, the condition is curable in 85% of people who receive the smallpox vaccine. In the US, the Jynneos vaccine, which guards against both smallpox and monkeypox (Live, Nonreplicating). Two doses of the immunization are administered, separated by 28 days.26 explains clinical disorders and their use of monitoring zones in treatment. Antivirals such tecovirimat or ST-246 (TPOXX), brincidofovir (Tembexa), and cidofovir (Vistide) are usually recommended for patients who are more likely to get sick, such as those with compromised immune systems. As is widely known, there are numerous clinical issues that are treatable. Depending on the issues, there were numerous therapy and monitoring strategies (inhailing tract, fever, inflammation, sepsis, and vomiting and diarrhea).



In this section, the statistics data for May 2022 are used to chart the progression of monkey pox virus cases. The initial case of monkey pox was on May 6, 2022. The instance was discovered in the United Kingdom, more especially in England. A virus that travels from animals to humans causes monkey pox, which has symptoms like those once seen in smallpox patients but is clinically less severe26. The UK, Portugal, Spain, Canada, Germany, Italy, France, US, Australia, Switzerland, Sweden, and Slovenia were among the nations afflicted by the monkey pox virus in May 2022. According to statistical information, Figure 2 explains the development of monkey pox virus cases during the month of May 2022. The total number of cases found in the UK between May 6 and May 15 was 7. But instances also started to show up in other nations in the days that followed. On May 17, there were 3 instances in Portugal, and on May 18, there were 11 confirmed cases. There were 6178 confirmed cases of monkeypox globally as of 2 July 2022, according to the latest data available26,27-36.



Cases of monkey pox, which are typically only observed in West and Central Africa, are increasingly appearing in the US, Europe, and Australia. According to the WHO, cases are said to happen close to rainforests where virus-carrying animals live. It has been established that several poached squirrel species, Gambian rats, dormice, and some monkey species are infected with the monkey pox virus. Despite the possibility that the virus is exploiting a change in human behavior and an increase in worldwide travel, experts are optimistic that it may still be stopped from spreading. Long-term human-to-human transmission is highly likely considering the present outbreak in non-endemic countries, which increases the prospect that ongoing human transmission may be occurring throughout Africa on a larger scale than previously thought. Thus, in this research, the indications of the monkey pox virus, its breakout in various nations, risk factors for monkey pox infection, and several methods for monkey pox virus detection have been covered. Analysis had been done on the increase in monkey pox virus cases in the various nations in May 2022.



1.      Auwal I Kabuga and Mohamed E El Zowalaty. A reviewof themonkeypox virus and a recent outbreak of skin rash disease in Nigeria”, Journal of Medical Virology. 2018; 91(12): 1-8.

2.      Sirwan Khalid Ahmed et al. The global human monkeypox outbreak in 2022: An overview. Preprint. 2022, http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.32710.34880.

3.      Tony Wawina-Bokalanga et al. An accurate and rapid Real-time PCR approach for human Monkeypox virus diagnosis. Preprint, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.06.23.22276033.

4.      Deepak Subedi and Krishna Prasad Acharya. Risk of monkeypox outbreak in Nepal”, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2022; 49(1-3): 2022.

5.      Tom Joshua Joshua and Anebo Nlerum P. A neuro-fussy based model for diagnosis of monkeypox diseases”, International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST).  2018; 6(2): 143-153.

6.      AL-Sakiti, M. K., and Hussain, S. M. IoT based monitoring and tracing of COVID-19 contact persons. Journal of Student Research. 2021.

7.      Hussain, S. M., and AL Habsi. Protection of foodstuffs in storage warehouses system. Journal of Student Research.2021.

8.      Hussain, S. M., and Al Saadi. Voice enabled Elevator system. Journal of Student Research. 2021.

9.      Al Balushi, I., and Hussain, S. M. IoT Based air Quality Monitoring and Controlling in Underground MINES. Journal of Student Research. 2021.

10.   Hussain, S. M., Yusof, K. M., Asuncion, R., Hussain, S. A., and Ahmad, A. An Integrated Approach of 4G LTE and DSRC (IEEE 802.11 p) for Internet of Vehicles (IoV) by Using a Novel Cluster-Based Efficient Radio Interface Selection Algorithm to Improve Vehicular Network (VN) Performance. Sustainable Advanced Computing. 2022; 569-583.

11.   Hussain, S. M., Yusof, K. M., Hussain, S. A., and Khan, A. B. An efficient interface selection scheme (dsrc/lte) of vehicles for data dissemination enabling v2v communication to support internet of vehicles (iov). In Soft Computing and Signal Processing. 2022;  573-581

12.   Hakimi, A., Yusof, K. M., Azizan, M. A., Azman, M. A. A., and Hussain, S. M. A Survey on Internet of Vehicle (IoV): Applications and Comparison of VANETs, IoV and SDN-IoV. Elektrika-Journal of Electrical Engineering. 2021; 20(3): 26-31.

13.   Hussain, S. M., Yusof, K. M., Hussain, S. A., Asuncion, R., and Ghouse, S. Integration of 4G LTE and DSRC (IEEE 802.11 p) for Enhancing Vehicular Network Performance in IoV Using Optimal Cluster- Based Data Forwarding (OCDF) Protocol. International Journal   of   Interactive   Mobile Technologies.2021; 15(14).

14.   Hussain, S. M., Yusof, K. M., Hussain, S. A., and Asuncion, R. Performance evaluation of vertical handover in Internet of Vehicles. International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. 2021; 14(1): 1.

15.   Hussain, S. M., Yusof, K. M., Asuncion, R., and Hussain, S. Artificial intelligence based handover decision and network selection in heterogeneous internet of vehicles. Indones. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci. 2021; 22: 1124-1134.

16.   Hussain, S. M., Yusof, K. M., and Yusof, K. M. Dynamic Q-learning and Fuzzy CNN Based Vertical Handover Decision for Integration of DSRC, mmWave 5G and LTE in Internet of Vehicles (IoV). J. Commun. 2021; 16(5): 155-166.

17.   Sukanya K and Aravinda Swami P. A brief review on monkey pox illness. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2016; 7(1): 1480-1483.

18.   Nikola Sklenovska and Marc Van Ranst. Emergence of monkeypox as the most important orthopoxvirus infection in humans. Frontiers in Public Health. 2018; 6: 1-12.

19.   Leisha Diane Nolen et al. Introduction of monkeypox into a community and household: risk factors and zoonotic reservoirs in the democratic republic of the congo. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2015; 93(2); 410-415.

20.   Elizabeth A Falendysz et al. Characterization of monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.).  Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2017; 11(8): 1-23.

21.   Henri A Thomassen et al. Pathogen-host associations and predicted range shifts of human monkeypox in response to climate change in central Africa. Plos One. 2013; 8(7): 1-18.

22.   Dheeraj Makkar. The latest news for may 2022 all you need to know on monkeypox. Preprint. 2022. https://doi.org/10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-.PPCOS0D.v1.

23.   Scott Parker and R Mark Buller. A review of experimental and natural infections of animals with monkeypox virus between 1958 and 2012. Future Virology. 2013; 8(2): 129-157.

24.   Roy E Barnewall, David A Fisher, Ashley B Robertson, Pauline A Vales, Katherine A Knostman and John E Bigger. Inhalational monkeypox virus infection in cynomolgus macaques. Frontiers Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2012; 2: 1-8.

25.   Md Manjurul Ahsan, Muhammad Ramiz Uddin, Mithila Farjana, Ahmed Nazmus Sakib, Khondhaker Al Momin and Shahana Akter Luna. Image data collection and implementation of deep learning-based model in detecting monkeypox disease using modified VGG16. 2022. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2206.01862

26.   Mary G Reynolds, Andrea M McCollum, Beatrice Nguete, Robert Shongo Lushima and Brett W Petersen. Improving the care and treatment of Monkeypox Patients in low resource settings: applying evidence from Contemporary Biomedical and Smallpox Biodefense Research.  Viruses. 2017; 9(12): 1-14.

27.   Patel, D. V., Patel, B. D., Patel, N. K., Sheth, N. R., Dabhi, M. R., and Dudhrejiya, A. V. Quality Improvement Methodologies in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing. Asian Journal of Management. 2020; 1(1): 1-3.

28.   Srivastva, A. K. Traditional Solutions to Encounter Global Warming. Asian Journal of Management. 2010; 1(1): 22-25.

29.   Ramana, N. Venkata, S. Md Azash, and K. Ramakrishnaiah. Impact of Liquidity Management on Profitability: A Case Study of Lanco Industries Limited (LIL), Srikalahasthi (AP). Asian Journal of Management. 2011; 2(4);  182-185.

30.   Baghel, D., and Dubey, A. Apparel Buying Behavior of College Going Students-A Study in Raipur-Durg Area. Asian Journal of Management. 2012; 3(2): 90-93.

31.   Kumar, R., Raju, C. K., and Singh, K. L. Regional Rural Banks: A result of Narasimham committee. Asian Journal of Management. 2012; 3(4): 188-195.

32.   Deepa, R. Education on Prevention of Swine Flu among Early Adults in Sri Ramakrishna Arts and Science College, Coimbatore. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2011; 1(1): 01-02.

33.   Yasodha, P. Assessment of Patient Satisfaction on Nursing Services at Obstetrical and Gynaecological Unit of Selected Hospital, Coimbatore. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2011; 1(1): 03-05.

34.   Sivasubramanian, N. Evidence Based Nursing Education and Practice. Asian J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2011; 1(1): 19-22.

35.   Walter Jr, J. H., Goss, L. R., and Lazzara, A. T. Amniotic band syndrome. The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery. 1998; 37(4): 325-333.

36.   Sit, D., Rothschild, A. J., and Wisner, K. L. A review of postpartum psychosis. Journal of Women's Health. 2006; 15(4): 352-368.




Received on 24.07.2022            Modified on 16.12.2022

Accepted on 01.03.2023           © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2023; 16(10):4968-4972.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00804