The use of Microvit A in the Form of a Synthetic supplement for Metabolic Processes and Localization of Protein Substances

 

A.V. Valoshin*, A.V. Glazkov

Ogarev Mordovia State University, 68/1 Bolshevistskaya St., Saransk, 430005,

Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: avvoloshin@mail.ru

 

ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this research is to study the present data on the effect of different dosages of vitamin A (retinol acetate) on the metabolism and localization of protein substances (protein) in the body of experimental animals (fattening bull calves). The authors use the concept of conversion of protein substances (protein) from the diet feed into the main nutrients of the edible part of the carcass (cuts) of bull calves fed on diets with pulp granules. The authors evaluate the morphological parameters of the animal after slaughter. For the experiment, 45 heads of black-and-white bull calves at the age of 12-13 months with a live weight of 270-290kg were selected. They were distributed according to the principle of similarity into three experimental groups of 15 heads each. The groups differed in diet, namely, an increase in the dosage of vitamin A in the second and third groups by 25 and 30% relative to the first group. According to the slaughter data and the study of the morphological composition of carcasses, the authors found that it was necessary to introduce vitamin A preparation into such diets. In this experiment, the authors used retinol acetate with the biological activity of 1 mln international units in 1 g, so that their content in the diets was 23-24 thousand international units per 100kg of live weight (optimally derived dose, depending on the live weight of the animal during the experiment). This contributed to an increase in the average daily weight gain of bull calves by 11.7% and an increase in carcass weight by 9.2%, including flesh weight by 11.1%. In the carcass flesh, the protein content increased by 15.4%, fat by 15.2%, and energy by 8.2%. The conversion rate of protein substances (protein) of the feed into the edible protein of the flesh of the carcass increased by 1.33% and the energy of the feed by 1.2%.

 

KEYWORDS: Bull calves, Conversion and localization of protein substances (protein), Fattening, Meat productivity, Pulp granules.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

In the work of Tomomi Shirai et al. on feeding various xanthophylls to rats with A-avitaminosis, the following results were obtained. The content of retinol per liver when using canthaxanthin was 2.3μg, the content of astaxanthin 7.8μg, and the content of zeaxanthin 6.2μg, which significantly differed from the control group (4.5 μg). When using tunaxanthin and lutein, no significant differences in the accumulation of vitamin A were found (5.4 and 5.2μg, respectively). When β-carotene was introduced into food, the result amounted to 34.8μg of retinol/liver.

 

Thus, it can be seen from these data that canthaxanthin is preferable as a substrate to isolate the enzyme systems involved in the reduction of xanthophylls in the rat body. The introduction of vitamin A2 significantly increased not only the level of vitamin A2 but also the level of vitamin A1, while vitamin A1 accounted for 21% of the total vitamin A in the liver. Thus, it was shown for the first time that 3,4-dehydroretinol was converted to retinol1.

 

When assessing the meat productivity of animals, the efficiency of conversion of protein substances (protein) and energy (Mdg) of consumed feed into food proteins and energy of meat products of animal origin is studied2. One can obtain high results on these indicators only in the case of organizing biologically complete feeding of animals (in this case, cattle). For this purpose, one can use various nutritional supplements with a different chemical origin, distribution method, and dosage, which depend on the type of feeding of ruminants, to compose complete diets3. In the industrial production of veal and beef, that is, in raising and fattening cattle, in addition to traditional feed, waste from the food and technical industries, in particular, pulp granules, are widely used4. Pressed and silage fodder of this variety is not fed to animals during its production5. It is economically unprofitable to transport fresh pulp over long distances. Therefore, it is used in feed stations near factories and nearby farms6.

 

The characteristics of this product, like others intended for feeding to animals, are regulated by GOST R 54901-2012. Dried pulp. Technical conditions. Dried beet pulp should be produced under the requirements of this standard according to the technological instructions approved in the prescribed manner. In terms of organoleptic characteristics, the dried pulp must meet the following requirements. Appearance: in loose form, in granules, gray briquettes of various shapes and sizes; smell: specific, without foreign odors. In terms of physical and chemical parameters, the dried granulated pulp must meet the following requirements: mass fraction of moisture, %, no more than 13; mass fraction of crude protein, in terms of dry matter, %, not less than 7; mechanical impurities are not allowed; mass fractions of metal-magnetic impurities larger than 2mm are not allowed.

 

Dried beet pulp consists of desugared and dried beet shavings of various shapes, gray in color, produced by factories in loose form and the form of pressed granules of various shapes and sizes. Dried beet pulp should contain no more than 14% moisture and no less than 7% proteins in terms of dry matter. This product should contain at least 10% sucrose. From 100kg of fresh pulp, 7kg of dried pulp is produced7. Dried pulp has advantages compared to fresh and silage pulp. It is more nutritious (6-7 times more), less spoiled during storage, more transportable, especially in granular form, and the cost of its transportation, compared to the fresh or fermented pulp, is reduced more than 5 times. Feeding dried pulp to animals, in comparison with sour unpressed pulp, provides an increase in the fattening productivity of young cattle by 10% with a decrease in feed consumption per 1kg of weight gain by 11% and allows reducing the level of concentrates in the diet by 15-20%. In the composition of mixed feed for cows, the dried pulp is introduced in an amount of 10-15%, for fattening young stock up to 20%, and for pigs up to 5-10%8,9.

 

It is convenient to store this type of feed in bulk dried form. However, this is done only in large agricultural enterprises. Owners of ordinary household plots and small farms prefer to buy pelleted pulp. This type of pulp allows them to distribute nutrients more evenly. The granules also have better digestibility. This is since when drying the pulp for evaporation of 1kg of water, 722kcal of energy is consumed, while when pressing fresh pulp to increase the content of dry substances in it from 6-9 to 15-20%, 14 kcal are spent. The productivity of fattened cattle on granulated pulp is 1.2-1.4kg of the average daily gain in live weight, or about the same as when feeding animals with dried pulp or concentrates10. This level of the growth rate of animals is provided under the condition of consumption of 0.75kg of concentrated feed per 100 kg of live weight. At a lower level of concentrate consumption (1-1.5kg per head per day), 1.0-1.05kg of daily weight gain is obtained. Such pulp is made using special equipment, i. e. granulators, and extruders11. This valuable (dried) feed product contains 86-93% of dry matter, 7-14% of water, 7-9% of proteins, 19-23% of fiber, 55-56% of nitrogen-free extractive substances (NFES), 2.4-4.3% of ash, and 0.3-0.55 of fat. 1kg of pulp contains 80 g of protein, 3.2g of amino acids, 6.1g of lysine, 5g of calcium, 2g of phosphorus, 154g of sugar, and 32g of starch. Besides, this product contains biotin (0.001) and pantothenic acid (0.21). Dry pulp also contains vitamins B1 (0.55mg/kg), B2 (0.20), B6 (0.18), and C (5.0). One can count as a negative point the complete absence of fat-soluble vitamins in the granules, in particular vitamin A (retinol acetate)12.

 

Many researchers have proven the need to introduce vitamin A preparations into diets low in carotene13-22. With the use of this vitamin, there is an increase in animal productivity and product quality23,24. However, the question of the dosage of vitamin A, concerning different conditions of cattle feeding, remains open25. In this regard, studies aimed to determine the optimal level of vitamin A in the nutrition of animals, considering the type of feeding (the presence of a certain type of different feed), are interesting in scientific and practical terms26.

 

The purpose of our research is to study the present data on the effect of different dosages of vitamin A (retinol acetate) on the metabolism and localization of protein substances (protein) in the body of experimental animals (fattening bull calves). We use the concept of conversion of protein substances (protein) from the feed of the diet to the main nutrients of the edible part of the carcass (cuts) of bull calves fed on diets with pulp granules. We evaluate the morphological parameters of the animal after slaughter, that is, the biological effect of vitamin A on the metabolism associated with metabolic processes and the localization of protein substances in the body of fattening bull calves on an experiment when giving different doses of vitamin A in diets with pulp granules.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Ethical approval:

According to research at the Department of Production Technology and Processing of Agricultural Products of the Mordovia State University named after N.P. Ogarev, we planned a practical study of the use of synthetic vitamin A in retinol-acetate form.

 

Study area:

We carried out experiments at the premises of the Niva LLC of the Oktyabrsky district of Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation, specializing in the production of beef and veal.

 

Preparatory stage of the experiment:

To conduct the scientific and economic experiments, 45 heads of black-and-white bull calves at the age of 12 to 13 months with a live weight of 270 to 290kg were selected and distributed according to the principle of similarity (age, live weight, health, and fatness) into three experimental groups containing 15 heads each. The experiment lasted for 150 days, from January to May 2018.

 

During the experiments, the animals were examined by veterinarians and were found clinically healthy. They were kept in the same facility, unheated, on a deep bed of straw of 20-30cm, with the effect of microbiological heating, with maintaining a microclimate and ventilation, tied27. All technological measures such as the distribution of feed mixture, cleaning of feed residues, provision of water, and lighting were the same for the entire time of the experiment. Facility dimensions: 24m in width and 100m in length. The area occupied by one animal on a leash was 3m2. All animals received the same diet, calculated to receive 1,000g of average daily gain in live weight under the norms of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences (RAAS), except for carotene28. The handbook on the norms of the RAAS sets out the basic provisions for feeding farm animals based on detailed norms established in scientific and economic experiments. It contains new indicators of diet formation. It also clarifies the nutritional norms for individual nutrients, macro-microelements, and vitamins, including several nutrients that were not previously considered29. The energetic nutritional value of forages and diets, as well as the energy requirements of animals, are expressed in energy feed units (EFU). The handbook gives examples of approximate diets for animals of different productivity and in different physiological conditions, as well as the composition and nutritional value of feed. It also proposes a technique for compiling diets using computer programs30, 31.

 

Feeding conditions for the experiment:

The composition of the feed mixture (presented and recommended by the RusFeed company) consisted of pulp granules (50% of the nutritional value of the number of concentrates), corn silage harvested in the phase of gold ripeness, legume-cereal haylage, coarse grains (wheat and barley), NaCI, macronutrients (g), microelements (mg), and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K32.

 

Pulp granules meet the requirements of regulatory documents GOST 13456-82 Clauses 1.2 and 1.3, certificate of conformity No.: ROSS RUAYA54.H16905. According to GOST, pulp granules must have the following parameters. Appearance: in loose form, in granules, gray briquettes of various shapes and sizes; smell: specific, without foreign odors33.

 

The content of pro-vitamin A (carotene) in the diet was 15-25% of the RAAS norm28. According to the RAAS norm, the norm for carotene for bull calves at the age of 12-13months is 730μg. For one international unit (IU) of vitamin A, 0.3μg of pure vitamin A (retinol alcohol) or 0.6μg of pure β-carotene is taken28. Vitamin A deficiency was compensated by giving the "Microvit A feed" supplement with an activity of 1,000 thousand IU of vitamin A in 1g. "Mikrovit A feed" was thoroughly mixed with a grain mixture (wheat and barley in equal proportions in the form of coarse grinding) and distributed in a total dose once every ten days34. The groups of experimental animals differed only in the level of vitamin A nutrition.

 

Methods:

The bull calves of the first group received it in an amount equivalent to the norms for carotene, the second group 25% more, and the third group 50% more than the norm. In absolute terms, the dose of vitamin A was the following: 20-22 thousand IU per 100kg of live weight in the first group, 23-24 thousand IU in the second group, and 29-31 thousand IU in the third group35. The animals were fed two times a day. Feeding was carried out according to the daily routine adopted in this company. Feeding was carried out three times a day according to detailed norms with the necessary adjustments, which considered age, body weight, and average daily weight gain. Feed consumption was recorded daily. The weight of all feeds in the diet, their nutritional value, and composition, as well as the leftovers not eaten, were considered. Control over the growth and weight of animals was carried out by individual weighing every ten days in the morning before feeding during the day.

 

The post-slaughter qualities of animals were studied by control slaughter at the end of fattening in the amount of 5(similar) heads from each experimental group36. According to the slaughter data, we considered the pre-slaughter live weight, the weight of the fresh carcass, the carcass yield, the slaughter yield, the morphological composition of the carcasses, the meat content coefficient, the chemical composition, and caloric content of the average sample of the longest muscle of the back. Based on the experimental data, calculations were made about the exchange of localization and conversion of protein substances (protein) and energy into edible animal protein37.

 

The content of vitamin A was determined in the following order. 0.5ml of blood serum was added to a polyethylene test tube with a cap (50x10mm). 0.5ml of a 0.025% alcohol solution of butyloxytoluene (BOT) was added and thoroughly mixed, which ensured effective protein precipitation. 1ml of 0.0125% BOT solution in hexane was added and shaken for 5min38. Then the preparation was centrifuged for 5 min at 3,000 rpm at a temperature of 4ーC, as a result of which two layers were formed: the lower, consisting of alcohol, water-soluble substances, and protein and the upper, consisting of hexane and fat-soluble particles. The upper, hexane layer (100μL) was used for analysis on a liquid chromatograph39.

 

The determination of retinol was carried out on a Russian microcolumn liquid chromatograph Milichrom-5.3 with a scanning ultraviolet detector. We used a column (120x2mm) filled with Silasorb 600 with a particle size of 5μm. The mobile phase was represented by a mixture of hexane and isopropanol in the ratio 99:1. The eluent flow was 200μl/min; the speed of the tape recorder was 720mm/h. Retinol was detected at A = 324 nm. The retention time for retinol was 780. The peaks on the chromatogram were identified by standard substances, as well as by obtaining ultraviolet absorption spectra of the substances to be separated and comparing them with the spectra of standards.

 

For the quantitative determination of vitamins, standard solutions of retinol in hexane with a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0μg/ml were prepared39. Then the samples were prepared similarly to those described for the blood serum sample, with the only difference that 0.5ml of plasma was replaced with water, and the extraction was carried out with hexane with a standard substance of known concentration. After chromatographic analysis, a calibration curve, plotting the concentration of vitamins on the abscissa axis, and the height of the peaks on the ordinate axis were plotted. Then the calibration factor concerning the height of the peak and the concentration of the vitamin was calculated, which is the tangent of the slope of the calibration graph. The content of vitamin A in blood serum was determined by a calibration curve or by the formula: X (μg/ml) = H x K, where H is the height of the component of interest, mm, and K is the calibration factor39.

 

The values obtained from the calibration curve and the formula must be multiplied by 2 (considering the sample volume). To carry out the concentration of vitamin A to the international SI system (μmol/l), the value (μg/100 ml) must be multiplied by a factor of 0.03491. The average analytical extraction of vitamins from blood serum samples was 97 to 98%40.

 

Biochemical studies were carried out according to the following methods:

       Total protein was measured refractometrically using an RLU type refractometer41;

       Protein fractions were calculated by the express method according to All and McCard in the modification of Karnbok42;

       Vitamins A and E were calculated by microcolumn high-efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Milikhrom-4 liquid chromatograph43.

 

The chemical composition of meat was studied according to the generally accepted method of the Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry (FRCAH)44. Based on the data obtained from chemical research, the calorie content of meat was calculated using the formula:

 

[[D-(F+A)] * 4.1+9.3 * F] * 4.1868

C = 末末末末末末末末末末末末末末末

1000

 

Where C is the calorie content of 1kg of meat, MJ;

D is the amount of dry matter;

F is the amount of fat;

A is the amount of ash, g.

 

Statistical analysis:

The obtained research results were processed using the method of biometric statistics45 on a personal computer in the Statistics software ver. 2.6 and MS Excel.

 

RESULTS:

As a result of numerous calculations, we found that the experimental bull calves consumed almost the same amount of nutrients, including dry matter, protein substances (protein), and feed energy46. The calculation was carried out according to the actual consumption of feed in the diet by experimental animals (Table 1).

 

Table 1. Consumption of dry matter, protein substances (protein), and feed energy by bull calves

Parameter

Group

1

2

3

Dry matter, kg

Exchange energy, MJ

Crude protein, kg

1,543.7

13,235.8

201.5

1,546.3

13,237.1

203.9

1,563.0

13,250.1

205.1

 

The growth rate of young bull calves varied significantly between the groups. The average daily weight gain in the first group that received vitamin A at a dose of 20 to 22 thousand IU/100 kg of live weight, which corresponds to the RAAS standards for carotene28, averaged 958 g for the entire period of feeding.

 


Table 2. Indicators of meat productivity of experimental bull calves

Parameter

Group

1

2

3

Average daily growth, g

958ア10.1

1,069ア9.7*

1,066ア8.6*

Percentage comparing with the first group

100.0

111.6

111.2

Pre-slaughter live weight, kg

427.5ア1.9

436.8ア2.3**

435.5ア2.5*

Weight, kg: fresh carcass

internal fat

228.9ア1.5

249.8ア2.2**

249.2ア2.4*

13.0ア0.5

16.1ア0.6

15.9ア0.4

Slaughter weight, kg

241.9ア1.5

265.9ア2.6**

265.1ア2.8*

Slaughter yield, %

56.6

60.9

60.8

 

Table 3. Morphological composition of the carcasses of experimental bull calves

Parameter

Group

First experimental

Second experimental

Third experimental

Weight of fresh carcass, kg

Weight of the cooled carcass, kg

including:

flesh weight, kg

%

bone weight, kg

%

tendon weight, kg

%

Flesh yield per 1 kg of bones, kg

228.9ア1.5

226.6ア0.86

 

178.8ア0.57

78.6

42.5ア0.38

18.8

7.0ア0.21

3.1

4.21ア0.11

249.8ア2.2

247.4ア0.43

 

197.2ア0.88

79.7

45.7ア0.29

18.5

8.2ア0.25

3.3

4.31ア0.12

249.2ア2.4

246.9ア0.94

 

195.0ア0.90

79.6

45.4ア0.23

18.4

7.2ア0.22

2.9

4.30ア0.18

 

Table 4. Conversion and localization of protein substances (protein) and energy from diet feed into edible parts of the carcass (on average per 1 experimental bull)

Parameter

Group

 

First experimental

Second experimental

Third experimental

Protein consumption per 1 kg of weight gain, g

1,402

1,272

1,283

Energy consumption per 1 kg of weight gain, MJ

92.1

82.7

82.9

Content in the flesh of the carcass, kg

protein

fat

 

39.1

24.9

 

44.9

28.7

 

44.2

28.8

Yield per 1 kg of pre-slaughter live weight, g

protein

fat

energy, MJ

 

86.57

55.83

30.00

 

91.95

59.11

30.36

 

91.28

59.50

30.45

Conversion rate of feed energy, %

3.46

4.29

4.27

Conversion rate of protein feed, %

6.21

7.54

7.49


 


In the second group that received an increased level of vitamin A by 25% (25 to 27 thousand IU/100kg of live weight), it equaled 1,069g, or 11.7% more (p <0.01) (Table 2).

 

The calves of the second group had more carcass weight by 20.9kg (p <0.01) and of the third group by 20.3kg (p <0.05), or, respectively, by 11 and 10.9% than in the animals of the first group that had received a diet with the recommended norm of vitamin A calculated as carotene. The amount of internal fat had increased slightly. As a result, the slaughter weight of bull calves of the second group was 24kg more (p <0.01) and that of bull calves of the third group 23.2kg more (p <0.05), or 10.3 and 9.9% more, respectively. Those bulls had a slightly higher slaughter yield as well. However, an increase in the level of vitamin A by 50% to the norm (third group) did not provide a greater increase in meat yield compared to the second group that had received 25% more vitamin A than the norm47.

 

 

When studying the morphological composition of carcasses after 24 hours in the cooling chamber (until severe rigor mortis), we found that their main increase was due to the most valuable part of the carcass, i.e. the flesh (muscle tissue obtained after deboning with dorsal, thoracic, and posterior pelvic-femoral parts of the carcass). There was 11.1% more flesh in the second group (p <0.01) and 10.9% more in the third group (p <0.05) compared with the first group that had received the normal amount of vitamin A in the diet48. In the experimental bull calves that had received more vitamin A than in the basic diet, the yield of flesh per 1kg of bones was significantly higher (Table 3).

 

The data obtained after laboratory research on the chemical composition of the average sample of muscle tissue showed that it contained more protein and fat. Per 1kg of pre-slaughter live weight, the yield of protein (protein part) was higher by 7.6% and of fat by 8.8% (Table 4)49.

 

The coefficient of conversion of protein substances (protein) of feed into the edible protein of the flesh of the carcass (muscle mass) increased by 1.33% and of energy by 0.83% (comparison of parameters of the second and first experimental groups, respectively).

 

DISCUSSION:

According to G.A. Krasnov50 who investigated the effect of vitamin A on the fattening of bull calves using wheat stillage:

1.     The optimal level of vitamin A (23 thousand IU/100 kg of live weight) increases the digestibility of nutrients in the diet by 2.5-4.2% and increases nitrogen deposition in the body by 11.2%.

2.     Optimization of the vitamin A nutrition of bull calves during stillage fattening contributes to the better formation of the meat productivity of animals. The average daily weight gain of young animals increases by 10.7-12.4%, carcass weight by 4.9-5.5%, and flesh yield per 1kg of bones by 5.3-5.8%. Dry matter content and protein content in flesh also increase.

 

According to the data of D. N. Parshutkin51 who studied the effect of vitamin A on the fattening bull calves using diets with malt sprouts:

1.     Enrichment of diets with malt sprouts with vitamin A at a dose of 23 to 24 thousand IU/100 kg live weight contributes to better absorption of nitrogen and minerals in the feed. Compared with the group of bull calves that had received the current rate of 19-20 thousand IU/100 kg of live weight, the deposition of nitrogen in the body of young animals significantly increased by 10.1%.

2.     The average daily weight gain increased by 12.5%, the carcass weight by 4.9%, including flesh by 6.9%. The quality of meat improved; it contained more dry matter, protein, and fat.

 

According to V.A. Gritchina52 who investigated the effect of vitamin A the following results were obtained when calves were fed with diets containing brewer's grains:

1.     Introduction of vitamin A at a dose of 23-24 thousand IU/100kg of live weight to the diet promotes better assimilation of nitrogen and minerals of the feed. Compared with the group of bull calves that received the current standard rate of 19-20 thousand IU/100 kg of live weight, the deposition of nitrogen in the body of young animals significantly increased by 13.7%.

2.     The average daily weight gain increased by 12.5%, the carcass weight increased by 4.9%, including flesh by 6.9%. The quality of meat improved; it contained more dry matter, protein, and fat.

 

Comparing the data on the use of vitamin A for bull calves on various types of fattening regarding an increase in the digestibility of nutrients, nitrogen deposition, and growth of live weight of experimental bull calves, we tested empirically and found that when fattening young cattle (bull calves) on diets with the inclusion of pulp granules, one needed to ensure the content of vitamin A (in the form of a synthetic powder form "Microvit A feed") in the amount of 23-24 thousand IU per 100kg of live weight, which is 25% more than the recommended norms calculated for carotene53. This ensured a more intensive growth of young bull calves, an increase of 10.3% in the yield of meat products, a significant increase in metabolic processes in the body due to the introduction of vitamin A, and the subsequent conversion of protein substances (protein) from feed sources and its subsequent localization in food protein by 1.33% and energy by 0.83% of the edible part of the carcass. The third experimental group (data obtained as a result of the experiment) did not have a significant increase in indicators during life and after slaughter (the morphological state of tissues in the carcass). Therefore, considering the costs, in terms of increased dosage (29-31 thousand IU/100kg of live weight) compared with the second group, this dosage is not recommended to be introduced in the production of beef with tied bull calves aged from 12 to 18 months on diets using pulp granules. The recommended dosage, as mentioned above, equals 23-24 thousand IU per 100kg of live weight.

 

CONCLUSION:

The digital data of the experiment were obtained using the calculation method and comparison between the experimental groups, starting from live weight to morphological changes in the post-slaughter form. According to the slaughter data and the study of the morphological composition of carcasses, we found that it was necessary to introduce vitamin A preparations into such diets. In our experiment, we used retinol acetate with the biological activity of 1mln IU in 1g, so that their content in diets was 23-24 thousand IU per 100kg of live weight (optimally derived dose, depending on the live weight of the animal during the experiment). This contributed to an increase in the average daily weight gain of bull calves by 11.7% and carcass weight by 9.2%, including flesh weight by 11.1%. In the carcass flesh, the protein content increased by 15.4%, fat by 15.2%, and energy by 8.2%. The conversion rate of protein substances (protein) of the feed into the edible protein of the flesh of the carcass increased by 1.33% and the energy of the feed by 1.2%.

 

This experiment made it possible to theoretically substantiate the effect of vitamin A when feeding bull calves on pulp granules, obtain positive results, and further use these scientific developments in real production at large-scale industries using pulp granules since it is expedient and economically profitable. In 2021, in the Republic of Mordovia, it is planned to put into operation a large fattening facility with the obligatory year-round use of feed based on the proposed diet. Its basis (50% of the nutritive value of the dry matter of the diet) is pulp granules. The diet and the whole technology of fattening steers will be implemented at this production. The capacity of the complex is 2,000 heads.

 

To organize intensive fattening of young cattle, increase meat productivity and the use of nutrients in diets, and normalize metabolic processes in the body, we recommend the following:

1.     In farms that feed young cattle on pulp granules, introducing vitamin A into the diets at a dose of 23-24 thousand IU per 100 kg of live weight.

2.     Feeding vitamin A preparations in a mixture with concentrates in a total dose after 10 days.

3.     Using dry, protected, encapsulated, powdered source of vitamin A of the Mikrovit brand at a dosage of 1 million IU of retinol-acetate form.

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Shirai T. Shichi Y. Sato M. Tanioka Y. Furusho T. Ota T. Tadokoro T. Suzuki T. Kobayashi K-I. Yamamoto Y. High dietary fat吠nduced obesity in Wistar rats and type 2 diabetes in nonobese Goto-Kakizaki rats differentially affect retinol binding protein 4 expression and vitamin A metabolism. Nutrition Research. 2016; 36(3):262-270.

2.      Viktorov PI. Metodika I Organizatsiya Zootekhnicheskikh Opytov [Methodology and Organization of Zootechnical Experiments]. Agropromizdat, Moscow. 1991.

3.      Dvinskaya LM. Vitaminnoe Pitanie Selskokhozyaistvennykh Zhivotnykh [Vitamin nutrition of farm animals]. Agropromizdat, Moscow. 1989.

4.      Kazaryan PB. Lukyanenko MV. Fabritskaya AA. Borodikhin AS. Miroshnichenko PV. Panfilkina EV. Issledovanie Vliyaniya Vitaminno-mineralnogo Kormovogo Kondentrata Na Biohimicheskie Pokazateli Krovi Bychkov [Investigation of the effect of the vitamin-mineral feed condentrate on the biochemical parameters of the blood of bull calves]. Technologies of the food and processing industry of the agro-industrial complex - healthy food products. 2017; 5:45-50.

5.      Zhitin YuI. Stekolnikova NV. Priemy Ispolzovaniya Otkhodov Proizvodstva V Agroekosistemakh Tsentralnogo Chernozemya [Methods for the use of industrial waste in the agroecosystems of the Central Black Earth Region]. Izd-vo VGAU, Voronezh. 2015.

6.      Slavyanskii AA. Tekhnologiya sakharnogo proizvodstva: uchebnoprakticheskoe posobie [Sugar production technology: a manual]. MGUTU, Moscow. 2012.

7.      Protasova MV. Mironov SYu. Lukyanchikova OV. Babkina LA. Perspektivnye napravleniya ispolzovaniya otkhodov sakharnogo proizvodstva [Perspective directions of use of sugar production waste]. Auditorium. 2016; 2(10):32-41.

8.      Zinnatullin IM. Kosilov TS. Kosilov VI. Vliyanie uglevodno vitaminno-mineralnoy dobavki na produktivnost molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota [Influence of carbohydrate-vitamin-mineral supplement on the productivity of young cattle]. Bulletin of St. Petersburg State Agrarian University. 2016; 44:87-91.

9.      Radchikov VF. Tsai VP. Gurin VK. Kot AN. Sapsaleva TL. Zhom V Kormlenii Krupnogo Rogatogo Skota [Pulp in feeding cattle]. Sakhar [Sugar]. 2016; 1:52-55.

10.   Haug A. Vhile SG. Berg J. Hove K. Egelandsdal B. Feeding potentially health promoting nutrients to finishing bulls changes meat composition and allow for product health claims. Meat Science. 2018; 145:461-468. doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2018.07.015

11.   Mysik AT. Sostoyanie Zhivotnovodstva I Innovatsionnye Puti Ego Razvitiya [The state of Animal Husbandry and Innovative Ways of its Development]. Zootekhniya. 2017; 1:2-9.

12.   Novikov MN. Konversiya Proteina I Energii Korma V Pitatelnye Veshchestva Myasa Bychkami Raznykh Porod [Conversion of protein and feed energy into meat nutrients by bull calves of different breeds]. Molodoi Uchenyi. 2010; 11(2):209-210.

13.   Patel VK, Kpatel C, Patel HU, Patel CN. Vitamins, Minerals and Carotenoids as a Antioxidants. Asian J. Research Chem. 2010; 3(2):255-260.

14.   Gupta A, Dixit A, Sinha A, Mittal K. Extraction of Beta Carotene from Selected Dried and Fresh Samples of Vegetables. Asian J. Research Chem. 2013; 6(2):169-171.

15.   Jadoon S, Malik A, Qazi MH, Aziz M. Spectrophotometric method for the determination of Vitamin A and E using Ferrozine-Fe (II) complex. Asian J. Research Chem. 2013; 6(4):334-340.

16.   Mokkapati A, Nagumantri RK, Pydi CB, Chintala R, Rentala S. Docking Studies of Piperine-Vitamin a Conjugate to Study the Increase in Bioavailability of Vitamin A. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017;10(7): 2189-2193. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00386.9

17.   Shanthi S. Effectiveness of Visual Package on Knowledge regarding Vitamin 羨 deficiency and its Prevention among mothers of under five Children in a Selected Community at Mangalore. Int. J. Adv. Nur. Management. 2017; 5(3):237-240. doi.org/10.5958/2454-2652.2017.00051.8

18.   Anmol B. A Descriptive Study to assess The Knowledge Regarding Vitamin A Deficiency Disorders among Mothers of Under Five Children in Selected Rural Area of District Ludhiana, Punjab (2016). Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2017; 5(4):395-398. doi.org/10.5958/2454-2660.2017.00084.9

19.   Anmol B. A Descriptive Study to Assess the Knowledge regarding Vitamin A Deficiency Disorders among mothers of under five Children in Selected Rural Area of District Ludhiana, Punjab (2016). Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2018; 8(3):345-348. doi.org/10.5958/2349-2996.2018.00070.8

20.   Varghese S, Manuel S, Tessy A, Vineetha CR, Sheeja S. A Study to Assess the Knowledge on Mothers of Underfive Children Regarding Importance of Vitamin A among Selected Areas of Pallithottam, Kollam. Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2020; 10(1):84-88. doi.org/10.5958/2349-2996.2020.00019.1

21.   Chauhan M, Garg V, Zia G, Dutt R. Potential Role of Phytochemicals of Fruits and Vegetables in Human Diet. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(3):1587-1591. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00287.5

22.   Pebriani TH, Shantiningsih RR, Martien R. Application Nanoemulsion of Beta Carotene in the Mucoadhesive Patch. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(8):3849-3853. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00681.2

23.   Valoshin AB. Proposed rates for the introduction of Vitamin A into the diets of dairy cows and fattened bull calves on different feeding types. Indian Veterinary Journal. 2019; 96(8):23-26.

24.   Pitt GA. Chemical structure and the changing concept of vitamin A activity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 1983; 42(1):43-51.

25.   Kairov VR. Vliyanie Povyshennogo Urovnya Vitamina A V Ratsione Na Organizm Svinok [Effect of Increased Vitamin A in the Diet on Gilts]. Zootekhniya. 2003; 4:12-14.

26.   Kazaryan RV. Lukyanenko MV. Borodikhin AS. Fabritskaya AA. Panasenko EYu. Issledovanie Vliyaniya Kormovogo Vitaminno-Mineralnogo Kontsentrata Pri Kormlenii Bychkov Na Kachestvo Bezopasnost I Pischevuyu Tsennost' Govyadiny [Study of the influence of the forage vitamin-mineral concentrate when feeding the bulls on the quality, safety and nutritional value of beef]. New technologies. 2017; 4:101-106.

27.   Temiraev VKh. Kebekov ME. Tsugkiev ZR. Povyshenie Fiziologo Biohimicheskogo Statusa Bychkov Na Otkorme Pri Kompleksnom Ispolzovanii V Ratsionah Biologicheski-aktivnyh Dobavok [Increasing the Physiological Biochemical Status of Fattening Bulls with complex use of biologically active additives in diets]. Agricultural Magazine. 2014; 3(7):272-276.

28.   Kalashnikov AP. Fisinin VI. Shcheglov VV. Kleimenov NI. Editors. Normy I Ratsiony Kormleniya Selskokhozyaistvennykh Zhivotnykh: Spravochnoe Posobie [Rates and diets for feeding farm animals: a reference guide]. RASKhN VGNIIZh, Moscow. 2003.

29.   Krisanov AF. Lukacheva VA. Valoshin AV. A-vitaminnyi status i produktivnost bychkov pri otkorme na pivnoi drobine [Vitamin A status and productivity of bull calves when fed on brewer's grain]. Vestnik Altaiskogo Gosudarstvennogo Agrarnogo Universiteta. 2012; 8(94):95-98.

30.   Ubushaev BS. Moroz NN. Vliyanie Kompleksa Azotosoderzhaschih Mineralnyh Veschestv Na Myasnuyu Produktivnost Bychkov [The effect of a complex of nitrogen-containing minerals on the meat productivity of gobies]. International Research Journal. 2016; 3-3(45):129-133.

31.   Moghimi-Kandelousi MH. Alamouti AA. Imani M. Zebeli Q. A meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effects of vitamin E supplementation on serum enrichment, udder health, milk yield, and reproductive performance of transition cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2020; 103(7):6157-6166. doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17556

32.   Desyatov OA. Steklova NN. Vliyanie Fraktsionnogo Sostava Karotina Zhomovykh Ratsionov Bychkov Na Uroven I Napravlennost Fermentativnykh Protsessov V Ikh Rubtse [Influence of the fractional composition of carotene in pulp diets of bull calves on the level and direction of enzymatic processes in their rumen]. Vestnik Ulyanovskoi gos. s.-kh. Akademii. 2010; 2(12):79-84.

33.   Kuznetsov S. Kuznetsov A. Rol Vitaminov I Mineralnykh Elementov V Regulyatsii Vosproizvoditelnoi Funktsii Korov [The role of vitamins and minerals in the regulation of the reproductive function of cows]. Zootekhniya. 2010; 5:11-13.

34.   Lyubin NA. Lyubina EN. Effektivnost Skarmlivaniya Svinyam Vodnodispergirovannykh Preparatov Vitamina A I Beta-karotina [The effectiveness of feeding pigs with water-dispersed preparations of vitamin A and beta-carotene]. Zootekhniya. 2014; 8:1415.

35.   Gayirbegov DS. Mungin VV. Gibalkina NI. Loginova LN. Valoshin AV. The impact of the new fodder additive 溺-feed on the microorganisms of the rumen contents of calves and their growth energy. Ecology, Environment & Conservation Paper. 2017; 23(1):425-431.

36.   Lyapina VO. Azhmuldinov EA. Belova NF. Titov MG. Morfologicheskie I Biohimicheskie Pokazateli Krovi Molodnyaka Krupnogo Rogatogo Skota Pri Razlichnyh Usloviyah Ego Soderzhaniya [Morphological and biochemical parameters of blood of young cattle under various conditions of its maintenance]. Bulletin of the Orenburg State Agrarian University. 2006; 2(10):136-138.

37.   Lyundyshev VA. Prevraschenie Energii Ratsionov Bychkami V Produktsiyu Pri Skarmlivanii Obogaschennoy Bardy [Conversion of diet energy by bulls into products when feeding enriched bard]. Bulletin of the Kursk State Agricultural Academy. 2016; 5:62-64.

38.   Ross AC. Goodman DS. Intracellular binding protein for retinol and retinoic acid: comparison with each other and with serum retinol- binding protein. Federation Proceedings. 1979; 38(11):25152518.

39.   Hoque MN. Das ZC. Rahman ANMA. Hoque MM. Effects of vitamin E, selenium and antimicrobial therapy on mastitis incidence, productivity and reproduction of dairy cows. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2016; 4(2):63-70. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijvsm.2016.11.001

40.   Starikova NI. Obmen Vitamina A U Korov Posle Otela [Exchange of vitamin A in cows after calving]. Vereinariya. 1994; 12:35-36.

41.   Kondrakhin IP. Kurilov NV. Malakhov AG. Arkhipov AV. Belov AD. Belyakov IM. Blinov NI. Korobov AV. Frolova LA. Sevastyanova NA. Clinical laboratory diagnostics in veterinary medicine: reference edition. Agropromizdat, Moscow. 1985.

42.   Petukhova EA. Bessarabova RF. Khaleneva LD. Antonova OA. Animal feed analysis. Kolos, Moscow. 1981.

43.   Skurikhin VN. Dvinskaya LM. Opredeleniye A-Tokoferola I Retinola V Plazme Krovi Sel'skokho-zyaystvennykh Zhivotnykh Metodom Mikrokolonochnoy Vy-Sokoeffektivnoy Zhidkostnoy Khromatografii [Determination of α-tocopherol and retinol in the blood plasma of agricultural animals by the method of microcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography]. Agricultural Biology. 1989; 4:127-129.

44.   Federal Research Center for Animal Husbandry (FRCAH). Methods for studying the fattening and meat qualities of cattle. Moscow, Russia. 1977.

45.   Merkurieva EK. Biometrics in breeding and genetics of farm animals. Kolos, Moscow. 1970.

46.   Dvinskaya LM. Zhirorastvorimye Vitaminy I Metody Ikh Opredeleniya V Biologicheskikh Substratakh: Metodicheskie Ukazaniya [Fat-soluble vitamins and methods for their determination in biological substrates: Methodological guidelines]. Agropromizdat, Moscow. 1989.

47.   Alekseev VA. Vitaminy I Vitaminnoe Pitanie Molodnyaka Svinei [Vitamins and vitamin nutrition of young pigs]. Cheboksary, Russia. 2008.

48.   Zadnepryanskii IP. Konversiya Korma V Osnovnye Pitatelnye Veshchestva Sedobnoi Chasti Tushi Intensivno Vyrashchivaemykh Bychkov Raznykh Porod [Conversion of feed into essential nutrients of the edible carcass of intensively reared bull calves of various breeds]. Zootekhniya. 2017; 9:24-27.

49.   Weber S. Analytical methods for vitamins and caratinoids in feed. Roche, Basle. 1982.

50.   Krasnov GA. Optimalnyi Uroven Vitamina A V Ratsionakh Bychkov Pri Bardyanom Otkorme [The optimal level of vitamin A in the diets of bull calves with stillage fattening]: author's abstract of a dissertation for the degree of candidate of agricultural sciences: 06.02.02. Mordovia State University named after N.P. Ogarev, Saransk. 1995.

51.   Parshutkin DP. Optimizatsiya A-Vitaminnogo Pitaniya Bychkov Pri Otkorme Na Ratsionakh S Solodovymi Rostkami [Optimization of the A-vitamin nutrition of bull calves when fed on malt sprout diets]: dissertation ... of a candidate of Agricultural Sciences: 06.02.08. Mordovia State University named after N.P. Ogarev, Saransk. 2017.

52.   Gritchina VA. Optimizatsiya A-Vitaminnogo Pitaniya Bychkov Pri Otkorme Na Pivnoy Drobine [Optimization of the A-vitamin nutrition of bull calves when feeding on brewers' grains]: dissertation ... of a candidate of Agricultural Sciences: 06.02.08. Mordovia State University named after N.P. Ogarev, Saransk. 2013.

53.   Karpenya MM. Novye Normy Vitaminno-Mineralnogo Pitaniya Plemennyh Bychkov [New standards for vitamin and mineral food for breeding bulls]. Current problems of intensive development of livestock. 2018; 21-1:174-179.

 

 

 

Received on 24.08.2021 Modified on 01.12.2021

Accepted on 03.02.2022 ゥ RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2022; 15(7):3101-3108.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00519