Antioxidant Potential of different extracts of Xanthium strumarium leaves


Deepak Kumar1*, Ashwani Sanghi2, Shefali Arora3, Shobhit Vidyarthi1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences,

Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

2Department of Biochemistry, Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences,

Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

3Department of Chemistry, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:



The use of herbal medicine for the treatment of diseases from centuries in all over the world because of safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. In comparison of herbal medicine, synthetic medicines have side and toxic effects. That is why herbal medicines have huge demand and popularity in world market. In the present study different extracts of leaves of Xanthium strumarium were prepared and evaluated their antioxidant potential. Evaluation of antioxidant activity is done by DPPH method. All extract were tested for presence of phytoconstituents i.e., alkaloid, carbohydrate, sterols, proteins, amino acids, saponin, and phenolic compounds in different extracts. From the results, we foundout that acetone and methanol extracts were the richest extract for phytoconstituents. Acetone extract showed maximum antioxidant potential (54.01±1.09%).


KEYWORDS: Antioxidants, Xanthium strumarium, DPPH, Ascorbic acid.




Many chronic and degenerative diseases including at herosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, ageing, diabetes, cancer, immunosuppression, neurosuppression, neurodegenerative diseases are due to oxidative stress1. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants that causes damage of biomolecules which refers as oxidative stress2. In living system, free radicals are produced by oxidation of food3. Antioxidant defence mechanism is the effective path of eliminate the action of free radicals which cause the oxidative stress. Antioxidants have the properties to breaks the free radicals chain reactions. Recently search of medicinal plants with antioxidant potential has been increased4. Xanthium strumarium L. is also known as cocklebur belongs to asteraceae family and widely destributed throughout tropical part of India4. The whole plant is upto 1m in height and used as a medicine. In ayurveda, the medicinal properties like antipyretic, anthelmintic, cooling, fattening, complexation and memory and fattening has been reported5.


Various parts of plant has been used for treatment of various like leaves possesses antirheumatic, diuretic, antisyphilitic, appetiser, emollient, laxative and sedative activities. The fruits possesses antibacterial, cytotoxic, antifungal, antirheumatic antimalarial, hypoglycaemic, antispasmodic and stomachic activities5. The research has been done on many medicinal properties like antitumor6, diuretic7, antifungal8, antioxidant9, antitussive10, antiplasmodial11, antimitotic12, antinociceptive13, insecticidal14, antibacterial and antifungal15, anti-inflammatory13 and anticancer16. Hence the present study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of different extracts of leaves of Xanthium strumarium.



Collection and Identification of leaves of Xanthium strumarium:

Leaves of Xanthium strumarium were collected from locality of Dehradun (India). Plant material was authenticated by S. K. Srivastava (Scientist D/HOD), in Botanical Survey of India, Northern regional centre, Dehradun (BSI). Authenticated specimen no is – 114541.


Extraction of leaves of Xanthium strumarium in different solvents and their phytochemical analysis:

The collected plant material was washed with water to removed undesirable material and dried under shade. The air-dried leaves (500 gm) of Xanthium strumarium were crushed. The crushed leaves extracted with different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol by hot percolation method using soxhlet apparatus. The extract was evaporated till dryness to obtain residue. These extracts were concentrated under reduced pressure. All the extracts were analysed for the presence of phytoconsitients.The test for carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, protein and amino acids was done for each extract.


Antioxidant activity of leaves extracts of Xanthium strumarium17-18

Preparation of DPPH:

DPPH is a highly oxidizable compound. It oxidized in light, so DPPH is prepared in dark. Weigh accurately 20 mg DPPH and dissolved in 100 ml methanol.


Preparation of standard Ascorbic acid solution and different concentration of Xanthium strumarium leaves extracts:

Ascorbic acid is a strong antioxidizing agent. It is taken as standard. Standard solution of ascorbic acid was prepared as 100 µg/ml as well as extracts was prepared. viz. 1000, 2000 and 3000 µg/ml.


Preparation of test sample and standard sample:

3 ml of different concentration of test samples (extracts) of Xanthium strumarium was taken for antioxidant activity. Extracts and standard (ascorbic acid) were mixed separately with 1 ml of DPPH solution in dark. The prepared solution of ascorbic acid and test samples were incubated for 30 minutes. Absorbance is taken with the help of U.V. Spectrophotometer at 517 nm.


We calculate the % activity of individual concentration of individual extract from the following formula:-

                     Abs. of control – Abs indibidual concentration

% Activity = -----------------------------------------------------------

                                             Abs. of control

Abs. = Absorbance


Herbal medicines have been used for many years for the treatment of diseases because of their no side effects. The phytoconstituents present in plants parts having medicinal effects still needs more scientific exploration. The human body upon consumption of oxygen produced free radicals. Free radicals are responsible for many risk factors like decrease in membrane fluidity, Inhibition of receptor enzyme activity and damage of membrane protein which leads to death. Free radicals are responsible for cell damage results in aging, cancer, cardiovascular diseases diabetes, inflammatory diseases 19-22. Antioxidant inhibits the formation of free radicals and helps in treatment of these disorders. As a extract of Xanthium strumarium leaves showed the dose dependent antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid, antioxidant agent might be developed from this plant for the treatment of above disorders associated with free radicals. Phenolic compounds containing free hydrogen are largely responsible for antioxidant activity 23 thus the phenolic compounds of Xanthium strumarium can be referred to be responsible for the antioxidant activity. The percentage yield of leaves extracts in different solvents system are Hexane (7.23 %), chloroform (20.67%), Acetone (1.241%), Methanol (6.80%). All extracts were subjected to various phytochemical tests. We found out that Acetone and methanol extract was the highly active extract for phytoconstituents. It contains tested phytoconstituents viz. Alkaloids, carbohydrates, and Phenolic compounds where hexane and chloroform extracts did not showed presence of phytoconstituents. Acetone extract of Xanthium strumarium leaves showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to all extracts. The concentration of 3000 µg/ml of acetone extract showed maximum antioxidant activity (54.01 %) in comparison to other extracts and Ascorbic acid (standard drug). Methanol, chloroform and hexane showed mild antioxidant activity with same concentration.


Table 1. Effect of different extract and standard drug on antioxidant activity


of extracts (μg/ml)

% antioxidant activity of extracts and standard drug

Xanthium strumarium leaves extracts

Standard Drug





Ascorbic acid

Concentration of Ascorbic acid (μg/ml)


















Results are expressed as mean values ± standard error (n = 3)




From the above study it is concluded that acetone extracts of leaves of Xanthium strumarium showed the maximum antioxidant activity as comparison with standard drug Ascorbic acid. Further study is needed for isolation of active principle.



Author’s are thankful to Chairman and Principal of Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand for providing necessary facilities for completion of this work.



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Received on 16.04.2021             Modified on 20.10.2021

Accepted on 05.02.2022           © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2022; 15(11):5112-5114.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00859