Lepadigathis cristata Wild. Traditional Plant of Chhattisgarh Tribes:

An Alternative Cure


Bharti Ahirwar1, Dheeraj Ahirwar2

1Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidayalaya, Bilaspur (CG) India - 495001.

2School of Pharmacy, Chouksey Engineering College, Bilaspur (CG) India - 495004.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: ah_bharti@yahoo.com, dheeraj_ahirwar@rediffmail.com



Documentation and assessment of the rich traditional medicinal knowledge are very important for human beings. Scientist around the world has been actively working to collect information and document of the indigenous medicinal plants. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to gather information on Lepidagathis cristata for Medicinal values for the treatment of various disorders.


KEYWORDS: Lepidagathis Cristata, Traditional Medicine, Medicinal Plant.




Lepidagathis cristata Wild family Acanthaceae is a perennial herb mostly found in dry places and waste lands. Plant is a stiff herb with almost no stem. Branches (20cm long) procumbently arise out from a hard central globose rootstock head on the ground and spread out. Leaves (3-6 x 0.5-1cm) are stalk less, alternate, elliptic, serrate and usually lineolate, velvet-hairy, pointed at both ends, margin entire to toot head. Flowers are sessile, capitates, pale pink, 2-lipped the upper lip is notched, and the lower lip is divided into 3 lobes. The heads terminal or axillary densely crowed at the base of the stem, bracts elliptic, spinesent, bracteolate. Calyx is with 5 lobes hairy and corolla white with brown color or purple spots, didynamous anther two celled and exerted 4 stamens, fruits capsule oblong with seeds. Flowering seasons is January–March1-3. Other species of Lepidagathis are Lepidagathis cuspidate is an erect under shrub, Lepidagathis fasciculate is a softly villous herb, Lepidagathis hamiltoniana is a stiff under shrub, Lepidagathis incurve is a small perennial herb, Lepidagathis mitis is a stiff under shrub, Lepidagathis subramatai is a stiff under shrub4. This medicinal herb has been exploited tremendously by common people in many ways for various curative purposes.


The roots, leaves and inflorescence of this plant are medicinally useful. The roots are used in stomachic and dyspepsia, leaves are used for fevers and the inflorescence ash is used for itchy affections of skin and burns5. Therefore the aim of the present review is to document all relevant formation on Lepidagathis cristata for Medicinal values to treat various disorders scientific evaluation for researchers.



In Bastar region of Chhattisgarh, tribal peoples used leaf extract of L. cristata for malarial and during rainy season leaf extract is used to clean the cattle, and it is also used for skin disorders and wounds haling. Spikes of this plant is used to treat piles is more popular in Chhattisgarh. Root powder of L. cristata is mixed with seed powder of Abrus precatorius and make paste with karanj oil is applied for leucoderma. The root powder is also used as antidysenteric and reduces heat in stomach. Fumes and smoke of flower head and whole plant is used to treat mouth ulcer and epilepsy. Water extract of leaves mixed with tulsi juice in 10:1 ratio is used to cure fever in Andhra Pradesh by Yanadi tribal. The inflorescence ash is mixed with coconut oil is applied to treat inflammation, skin abscess, tumors, and black batches on face. The tuberous flower ash mixed with coconut oil is used to treat burns and wounds. Plant powder mixed with honey and administered two spoonfuls twice a day for twenty days to treat asthma. Whole plant powder is mixed with coconut oil to treat itchy infections and ash of whole plant is boiled with coconut oil and applied for wound healing of pet animals twice a day6-11.



Extract of whole plant material of L. cristata contains Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannins and terpanoids. Cristatin A (6-hydroxyluteolin, 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-apioside) a tryptophan derived alkaloid and cycloartenol, stigmasta-5, 11(12)-dien-3b-ol was found in whole plant extract. Inflorescence of L. cristata, contains oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester. Leaf contains heptadecane, 9- hexyl and ethyl iso-allocholate. Root contains heptadecane, 9- hexyl, octadecane, 3-ethyl-5-(2-ethylbutyl)12-15.



Immunosuppressive activity

Ravikantha et al., 200113 isolate and characterized cristatin A (pale yellow solid, mp 260°C) from L. crisatata whole plant and investigated its immunosuppressive property. L. crisatata whole plant freshly collected, shade-dried, pulverized and defatted with hexane and extracted with ethyl acetate. In immunosuppressive activity, mouse splenic lymphocytes were used. Con A (T-cells) and LPS (B-cells) was used to induce proliferation in mouse splenic lymphocytes. The immunosuppressive activity of cristatin A (IC50) against Con A and LPS induced proliferation was found 1 mg/ml than tardioxopiperzine A (IC50 4.5 and 0.7 mg/ml) and lower than that of standard drug cyclosporin A (IC50 0.06 and 0.10mg/ml).


Antifungal activity:

Maghdu and Palaniyappan, 201414 isolated major bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester from inflorescence of L. cristata and evaluated its antifungal potentials and found highly effective against plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fulcatum NCBT 146, Fusarium oxysporum NCBT 156 and Rhizoctonia solani NCBT 196 as well as for the human pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata MTCC 2030 and Microsporum canis MTCC 2820. The aqueous dried powder extract of L. cristata inflorescence has shown potential antifungal activity against plant pathogenic as well as human pathogenic in dose-dependent manner. The growth of both plant and human pathogenic fungal strains were completely inhibited at 400 and 800mg/L concentration respectively. Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the aqueous extract of inflorescence varied from 4.50mg/mL to 10.50mg/mL for all the strains compared with standard drug bavistin at 100mg/L. on the basis of these results authors concluded that reduction of growth due to the presence of oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester.


Kamaladevi, 201715 also demonstrated antifungal activity of L. cristata of isolated compounds heptadecane 9-hexyl, Ethyl iso-allocholate from leaf and heptadecane, 9-hexyl, octadecane, 3-ethyl-5-(2-ethylbutyl) from root by using GC-MS and found highly effective against pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fulcatum NCBT 146, Fusarium oxysporum NCBT 156 and Rhizoctonia solani NCBT 196 as well as for the human pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata MTCC 2030 and Microsporum canis MTCC 2820.


Anti-inflammatory activity:

Arvinda et al., 201316 reported anti-inflammatory activity of flower extracts of L. cristata. Methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were in investigated carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema as anti-inflammatory agent. In carrageenan-induced edema, methanolic, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed 37%, 50%, and 38.3% protection respectively at 400mg/kg dose after 120 minutes. Methanolic, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts exhibited 29.1%, 40%, and 43.4% inhibition against formalin-induced paw edema at 400mg/kg dose after 120 minutes respectively. Chloroform extract at 400mg/kg dose was found most active extract in carrageenan as well as formalin-induced paw edema suggested anti-inflammatory activity of flower extract of L. cristata.


Microscopical characters:

Bhogaonkar and Lande, 201517 described anatomical features of L. cristata for physical standardization of this plant which are corroborate with the general anatomical features of acanthaceae family such as occurrence of cystoliths both in stem and leaf, presence of inerxylaory phloem, anomalous secondary growth producing intraxylory phloem patches, vessels with simple perforation plate, diacytic stomata and calcium oxalate crystals of various shapes. They also pointed the presence of A, B, and C type of vessels in root and A, and D type in stem. Formation of distinct concentric zones resembling growth rings due to the production of bands of included phloem was found. Formation of paratracheal parenchyma producing a sort of narrow sheath around the vessels also located. Mesophyll homogenous as isobilateral and cystoliths in chain parallel to the midrib and secondary veins, intercostals horizontal to midrib are very useful information was described regarding microscopic standardization of Lepidagathis cristata.


Analgesic activity:

Arvinda and Rao, 2013a18 tested chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol flower extract of L. cristata for analgesic activity using hot plate and Tail Immersion method at 200 and 400mg/kg body weight dose. All extract showed dose-dependent effect and among all the extract ethyl extract exhibited significant 57.1% analgesic activity in both models Arvinda and Rao, 2013b19 studied methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform root extract of L. cristata for Analgesic activity in hot plate and Tail Immersion method at 200 and 400mg/kg body weight dose. Mathanolic root extracts showed significant 55.5% as per see analgesic activity in both screening methods.


Arvinda and Rao, 2013c20 investigated ethanolic, ethyl acetate, and chloroform leaf extracts of L. cristata for analgesic activity in hot plate and Tail Immersion method at 200 and 400mg/kg body weight dose. Among all the extracts chloroform extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant 62.5% analgesic activity in both screening methods.


Antiemetic activity:

Rachapalli et al., 201421 reported antiemetic activity of ethanol extract of L. cristata in anhydrous copper sulphate-induced emesis in chicks. Authors reported dose-dependent antiemetic effect of ethanol extract, maximum effect was found at 200mg/kg dose which was comparable to standard drug metoclopramide (50 mg/kg).


Antipyretic activity:

Deepak et al., 201222 studied antipyretic activity of whole plant extract of L. cristata in Brewer’s yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in Wistar albino rats. They found dose-dependent effect of petroleum ether extract. Significant antipyretic activity of Petroleum ether extract was found at 200mg/kg dose when compared with paracetamol standard drug.


Antidiabetic activity:

Ethanolic leaf extract of L. cristata was used to treat alloxan-induced diabetes in rats for 3 weeks by Srinija et al., 201323. They found dose-dependent effect and at 400 mg/kg dose effect was significant when compared with standard Glibenclamide (5mg/kg).


Wound healing activity:

Abubacker et al., 201624 analyzed wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of L. cristata in Wistar albino rats. Ethanolic extract showed significant reduction in wound area in comparison with control on 4th day and highly significant on 18th day when compared with simple ointment and standard drug nitrofurazone.



Literature revealed that L. cristata is a traditional herbal medicine of Chhattisgarh which is used to treat fever, asthma, and epilepsy, burns, wound and skin diseases like eczema, itching and psoriasis. Only few preliminary pharmacological studies are available on this medicinal plant. Hence, this plant needs more intensive research work to explore its phytochemical and pharmacological aspects for medicinal and therapeutics purpose.



Authors declared none conflict of interest.



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Received on 19.03.2021           Modified on 21.04.2021

Accepted on 30.05.2021         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(6):3430-3432.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00596