Anti-Candida activity of few India Medicinal herbs used in the treatment of Gynecological disorders

 

Shweta Shriwas1*, Raju Chouksey1, Sumeet Dwivedi2

1Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam University, Indore, (M.P.) – India.

2Department of Pharmacognosy, University Institute of Pharmacy, Oriental University, Indore, (M.P.) – India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: herbal0914@rediffmail.com

 

 

ABSTRACT:

Gynecological disorders are very frequent and common among Indian women due to various un-hygienic issues. As per Ayurvedic literature there are several herbs used to cure women disorders, though there proper documentation and validation need to be established. One of the major fungus causing gynecological infection is Candida species. It has increasingly deserved a special attention among the medical community. In spite of the presence of Candida species as a human commensal, alarming rates of local and systemic infections have been observed, varying from moderate to severe impact. The present work aims to investigate the anti-candida activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Roots) ASR, Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Roots) CTR, Ipomea cairica Linn. (Leaves) ICL and Plumeria pudica Jacq. (Leaves) PPL. The results obtained were compared with standard anti-fungal drugs amphotericin B. Further studies need to be establish to deepen knowledge on this area, namely, focused on clinical trials to provide safer and more effective anti-fungal than the current ones.

 

KEYWORDS: Anti-Candida activity, Gynecological disorders, Fungal infection, Herbs.

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

The disease and disorders related to women’s are considered as women disorders or gynecological disorders. According to NICHD i.e., National institute of Child Health and Human development there are five types of major gynecological disorders associated with females, these include vulvodynia, vaginitis, pelvic floor disorders, pelvic pain and menstrual disorders. In India approximately every women suffers from gynecological disorders such as vaginal infection, menstrual troubles or any other associated disease. The percentage is more in rural women than urban women and the reason behind this is the life style, food habit and un-hygienic conditions in rural areas1-2.

 

During past few years plant derived extracts and their isolated phytochemicals are gaining importance and are also a new emerging area of research. In last two decades anti-candida effects in the category of anti-microbial is of great interest. Candida, a fungus is very often associated with the gynecological infections. In fact, Candida species have been implicated in an onset of mild and severe clinical conditions, although it was considered a commensal microorganism of healthy individuals.3-5 The present study was designed to evaluate the 4 Indian medicinal herbs viz., Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Roots) ASR, Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Roots) CTR, Ipomea cairica Linn. (Leaves) ICL and Plumeria pudica Jacq. (Leaves) PPL widely used to treat the gynecological disorders as mentioned in traditional system of medicine.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Selection of plants/plant material:

The herbs viz., Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Roots) ASR, Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Roots) CTR, Ipomea cairica Linn. (Leaves) ICL and Plumeria pudica Jacq. (Leaves) PPL used in the treatment of gynecological disorders were selected based on the traditional claims as mentioned in folk-lore. The above-mentioned herbs are widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gynecological disorders but till date no any systematic investigation has been carried out to study the toxicity profile of these medicinal plants, therefore an attempt was made to study the acute toxicity profile.

 

Collection and authentication of plant/plant material:

The plant material selected for the present investigation viz., Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Roots) ASR, Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Roots) CTR, Ipomea cairica Linn. (Leaves) ICL and Plumeria pudica Jacq. (Leaves) PPL were collected in the months of Dec’ 2016 to Jan, 2017 from various sites of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh and identified and authenticated by Dr. S.N. Dwivedi, Professor and Head, Department of Botany, Janata PG College, A.P.S. University, Rewa, (M.P.) and was deposited in our Laboratory, Voucher specimen No. P/AS-R/1812; P/CT-R/1813; P/IC-L/1814 and P/PP-L/1815.

 

Extraction of Plant material:

250 gm of the air dried coarsely powdered roots of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (ASR), Clitoria ternatea Linn. (CTR), Ipomea cairica Linn. (ICL) and Plumeria pudica Jacq. (PPL) was placed in soxhlet apparatus and was extracted with ethanolic and hydro-alcohol (water: ethanol:70:30) until the extraction was completed. After extraction, the filtrate was evaporated to get the extract.6

 

Anti-fungal (Anti-Candida activity) of extracts7-8:

Fungal strain:

Fungal strain i.e., Candida albicans (ATTC) was obtained from Ennoble Academic Society, Bhopal, (M.P.). was used for the present investigation.

 

Screening of Anti-Candida activity (Disc diffusion method):

Preparation of Disc:

Disc of Whatman filter paper of one quarter inch in diameter was prepared and the same was sterilized using autoclave.

 

Preparation of samples entrapped disc:

The accurately weighed extracts were dissolved in methanol of different stock solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 μg/ml) solutions were prepared. All the dilution prepared was applied to Whatman filter paper disc using a micropipette. The disc were then dried and sterilized.

 

Preparation of culture plate:

The sabouraund’s agar and mueller Hinton agar media were prepared by dissolving media in 1000ml of distilled water and sterilized by autoclave at 121oC for 1 hour. The media were cooled and poured in sterilized petri plate to solidified at room temperature.

 

Collection of fungal strains:

The fungal strains (Candida albicans) were used as obtained from Ennoble Academic Society, Bhopal. The innoculum of strains were transferred to the recultured before staring the lab work.

 

Evaluation of Zone of inhibition:

The re-cultured fungal strains were used for antifungal evaluation. The strains were streak on the Mueller Hinton media and the drug entrapped patches were placed. For negative control disc of distilled water and for positive control amphotericin B disc (10μg) were used. The petri plates were kept in incubator for 24 hrs.  After 24 hrs the petri-plates were checked for zone of inhibition. The zone of inhibition diameter was recorded with the help of zone reader scale. The zone of inhibition was calculated by subtracting diameter of sample or standard or control by diameter of disc. The more the zone of inhibition the more will be antifungal activity.

 

Statistical analysis:

All the reading obtained were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance i.e., ANOVA. Student t-test was used. The values are found to be statistically significant (*P<0.00, **P<0.01). All the values obtained are expressed as mean± standard error means (SEM).

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The investigation of the efficiency of plant extract in induced systemic and local infection model is of quite interesting. There are several mimics that the real conditions of infected organism and at the same time the achievements of the direct effects of the extract. Several scholars have evaluated the effects of plant extracts in systemic infections and in inducted vaginal infection. Plants have various phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids which are responsible for anti-microbial properties. Anti-candida activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Roots) ASR, Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Roots) CTR, Ipomea cairica Linn. (Leaves) ICL and Plumeria pudica Jacq. (Leaves) PPL were evaluated. The zone of inhibition of hydroalcoholic extract on Candida albicans were presented in table 1. Results indicate (Graph 1) that all the selected extracts have significant anti-candida activity when compared with standard drug amphotericin B. From the data obtained it was revealed that hydroalcoholic extract of Ipomea cairica Linn. (Leaves) have maximum activity followed by Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Roots) Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Roots) and Plumeria pudica Jacq. (Leaves).

 

Table 1: Anti-Candida activity of few India medicinal herbs used in the treatment of gynecological disorders

S. No.

Test/Extract

Zone of Inhibition (mm)

1.

Negative Control

4.90±0.21

2.

Positive Control

20.47±0.32**

3.

HAEASR

19.57±0.29**

4.

HAECTR

18.24±0.22*

5.

HAEICL

19.81±0.43**

6.

HAEPPL

15.35±0.46*

Note: All values are expressed as Mean (X) ±SEM, (n=3). One way ANOVA followed by student test, values are statistically significance *P<0.00, **P<0.01 when compared with control and standard.

 

 

Graph 1: Anti-fungal (Anti-Candida activity) of extract

 
CONCLUSION:

From the results obtained it was concluded that the selected herbs (Ipomea cairica Linn. (Leaves), Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Roots) Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Roots) and Plumeria pudica Jacq. (Leaves). and their extract have optimum anti-candida activity and may be used for the treatment of gynecological disorders. Moreover detailed pharmacological screening and clinical approaches need to establish for the formulation of safe and effective drugs.

 
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Received on 10.06.2019            Modified on 04.07.2019

Accepted on 01.08.2019         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(4):2185-2187.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00386