Green Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticle using Capparis decidua fruit extract and its Characterization using Transmission Electron Microscopy And UV- Visible Spectroscopy


B. Madhumitha1, Preetha Santhakumar2*, M. Jeevitha3, S. Rajeshkumar4

1Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences [SIMATS], Saveetha University, Chennai, India.

2Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India.

3Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science [SIMATS], Saveetha University, Chennai India.

4Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences [SIMATS], Saveetha University, Chennai, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:,



Capparis decidua is used in the traditional system of medicine used due to its medicinal properties. Selenium nanoparticle was synthesized in a simple and rapid way by green synthesis method. Selenium nanoparticle was synthesized using aqueous extract of Capparis decidua fruit. The aim of this present study is to synthesize and to analyse the characterization of selenium nanoparticle synthesized using Capparis decidua. Characterization of selenium nanoparticle was done using ultra-visible spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscope [TEM]. Initially, the wavelength obtained for synthesized selenium nanoparticles ranged from 300nm to 600nm. Then TEM was carried out to find the size and shape of the nanoparticle. The selenium nanoparticle was spherical in shape with size of 320nm. The present study concluded that the selenium nanoparticle prepared using Capparis decidua was ecofriendly and may serve and benefit the society because of its rich medicinal property with less side effects if further research is carried out.


KEYWORDS: Capparis decidua, Selenium Nanoparticle, Characterization, Synthesis, UV Spectroscopy, Transmitted Electron Microscopy [TEM].





Selenium is mostly present in the soil, under the rocks and ores. Selenium is one of the trace elements which are essential for variety of functions of selenium dependent enzymes called selenoproteins. It plays an important role in the activity of antioxidant. Selenium is mostly available in the form of selenite [seo32-] and selenate [seo42-], These forms are toxic to human beings so, they are biosynthesized to reduce their toxicity1, the daily uptake of selenium will be 55μ/day; the elimination of selenium from the diet will lead to the immune deficiency, the both organic and inorganic compound has been adequate for anticancer properties, due to their low toxicity and eco-friendly nature2.


Capparis decidua has a great consideration in the nanotechnology, in previous study they were used the gene code i.e Arsenic resistance3, selenium nanoparticle analyzed for the medical applications and it is used for the orthopedic implants4, the most important goal in the previous study is to prove that protein plays the great role, the shape of the selenium should be spherical5.


Nanotechnology means deals with “SMALL PARTICLES” i.e., [atoms, molecules], these technology is used for bringing up something new to the world, to prevent the world from the toxicity6, nanotechnology always deals in research works, this technology simply done the research works with size threshold7, In the present study, Capparis decidua was used to synthesise selenium nanoparticle.


Capparis decidua is a shrub belonging to the family Capparaceae.  It is grown in the northern part of India. In traditional system of medicine, Capparis decidua is used to treat lung disease. Capparis decidua also possesses pharmacological properties such as   anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activity 8. It is also used to treat cough, inflammation, malaria, rheumatics and toothache9. Beta carorene, beta sitosterol, stachydrine, glycosides present in the plant are responsible for its medicinal property.  The aim of this study is to synthesize selenium nanoparticle and to analyze the characterization of synthesized selenium nanoparticles using Capparis decidua fruit extract.



Preparation of extract:

The Capparis decidua fruit powder has been purchased from the herbal health care center. 0.2g of Capparis decidua powder was mixed with the 100ml of distilled water and boiled for 5-10 mins at 60-70 degree Celsius. The solution was filtered by using Whatman filter paper. The filtered solution was collected in the beaker and covered, then kept in 4 degree Celsius for further use.


Synthesis of nanoparticle:

0.519g of sodium selenite is added on the 60ml of distilled water, but the solution was colorless. This 60ml of prepared solution is combined with the 40ml of Capparis decidua fruit extract solution. The solution has been kept on a magnetic stirrer\orbital shaker for nanoparticle synthesis and the color of the solution was recorded visually and taken photographs.


Characterization of nanoparticle:

The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized using Ultra visible spectroscopy. 3ml of the solution was taken on the cuvette. Then, the solution was kept on the double beam UV spectroscopy\spectrometer and the wavelength obtained from the spectroscopy has been ranges from 300nm to 600nm. The result was recorded on the graphical analysis.


Preparation of nanoparticle:

The nanoparticle solution was kept in the centrifuge using lark refrigerated to the centrifuge. The selenium nanoparticle solution was centrifuged at 800rpm for 15 mins and the settled nanoparticle solution was collected in the centrifuge tube and the solution was collected on the pellet, then kept it on the hot air oven for 1 day to dry the solution and the selenium nanoparticle powder was collected and stored in airtight Eppendorf tube.


These powders were tested for Transmitted electron microscope [TEM] to analyze the morphological characters. The size and shape of the nanoparticle was technically analyzed.


Figure 1: This figure shows the Capparis decidua powder and solution form.


Figure 2: This figure shows the selenium nanoparticle powder and solution.



The exposure of fruit extract of Capparis decidua to the selenium nano particle, the color change was visually and photographically recorded, the complete reduction has been absorbed clearly, the color changes was from light yellow to dark yellow during the incubation period, this was happened due to the selenium nanoparticle synthesized (fig 3). The 320nm was proved by the UV spectroscopy method; this confirms the formation of selenium nanoparticle by the addition of fruit extract (fig 4).


UV Visible Spectroscopy:

The wavelength of the synthesized selenium nanoparticle during the addition of fruit extract has been recorded by spectra and the wavelength ranges between 300nm to 600nm (fig 4). When the color changes of the solution were turned into dark yellow has proved the synthesis of selenium nanoparticle and the straight, good visible peak has been confirmed the synthesis of selenium nanoparticle. In the UV Spectroscopy, a single, pointed peak at 320nm was observed and that finalized the synthesis of selenium nanoparticle (fig 4).


Figure 3: This figure shows the colour changes of biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles.


Figure 4: This figure shows the ultraviolet visible spectrometry. X axis represents the wavelength in (nm) and Y axis represents the absorbance.


Figure 5: This figure shows the Transmission Electron Microscopy picture of Selenium nanoparticles.


The formation of selenium nanoparticles due to the addition of fruit extract had changed the color from light yellow to dark yellow and maximum peak value is 320nm. Then the formation of silver nanoparticle using the plant leaf extract, the peak was absorbed by using spectra and the wavelength was at 420nm. This was due to the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles because of the addition of leaf extract11. Thus the study has analyzed the bio reduction of selenium ions reduced its toxicity and gave a unharmful result. The SPR peak value was observed as 320nm and the color change was observed by the spectra confirming the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles. The UV Spectroscopy took 24hours for the exact peak observation.


The transmitted electron microscope [TEM] result showed the shape of selenium nanoparticles was spherical with the size 5-25nm, this confirms that selenium nanoparticles were synthesized under the exact circumstances.  The selenium nanoparticles synthesized using different plant extracts are used in many biomedical applications12-16. The natural edible plant Capparis decidua having rich medicinal property would be an ecofriendly use for the synthesis of selenium nanoparticle17-22. The present study suggest the use of selenium particle using Capparis decidua extract because of eco friendly nature, less toxicity, rich medicinal property of selenium and Capparis decidua



The present study showed that Capparis decidua was efficient for the synthesis of selenium nano particle and the synthesized selenium nanoparticle at room temperature were stable and formation of selenium nanoparticle was confirmed by UV visible spectroscopy. The size and shape was clearly identified using transmitted electron microscope (TEM).


In the present study, green synthesized selenium nano particle with eco-friendly nature would be useful for application in medical industry in future.



1.     Nazanin seyed khoei, Silvia Lampis, Emanuele Zonaro, Kim yrijiala, paolo Bernardi, Giovanni vallini. Insight into selenite reduction and biogenesis of elemental selenium nanoparticle by two environmental isolates of Burkholderia fungorum. New Biotechnology. 2017; 34.

2.     Meenal kowshik, pallavee srivastava. Anti-plastic selenium nanoparticle from Idiomarina. Enzyme and microbial technology. 2016; 95; 192-200.

3.     Pallavee srivastava, Judith M Bragance, Meenal kowshik. In vivo synthesis of selenium nanoparticle by Halococcus salifodinae BK 18 and their anti-proliferative properties against Hela cell line. American institute of chemical engineers. 2014; 1-8.

4.     Hegerova dagmar, cihalova kristyna, kopel pavel, ADAM Vojtech, KIZEK Rene. selenium nanoparticle and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity on bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens. Nanocon. 2015; Oct14 – 16.

5.     J Dobias, E I suvorova and r bernier latmani. Role of proteins in controlling selenium nanoparticle size. IOP publishing nanotechnology. 2011; 22.

6.     Buzea C, pacheco, robbie K. Nano material and nanoparticle sources and toxicity. Bio interphases. 2007; 2(4).K

7.     Shinn E. Nuclear energy conversation with stacks of graphene nanocapacitors. Complexity. 2012; 18(3).

8.     SA Ali, TH Al amin, AH Mohamed, AA Gameel. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and methanolic extract of Capparis decidua stem against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. Journal of pharmacology and toxicology. 2009; 4(4); 167-172.

9.     Muhammad zia ul hag, sanja cavar, mughal rayum, imran imran, vincenzo de feo. Composition of antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of Capparis decidua. International journal of molecular sciences. 2011; 12; 1-16.

10.  Pradeep singh, garima mishra, sangeeta,shruti srivastava, K K Jha, R L Khosa. Traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Capparis decidua. Scholars research libraray. 2011; 3(2); 71-82.

11.  Debarun david das adhikari, S Rajeshkumar, T Lakshmi anitha roy. Characterization of sliver nanoparticle using avacoda extract using ultra visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Drive invention today. 2019; 11(1); 38-40.

12.  Menon, S., Agarwal, H., Rajeshkumar, S. et al. Investigating the Antimicrobial Activities of the Biosynthesized Selenium Nanoparticles and Its Statistical Analysis. BioNanoSci. 2020; DOI:10.1007/s12668-019-00710-3.

13.  Menon, Soumya, Shrudhi Devi KS, R. Santhiya, S. Rajeshkumar, and Venkat Kumar. "Selenium nanoparticles: A potent chemotherapeutic agent and an elucidation of its mechanism." Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 170; 2018; 280-292

14.  Menon S, Agarwal H, Kumar SV, Rajeshkumar S. Biomemetic synthesis of selenium nanoparticles and its biomedical applications. InGreen Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Nanoparticles. Elsevier. 2019 Jan 1; (pp. 165-197).

15.  Rajeshkumar S, Veena P, Santhiyaa RV. Synthesis and Characterization of Selenium Nanoparticles Using Natural Resources and Its Applications. InExploring the Realms of Nature for Nanosynthesis. Springer, Cham. 2018; (pp. 63-79).

16.  Rajeshkumar S, Ganesh L, Santhoshkumar J. Selenium Nanoparticles as Therapeutic Agents in Neurodegenerative Diseases. In Nanobiotechnology in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Springer, Cham. 2019 (pp. 209-224).

17.  Preetha S, Roy A, Ganesh MK, Selvaraj J, Rajkumar D. Ethanolic Extract of Capparis decidua Fruit Ameliorates Methotrexate-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Activating Nrf2/HO-1 and PPARү Mediated Pathways. Indian J of Pharmaceutical Education and Research. 2021;55(1s):s265-s274.

18.  Janani K, Preetha S, Jeevitha, and Rajeshkumar S. (2020). Green synthesis of Selenium nanoparticles using Capparis decidua and its anti-inflammatory activity. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(4), 6211-6215.

19.  Lakshme PT, Preetha S, Jeevitha M, Rajeshkumar S. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effect of Selenium Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Capparis decidua. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 2020 Aug 26:60-6.

20.  Monesh JD, Preetha S, Dinesh, Selenium Nanoparticles and Its Application, Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 3, 2021, 5964 – 5974

21.  Ali SJ, Preetha S, Jeevitha M. et al. Antifungal activity of selenium nanoparticles extracted from capparis decidua fruit against candida albicans. Evolution Med Dent Sci 2020;9(34):2452-2455, DOI: 10.14260/jemds/2020/533

22.  Chockalingam S, Preetha S, Jeevitha M, et al Antibacterial effects of Capparis decidua fruit mediated selenium nanoparticles. J Evolution Med Dent Sci 2020;9(40):2947-2950, DOI: 10.14260/jemds/2020/646






Received on 24.04.2020            Modified on 17.06.2020

Accepted on 01.08.2020         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(4):2129-2132.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00377