Evaluation the efficacy of Insecticides Spinosad and Imidacloprid in olive trees infested by termite Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) (Isoptera: Termitidae)

 

Zaid Raad Abbas, Zaid Naji Hassan, Maan Abdul Azeez Shafeeq

Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: maanalsalihi@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

 

ABSTRACT:

Termites reason deep commercial fatalities international. Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) reasons marvelous indemnities to timber effort in the constructions and woodland plants. Diverse kinds of fly spray have been utilized to dominate this underground termite. In the present research, efficacy of imidacloprid and Spinosad against Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) was studied. The results showed that the direct spray of different concentration (200, 400 and 600 ppm) for both Spinosad and imidacloprid on the stems of Olive trees and soil surrounding a diameter of 20 cm was high impactive in termite infestation reduction which decreasing the tunnels length and the quantity of workforces gradually and absence the termite infestation after the time. The duration of absence of termite infestation refinish on concentrations of the both termiticides. It is noted in concentrations 200 and 400 ppm for the pesticide imidacloprid, the infestation was continuous during the year and the termite infestation did not stop, as for the concentration of 600 ppm, it prevented the infestation for a period of 3 months, and then the infestation resumed in the months of April, May and June, after which the infestation was stopped. As for the pesticide Spinosad at all its concentrations, it prevented the infestation with different periods, the best and most efficient, the concentration of 600 ppm, the infestation was prevented after two months of spraying, and the infestation continued for all concentrations until the assumption of the investigate period, besides the impact of spinosad reduced and prevent the quantity of workforces visiting the stem of Olive trees gradually till the infestation was absence.

 

KEYWORDS: Microcerotermes diversus, Imidacloprid, Spinosad, worker, Tunnel, Olive tree

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Through current ages a general investigation on the seeking actions of the greatest destructive underground termites of Baghdad domain (Iraq) has been assumed through a interpretation to the growth of proper approaches for regulator. Present organization of underground termites in Iraq mostly includes the implementation of a loam termiticide to decrease/ separate their scavenging inhabitants1. Organochlorine termiticides are immobile operated in Iraq to regulator underground termites. Those composites have unwanted conservational impacts.

 

Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is an enormously damaging constitutional trees annoyance, and is measured to be the main types through a varied spreading in Iraq and Oman2. Attraction arrangements can eradicate complete collections of underground termites3,4. Approaches for the regulator of termites together with organic regulator, attracting arrangement and timber defense, have barely been explored systematically in Iraq. Termites ability have disturbing impacts on cultivation, civil remodeling for example plants, and humanoid occupations5. Unfortunately, the timber utilized in constructions is the taste for termites and excites there to be involved to inhabited and profitable constructions6. Those prosecutions take tested the impactiveness of imidacloprid- remedy -muds by experience to extra than 20 types of termites, with Allodontermes, Amitermes, Coptotermes, Heterotermes, Macrotermes, Mastotermes, Microcerotermes, Microtermes, Nasutitermes, Reticulitermes, and Schedorhinotermes. Imidacloprid, take mainly substituted pyrethroids and organophosphate termiticides by way of the vigorous elements of optimal in termite loam handlings7. Single suggestion suggests that termites resolve remain to fodder obsessed by handlings of sluggish-substitute, no nauseating termiticide, subsequent in exclusion of termite inhabitants in extents together to the actions8. Single that deliberate-substitute, non-expeller termiticide is the novel cohort neonicotinoid imidacloprid9. Imidacloprid, a nicotine similarity, is a pest exact agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine sense organ that seems to be non-expeller to termites10,11. Spinosad (Dow Agrosciences) is a neurotoxicity termiticide generated via fermentation of an actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa Mertz andYao. Spinosad is confidential following an ecologically besides toxicologically condensed danger substantial too takes been comprised via IPM practitioner in place of a biological basis termiticide. However, our outcomes recommend that ground submissions of imidacloprid and Spinosad take powerful collection-equal impacts on Microcerotermes diversus foremost to collection destruction and potential collection removal in greatest belongings.

 

The Materials and Procedures in this research:

24 olive trees with severe termite infestation were selected in an orchard in Jadriya. Three trees were utilized for each treatment, representing three replications, as the treatments included the concentrations of each termiticide which included concentrations 200, 400 and 600 ppm for the termiticide imidacloprid (Premise® 75 WP, 75% a.i., Bayer, Leverkutilizen, Germany) and spinosad (240 SC) for the two termiticides., and the control treatment is treated with distilled water for every concentration. Treatments were distributed randomly on trees and flagged trees with red paint, as well as placing cards registered with the treatment quantity and replicate quantity, the quantity of employees who were found in a 20 cm long tunnel was recorded, for each tree before performing different treatments12.

 

A single small 2-liter sprayer was utilized for each treatment, where the tree trunk was sprayed from the soil surface to the branching area by approximately 1.5-2 meters from soil surface, the tunnels on tree stems were completely covered, the surrounding soil is sprinkled around the trees with a radius of 20 meters around the tree trunk, each tree was treated with 600 ml of treatment solution13. The examination was carried out monthly and the presence of an injury (building a tunnel) or not, And the existence of employees or not, and the quantity of employees inside the tunnels when they are present, the research lasted for a full year, starting from July 2018 until July 2019.

 

Statistical analysis of the data:

The field experiments were designed by adopting the randomized complete sector design (RCBD), and using the smallest significant difference criterion at the 0.05 level to compare the results, The Statistical Analysis System- SAS14 program was utilized to detect the impact of difference factors in research parameters. Least significant difference – LSD test was utilized to significant compare between means in this research.


 

Table 1: shows the impact of the different concentrations of the insecticides imidacloprid and spinosad on the length of the tunnels on olive trees for a full year

Treatments (Conc.)

Tunnels lengths (cm) / Months

Before treatment

August

2018

September

2018

October

2018

November

2018

December

2018

Imidacloprid concentration 200 ppm

115

105.3

100

92

80

15

Imidacloprid concentration 400 ppm

105

100

91

80

69

10

Imidacloprid concentration 600 ppm

98

97

90

80

57

5

Spinosad concentration 200 ppm

80

75

66

40

15

0

Spinosad concentration 400 ppm

90

60

43

20

0

0

Spinosad concentration 600 ppm

85

30

10

0

0

0

Control treatment

95

97

96

80

70

25

LSD value

8.63 *

7.97 *

7.37 *

7.89 *

6.02 *

4.88 *

 

Table 1: Continued

Tunnels lengths (cm) / Months

LSD value

January

2019

February

2019

March

2019

April

2019

May

2019

Jun

2019

July

2019

August

2019

 

5

0

3

2

5

7

8

8

11.53 *

5

0

2

2

4

5

7

7

11.75 *

0

0

0

1

1

2

0

0

9.48 *

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8.61 *

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

9.07 *

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7.93 *

10

2

8

25

40

59

75

86

9.64 *

5.41 *

2.00 NS

4.72 *

5.84 *

7.05 *

7.79 *

7.31 *

8.61 *

---

* (P≤0.05).

 

Table 2: shows the impact of the different concentrations of the insecticides imidacloprid and spinosad on the quantity of employees on olive trees for a full year

Treatments (Conc.)

The quantity of employees in the tunnel / Months

Before treatment

August

2018

September

2018

October

2018

November

2018

December

2018

Imidacloprid concentration 200 ppm

38

33

25

20

12

4

Imidacloprid concentration 400 ppm

42

40

33

22

13

2

Imidacloprid concentration 600 ppm

35

30

20

15

9

1

Spinosad concentration 200 ppm

37

33

20

14

8

0

Spinosad concentration 400 ppm

30

22

12

5

0

0

Spinosad concentration 600 ppm

33

15

5

0

0

0

Control treatment

37

40

38

30

25

15

LSD value

6.59 *

7.84 *

6.77 *

5.82 *

5.91 *

5.63 *

 

Table 2: Continued

The quantity of employees in the tunnel / Months

LSD value

January

2019

February

2019

March

2019

April

2019

May

2019

Jun

2019

July

2019

August

2019

 

2

0

2

2

4

5

5

5

7.52 *

2

0

2

2

5

5

5

3

7.66 *

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

6.94 *

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7.08 *

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6.22 *

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5.97 *

5

1

3

20

50

60

76

70

6.48 *

4.50 *

1.00 NS

3.00 NS

5.72 *

7.44 *

7.59 *

8.91 *

8.63 *

---

* (P≤0.05).

 


THE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

In the current research we assessed the poisonousness of binary termiticides having original methods of achievement counter to Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri). It is noted from Table (1 and 2) the high length of the tunnels along with the high quantity of employees in olive trees before treatment with different concentrations of the termiticides imidacloprid and spinosad, when starting to treat olive trees with termiticides in July, and when examining the trees began in August, we notice the beginning of a lowering in the length of tunnels and the quantity of employees. The decrease in imidacloprid at an attentiveness of 200 ppm was gradual in August, September, October and November. Then it decreases dramatically as an outcome of two factors, the first factor is the entry of winter, which leads to a decrease in termite insect activity, and the second factor is the impact of the termiticide, this happens in the months of December, January and February. At an attentiveness of 400 ppm for the termiticide imidacloprid, its impact is approximately the same as that of a concentration of 200 ppm. And upon noticing the trees infested with termites and treated with the termiticide imidacloprid at a concentration of 600 ppm, the decrease for both the length of the tunnels and the number of employees at this concentration is approximately the same for the 200 and 400 ppm concentrations, until the month of December, In the months of January, February and March, the number of labors were zero, resulting in the distance of the tunnels also being zero. The quantity of employees upsurged very little, and it can be neglected in the months of April, May and June, after that, the quantity of employees decreased and reached zero in July and August. Imidacloprid toxicity was a slow in impact than other termiticides and termite Microcerotermes diversus can transfer this termiticide from donor to recipient by contact or by grooming or trophallaxis and this transfer may be taking long time. After treatment of the donor and recipient termite, it was observed that the change of the termite social behaviour (feeding, movement, grooming, walking and trophallaxis) was taken a longer time in recipient than donor termite. This is may be due to the recipient termite were exposed indirectly to the termiticides, thus the change in social behavior took a long time to occur specially with low concentration. accordance with15. This research indicates that imidacloprid are slow-acting and non-repellent to M. diversus, being a neonicotinoid termiticide, would also affect the foraging activity of employees in the field, resulting in an inability of sufficient employees to return back to the colony for straight transmission of this termiticide to other employees. Imidacloprid, has also been reported to reduce feeding intensity in higher termites, the binding sites of neonicotinoids to nicotinic acetylcholine sense organ (nAChRs)16. Imidacloprid has been found to be slow-acting and non-repellent to various termite species across the globe10,16,17. Although it may appear to be suitable for baiting on the basis of those assessments, imidacloprid has been described to reason a cessation of termite eating on attractions, trophallaxis and mutual grooming18,19. This is for imidacloprid has been described to reason negligible poisonousness when directed over serious cutaneous and breath ways as associated to uttered management20. Several other studies have reported disorderly and erratic movement of employees after exposure to this chemical10,21,22. In other studies, employees became immobile or showed decreased movement when exposed to even small quantities of imidacloprid17,23. However, it could be an impactive soil treatment and provide residual control for 5-10 years against a wide range of termite species24. It is noticeable in the treatment of control that the distance of the tunnels decreased as the number of workforces decreased, but the decrease was slight and gradually matched with the progression of the months and the decrease in temperature, with this, the quantity of labors also gradually upsurged when the temperature augmented in the month of April/2019. Olive trees infected with termites that were treated with the termiticide Spinosad at an attentiveness of 200 ppm, the quantity of employees visiting the trees decreased, which resulted in a lowering in the distance of the tunnels that they made, for the months August, September October and November. This decrease is produced by two factors, first the decrease in temperature and the lack of activity of the insect, and the second impact of the termiticide, But when compare this decrease with the decreases resulting from the impact of imidacloprid for the same period, it becomes clear that the impact of Spinosad was clearly more than the impact of lower temperatures and its impact was better than the impact of Imidacloprid even at a high concentration of 600 ppm. By December, the quantity of employees decreased dramatically, until it reached zero, this quantity of employees, which is zero, continued during the following months until the finish of the experiment in August. As for treating the trees with Spinosad at a concentration of 400 ppm, its impact was more impactive than that of 200 ppm, where it is noticed from the table that the quantity of employees reached zero after 3 months of treatment, that is, in November, the employees continued not to appear and be active and disappeared completely in the trees until August of 2019. It is clearly noticed the impact of the high concentration 600 ppm of the termiticide Spinosad on the records of labors and then on the lengths of tunnels created by the employees, this led to a sharp drop in the quantity of employees in August and September, after the treatment of spraying trees with termiticides. Then the employees disappeared permanently and reached zero starting from October and for all subsequent months until the finish of the research in August 2019, and to confirm that the employees do not appear, is the absence of tunnels on the treatment trees that are formed by the employees. Regarding the treatment of control, the quantity of employees fluctuated up and down according to the seasons of the year, and the difference in temperatures according to the seasons, which changed according to the insect's activity in building tunnels on the branches of the tree, It is noted that the quantity of worker was high in the trees at the beginning of the research in August, and then gradually began to decrease when the temperatures decreased Starting from December until February, After that, the quantity of employees began to rise from the month of March until the finish of the experiment, After that, the quantity of employees began to rise from the month of March with the rise in temperature, which leads to an upsurge in the activity of the insect, which reasons an upsurge in the construction of tunnels, as at the beginning of the research in the month of July until the finish of the experiment. It is evident from this research that the impact of the termiticide Spinosad in all its concentrations, especially the high concentration of 600 ppm, had a clear and high impact on the termite insect in terms of the quantity of employees and the distances of the tunnels. Spinosyns are a significant cluster of termiticides impactive in the regulator of frugally vital bothers in arena besides in upright-yield regulator. The inclusive submission of those active agent constituents is accredited to their discriminatory and exceptional method of achievement that occasionally brands their utilize as the solitary alternative to added termiticides25. The flexibility in submission is resolute via equally exchange and incorporation that varieties it effectual contrary to plentiful bothers in the commands of Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, besides others26,27. Spinosad is impactive against insects either by dermal contact or feeding or both routes of entry26. Spinosad does not have an impact on binding sites in which other termiticides act. Thus, it has an original method of action28. It acts primarily on the binding site of nicotinic acetylcholine sense organ (nAChRs) and secondarily as Gama amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter agonist30.

 

The outcomes gotten in the attract-besides-killing procedures, in which spinosyns are tempted through diverse attractants, permit the utilize of small quantities of the termiticides through a upright usefulness. Spinosyn are categorized via a extensive band of achievement, then they are similarly categorized by a small venomousness for ordinary opponents, expressly hunters. Spinosad exhibits satisfactory security shape through small mammalian poisonousness, little poisonousness to greatest non-goal creatures and quick dilapidation in numerous environmental matrices29. It is careful a normal produce and therefore permitted for utilize in living cultivation by plentiful nationwide and global guarantee forms30,31. It was evident from this research that Spinosad at a low concentration of 200 ppm was more efficient than Imidacloprid, even at high concentration 600 ppm, In this concentration of Imidacloprid there was a rapid decrease in the quantity of employees and reached zero, but a quantity of employees were returned in the months of April, May and June, and this confirms the presence of individuals of M. diversus and they need time to recover their activity. However, in all concentrations of Spinosad, when the quantity of employees reached zero, their quantity did not upsurge, even in small quantity, and continued until the finish of the research at zero. This is definite evidence that the impact of Spinosad, even at a low concentration, was more efficient and impactive than Imidacloprid with its high concentration in killing and reducing the elimination of M. diversus infestation.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

The outcomes after this research displayed that the influence of land -practical termiticides on an overhead- land M. diversus inhabitants is reliant on the sort and attentiveness of the termiticides. Spinosyns are a significant assembly of pesticides impactive in the regulator of frugally significant bothers in arena in addition in upright-yield regulator. The varied claim of these active agent components is accredited to their discriminatory and exclusive manner of achievement that occasionally types their utilize as the one substitute to extra insecticides. Spinosad was more impactive in finishing the termite infestation and preventing the return of the infestation in all its concentrations, it was more impactive than the highest concentration of imidacloprid. Spinosyns measured a normal creation and therefore accepted for utilize in living cultivation by many countrywide and global guarantee forms.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

The authors would like to thank Mustansiriyah University (www.uomustansiriyah.edu.iq) Baghdad-Iraq for its support in the present work.

 

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Received on 19.02.2021            Modified on 07.03.2021

Accepted on 20.03.2021           © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2021; 14(11):6073-6077.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01055