Development of Poly Herbal Mosquito Repellent

 

Deepak Kumar Gupta*, Revathi A. Gupta

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam University, Indore Bypass Road, Arandia Village,

Post Jhalaria, Indore, (Madhya Pradesh) – 452016.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: deepak_gupta20072008@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

In order to obtain safe and effective herbal mosquito repellent formulations by combining selected plant materials, the present study was conducted to establish the mosquito repellent efficacy of some selected plant materials. Essential oils of Origanum majorana (Marua/Marwa), Tanacetum cinerarifolium (Pyrethrum), Juniperus communis (Aiteal), Scented geranium (Pelargonium), Thuja occidentalis L. (Arbor Vitae, White Cedor/Yellow Cedor), Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. Ex Kunth (Piliya/ Pila Kaner/ Yellow Bells, Artenmisia arborescent (Worm Wood/Mugworts, and Calamintha acinos (Thyme Basil) were Purchased from a reliable source. Essential oil containing ethanol solutions was prepared by 10 percent (V/V percent) of each essential oil plant and testing of mosquito repellent behavior was performed using arm-in-cage process. Volunteer's forearm, rubbed with 1ml of the test solution, was exposed to the cage where 25 blood-seeking mosquitoes were put and the amount of mosquitoes aligning or biting the arm in each minute was registered for five minutes each. Three replicates were performed for each essential oil that contained ethanol solutions. A 16 percent (V/V percent) mosquito repellent formulation after analyzing the mosquito repellent activity of individual essential oils. Outdoor and indoor field trials were performed around 5p.m. And 10:00p.m. After two days the mosquito repellent formulation is applied to the volunteer legs. This formulation demonstrated 100 percent repellence of mosquitoes in outdoor and indoor field studies that were performed for 5 hours each day for two days. The gel showed 97 percent mosquito repellence in outdoor and indoor field trials that were conducted for two days for six hours each day.

 

KEYWORDS: Mosquito repellent activity, Essential oil.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Mosquito bites can send an unpleasant feeling to human beings and can spread vector disease such as dengue or malaria. In order to develop their larvae, mosquitoes are drawn to human blood containing antigen, biting human to another human and thus transferring the vector disease to humans. The Aedes mosquitoes species is responsible for spreading the dengue virus throughout the world, with billions of people suffering from the disease and reported deaths.[1-2]  Mosquito will spread malaria to more than 700million people worldwide each year, including 2 children per minute, 3 million of whom cost malaria a lifetime. About 90 per cent of mortality due to it is faced by children and young children.

 

Control of mosquitoes and personal protection from mosquito bites are at present the most important measure to control this disease. Preventing this kind of disease involves protecting yourself against mosquito bites. The required repellent for mosquitoes must be used to prevent disease. Scientists around the globe are trying to create a safe and effective vaccine against malaria. But there is still no approved malaria vaccine available for human use. Prevention often means keeping mosquitoes away in countries where malaria is widespread. The current research will highlight the preventive approach to malaria in light of the severity of malaria. Different herbal sources of mosquito repellent activities have been reported in various traditional systems, such as Ayurveda.[3-4]

 

Synthetic mosquito repellent used to monitor mosquitoes does permanent damage to the environment and chemicals are therefore naturally non-degradable. To address the issue, effective non-DEET alternatives need to be developed and repellent prepared using biologically degradable mosquito repellent.[5] Natural mosquito repellent base is the perfect alternative to the synthetic chemical mosquito repellent DEET base. Natural Mosquito repellents are cost-effective, environmentally safe, and biodegradable.[6] Natural mosquito repellents prepared from aromatic leaves or essential oils In the cake formulation, few of these herbal sources have been described and produced in. Formulation was tested for appearance, efficacy and health. Assessment data showed the formulation was efficient and safe.[7-8]

 

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:

Considering that most of the mosquito repellent products and devices on the market have documented adverse effects on humans, the purpose of this study is to establish effective plant-based mosquito repellent products.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The selection of plants was based on the analysis of the numerous literatures and its availability of essential oils, scientific evidence and folkloric use as mosquito repellents.

 

Essential oils of Origanum majorana (Marua/Marwa), Tanacetum cinerarifolium (Pyrethrum), Juniperus communis (Aiteal), Scented geranium (Pelargonium), Thuja occidentalis L. (Arbor Vitae, White Cedor/Yellow Cedor), Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. Ex Kunth (Piliya/Pila Kaner/Yellow Bells, Artenmisia arborescent (Worm Wood/Mugworts, and Calamintha acinos (Thyme Basil) were Purchased from a reliable source.

PREPARATION OF THE TEST SOLUTIONS:

10 percent (v/v percent) of plant essential oil containing ethanol solutions is prepared using each plant essential oil. For each essential oil three drops of Tween 80 were combined with 0.3ml. Up to 3ml of volume was added to ethanol then. To prepare the test solution, ethanol was added to 3 drops of Tween 80 until the quantity was 3 ml.

 

TESTING THE MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS USING ARM-IN-CAGE METHOD:

Between 7 p.m. the mosquitoes used in this experiment were caught and 10:00 p.m. Use a net while people bite. Mosquitoes were hungry for 24 hours, and 20 mosquitoes were placed in the cage (45×15×30cm). Timetable for research was between 7 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. As the mosquitoes typically strike in the night. The mosquitoes' host-seeking activity was checked in advance of the experiment. This was done by placing a pre-cleaned hand in the cage and counting the number of mosquitoes which aligned within 10 seconds. If at least 5 mosquitoes were aligned on the hand, the mosquitoes inside the cage were deemed host-seeking and the repellence experiment continued.

 

Volunteer's forearm rubbed with 1 ml of the test solution was exposed to the cage, and the number of mosquitoes in each minute that aligned or bit the arm was recorded for 5 min. Mosquitoes were given an interval of over one hour, and the above protocol was followed for each of the other essential oils.


 

 

Fig. 1 The illustration of cage test

 

Fig.2 The arm-in-cage (AIC) test for measuring the efficacy of topical mosquito repellents under laboratory conditions


 

PREPARATION OF THE MOSQUITO REPELLENT GEL:

The gel was prepared by combining the constituents in Table 1 taking into account the experimental results obtained using arm-in-cage method and the appropriate amounts of the extracts and essential oils. In the gel, the total active ingredients were 16 per cent (V / V per cent). Distilled water was added to the mix until the final volume was 400.00 ml, and all materials were mixed for one hour using the mechanical stirrer. The mixture was eventually poured into plastic containers, and the gel was allowed to be set.

 

BIO-EFFICACY TESTING OF THE TWO-WINGED INSECTS REPELLENT GEL:

The Laboratory performed bio-efficacy studies of two-winged insects repellent gel.  Outside and indoor field trials were performed from five am to eleven am in 2 days by applying the two-winged insects repellent gel individually on the legs of volunteers. For this experiment untreated legs of another volunteer are used as management.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

proportion the two-winged insects repellency for plant extract/essential oil shown in Table was calculated as below,

 

Percentage two-winged insects repellency = C-N/C×100

 

Where, C= Variety of mosquitoes aligned/left and aligned/bit once the solvent was used; N= Variety of mosquitoes aligned/left and aligned/bit once the extract or the volatile oil was used


 

 

Table 1: Mean values of the two-winged insects aligned/left and aligned/bit for plant essential oils and mosquito repellency (Percentages) of plant essential oils

Essential Oils

Replicate one

Total Number of Mosquitoes Aligned/Left and Aligned/Bit

Replicate two

Total Number of Mosquitoes Aligned/Left and Aligned/Bit

Replicate three

Total Number of Mosquitoes Aligned/Left and Aligned/Bit

Calculated Mean of Mosquitoes Aligned/Left and Aligned/Bit

Percentage Mosquito Repellency (%)

Origanum majorana 10 % (V/V %)

0

1

0

0.33

97.94

Pyrethrum 10 % (V/V %)

4

2

3

3.00

81.25

Juniperus communis 10 % (V/V %)

2

3

0

1.67

89.56

Scented geranium 10 % (V/V %)

3

1

3

2.33

85.44

Thuja occidentalis L 10 % (V/V %)

0

0

0

0.00

100

Tecoma stans 10 % (V/V %)

1

2

0

1.00

93.75

Artenmisia arborescent 10 % (V/V %)

0

0

0

0.00

100

Calamintha acinos 10 % (V/V %)

1

0

1

0.67

95.81

Solvent (Ethanol and Tween 80)

18

14

16

16.00

0.00

 

 

Analysis was meted out as a triplicate and mosquito repellent activities were found to be in the order: Thuja occidentalis L. and Artenmisia arborescent (100%)> Origanum majorana (97.94%)> Tecoma stans (93.75%)> Calamintha acinos (95.81%)> Juniperus communis (89.56)> Scented geranium (85.44%)> Pyrethrum (81.25%).

 

 

Table 2: The Constituents within the two-winged insects Repellent Gel.

Constituents

Quantity

T. occidentalis L Essential oil

10.00 ml

Artenmisia arborescent Essential oil

10.00 ml

Origanum majorana Essential oil

3.00 ml

Calamintha acinos Essential oil

7.00 ml

Tecoma stans Essential oil

6.00 ml

Juniperus communis Essential oil

4.00 ml

Scented geranium Essential oil

12.00 ml

Pyrethrum Essential oil

12.00 ml

Constituents

Quantity

Hexane

6.00 ml

Ethanol

5.00 ml

Carbapol

5.00 gm

Propylene glycol

20.00 ml

Methylene paraben

0.50gm

Tween 80

6.00 ml

Triethanol amine

Few drops

Distilled water

293.50 ml

 

Table 3: Bio-efficacy Test Results of the Mosquito Repellent Gel.

 

Day 1

Day 2

Time

Indoor

Outdoor

Indoor

Outdoor

Control

Gel

Control

Gel

Control

Gel

Control

Gel

5- 6 am

04

0

05

0

02

0

04

0

6- 7 am

15

0

08

0

10

0

09

0

7- 8 am

18

0

15

1

14

0

16

0

8-9 am

13

0

14

0

15

0

17

0

9- 10 am

07

0

08

0

09

0

11

1

10 -11 am

04

0

03

1

05

0

08

0

 


Many researchers have shown that essential plant oils are a lot of economical in repellent than extracts from plants. All the essential oils are extremely volatile, however, and this contributes as two-winged insects repellents to their poor longevity. No skin irritations or rashes with herbs, essential oils.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

Compared to plant extracts, plant volatile oils had higher two-winged insects repellent activity per survey and analysis we have a tendency to are exploitation eight varieties of essential oil to check two-winged insects repellent activity then check was conducted as a triplicate and two-winged insects repellent activity was found to be in order: Thuja occidentalis L. and Artenmisia arborescent (100%) > Origanum majorana (97.94%)> Tecoma stans (93.75%)> Calamintha acinos (95.81%)> Juniperus communis (89.56)> Scented geranium (85.44%)> Pyrethrum(81.25%).

 

The mosquito repellent gel, containing 16 percent (V / V percent) of total active ingredients each, showed 97 percent mosquito repellence in outside and indoor field trials that were conducted for 2 days for 6 hours each day.

 

REFERENCES:

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2.      Jaiswal P, Srinivasan S, Mehta V K, Banerjee A, Acharya I. Malaria on the move: Ecological Issues for the Armed Force. MAFI 2007; 63:112-114.

3.      Adeniran O. I. and F.E. A cream formulation of an efficient two-winged insects repellent: a topical product from lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus) Stapf. Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resource. 2012; 2(2):322-327.

4.      Sharma S., Jadon U.A Review on low value seasoner two-winged insects repellent from Begunia Leaf, IJARPB.2011; 1(1):17-21.

5.      Solomon B, Sahle F.F, Gebre-Mariam T, Asres K, Neubett R.H. Microencapsulation of citronella oil for mosquito-repellent application: Formulation and in vitro permeation studies, European Journal of Medicine and Biopharmaceutics.2012; 80(1):61-66.

6.      Adia M.M., Anywar G., Byamukama R., Mugisha M. K., Sekegya Y., Kakudidi E.K., Kiremire B.T. Medicinal Plants used in malaria treatment by prometra herbalists in Uganda, Journal of Ethno Pharmacology, 2014; 155: 580-588.

7.      Agrawal S., Haldankar N., Jadhav A. Formulation of Natural Mosquito Repellent: International Journal of Advance Research, Ideas and Innovations in Technology, 2018; 4(1):11-17.

8.      Liu W., Zhang J., Hashim J.H., Jalaludin J., Hashim Z., Bernard D. G. Mosquito coil emissions and health implications. Environmental Health Perspectives.2003 Sep; 111(12): 1454–1460.

 

 

 

 

Received on 07.03.2020          Modified on 10.04.2020

Accepted on 12.05.2020         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(10):4871-4874.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00857.4