Narendra Kumar Sura, Dr. Lingayya Hiremath
Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, R V College of Engineering, Bengaluru
On a global scale, obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability . Currently, more than one billion adults worldwide are overweight and at least 300 million of them are clinically obese (WHO, 2018). Currently, there are many treatments available for obesity; one such method involves the use of anti-obese molecules. Compounds such as Orlistat, Lorcaserin, Sibutramine, Metformin and Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) are used as anti-obese molecules. Among these, Hydroxycitric acid is the preferred molecule since it shows high efficacy in controlling obesity, with minimal side effects. Several pharmaceutical companies extract HCA from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia, a native tree grown in south India. Due to geographical and seasonal limitation of Gracinia fruits, an alternative method of producing HCA is necessary.
Native to Indonesia, and south India, the fruit of Garcinia cambogia is about the size of an orange, but looks more like a small yellowish or reddish pumpkin with a thin skin and deep vertical lobes, Fruits are edible, but is too acidic, rind used as a condiment. A decoration of rind is given in rheumatism and bowel complaints. The plants are semi-growing wild the small fruit has been used for centuries by many cultures worldwide for treatment the of weight loss, Garcinia cambogia has an organic solvent called as Hydroxycitric Acid has made waves in countries all over the world for centuries due to its ability to make one have feelings of “fullness” for longer periods of time once ingested. The herb is considered beneficial for overall health in the traditional Ayurvedic medical system. With this in mind, many people have incorporated this wonderful fruit to soups and other foods, causing them to eat less while feeling fully satisfied for hours after meal time .
This weight loss secret has been passed down from generation to generation as a way to help fight back against dreaded weight gain Extracts of Garcinia fruits have become popular worldwide as an ingredient in diet supplements, with a market value exceeding US$400 million annually .
The Garcinia tree is tolerant to drought and flowers during the hot season. The yellow, orange, or red fruit ripens during the rainy season and contains HCA. It is ovoid in shape, 5 centimeters around, has 6 to 8 seeds, and is listed in the US Department of Agriculture inventory of perennial edible fruits .
Dried fruit rinds have been used extensively for centuries throughout Southeast Asia for culinary purposes as a condiment and flavoring agent in place of tamarind or lemon. Additional culinary uses include the flavoring of curries, meat, and seafood. The fruit extract has been used as a flavoring agent for beverages and gourmet spices, as well as a carminative, thereby helping to prevent the formation of gas in the GI tract after a meal. HCA and other organic acids from the dried rind combined with salt help lower pH and provide a bacteriostatic effect used in curing fish. Rheumatism and bowel complaints are treated with a decoction of the fruit rind. It is also employed in as veterinary medicine as a rinse for some diseases of the mouth in cattle. It’s also used in polishing gold and silver HCA has also become popular as an ingredient for weight loss .
Only certain species of plants are known to produce HCA and there growth is limited to tropical and sub tropical regions these facts suggest that production of natural HCA is restricted by plant distribution area and climate. A clinical study has demonstrated that Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) has notable effect in terms of weight loss anorectic effect (a medicine which produce a loss of appetite) or reduction of fat mass and is a derivative of citric acid that is found in a variety of tropical plants including Garcinia cambogia and Hibiscus subdariffa. Recent discoveries shown that is also synthesised in different genera of bacteria .
Product Hydrocitric Acid-Anti Obesity Molecule:
HCA2may2promote glycogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and2lipid 2oxidation. The restraint of2ATP:
citrate lyase by HCA2causes2less nourishing sugar to be used for the blend of unsaturated fats, bringing about additional glycogen stockpiling in the muscles and liver. Studies by Sullivan et al. Demonstrated that the2rate had initiated invivo3hepatic glycogen amalgamation with the association of Hydroxycitric acid. Sullivan et al. recommended that Hydroxycitric acid acted for the most part through its impacts on the ravenousness, presumably including increments in glycogen levels .
Anti-oxidant activity: Aqueous extract from the rind of the fruit showed2 in2vitros against oxidant movement in3 the3 DPPH, hydroxyl radical seeking, ferric thiocyanate, lipid peroxidation tests and aggregate peroxy radical catching. The concentrate displayed movement against3 the2DPPH radical, peroxy radical hydroxyl radical and3 lipid peroxidation with IC50 estimations of 36, 50, 44 and 62 μg/mL, separately. Ascorbic acid (IC50 of 10 and 24 μg/mL against DPPH radicals and3 lipid peroxidation, individually), quercetin (IC50 36 μg/mL againsts hydroxyl radical) and4 TROLOX (IC50 18 μg/mL against peroxy radical) were4 utilized as5 idealistic controls. The2 study3 recommended that5 phenolic constituents3 present5 in4 the5 concentrate may be47responsible for4 the4 movement. As consequent study4 by Shivakumar et al, found3 that ethanolic removes and hydro-alcoholic from4 the5 organic product skin applied in vitro cancer prevention agent action utilizing the DPPH, ferric thiocyanate measures and hydroxyl radical searching. The concentrates at a grouping of 300 μg/mL hindered DPPH radicals by 87% (ethanol) and 79% (hydro-alcoholic), though ascorbic acid at3 the3 same4 fixation displayed action of 94%.Ethanol concentrates and Hydro-alcoholic at a focus of1.4 mg/mL stifled the hydroxyl radical by 82% and 62%, individually when5 identified with ascorbic acid which4 restrained the hydroxyl radical by 97% at 1.4 mg/mL. The ferric thiocyanate examine additionally uncovered comparative results4 for5 both concentrates, which inquisitively hindered lipid peroxidation (positive control = α-tocopherol). Guttiferone K and Garcinol confined from the natural product appeared in vitro cautious impacts against lipid and6 protein oxidation. They5 altogether abbreviated the arrangement off carbonyl gatherings in7 platelet proteins and plasma, furthermore the52 level6 off thiobarbituric acid responsive species5 supported by peroxynitrite at a convergence of 125 mg/mL in6 together5 cases6. In any case, these6 mixes did6 not6 prevent peroxynitrite-prompted plasma and4 platelet protein nitration.
An audit by Saadat and Gupta subtle elements the9 potentials piece offgarcinolsassan7anticancer operators. Its properties have all the tags of being as a consequence of its mitigating, antioxidative, antiproliferative, proapoptotic exercises and against angiogenic notwithstanding the store of histone acetyltransferases (HAT 300) and7 by9 conceivable post transcriptional balance by6miRNA profiles8 confounded in8 carcinogenesis.5 A large group of in vitro contemplates have been accomplished to decide its belongings in pancreatic, bosom, colon, kidney, oesophageal, lung and prostate growths and in addition hepato-cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma, various myeloma, HeLA cells and in Burkitt's lymphoma. 
Physiological significances of HCA:
Weight pick up happens when the deficient limit for putting away glycogen in the liver and muscles is accomplished, land past this point over abundance glucose is changed into fat and put away in fat cells everywhere throughout the body. HCA applies its anti-obesity impact by restraining ATP: citratelyase, along these lines hindering the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA, a key compound, which assumes a basic part in vitality stockpiling as fat.
HCA being a successful inhibitor of ATP: citrate lyase, which catalyses the extra mitochondrial cleavage of citrus extract to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA limits the straightforward entry of acetyl-CoA units essential for unsaturated fat combination and lipogenesis. Numerous studies affirmed both in vitro and in vivo that all over again unsaturated fat combination and lipogenesis are stifled by HCA.
L. Chuah et al., demonstrated the restraint of unsaturated fat amalgamation from glucose by (2S,3S)-HCAsin secludeds hepatocytes, however its didn’t affect unsaturated fat grouping from acetic acid derivation; rather, (2S,3S)-HCA was appeared to invigorate unsaturated fat union from acetic acid derivation. This impact was test both in the dis engaged perfused rodents’ liver and in its homogenate was comprehended to be because of an actuation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in proportionality to different tricarboxylates. In addition, the after effect of Hackenschmidt et al., demonstrated that HCA is a positive effector of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and closeness of Hydroxycitric acid and citrate initiation of chemical formation was clear in the ideal opportunity for maximal stimulation. It was proficient that Hydroxycitric acid goes about as an inhibitor of lipogenesis when acetyl co-A was expanded in the cytoplasm which is delivered by catalyst response by separating the citrate, however it will enact unsaturated fat amalgamation wherever an exchanging wellspring of acetyl-CoA, for instance, acetic acid derivation, is accessible .
Impact of HCA on Ketogenesis:
It was accounted by a Brunengraber et al., that ketogenesis by livers of stimulated rats perfused without free unsaturated fat is unequivocally hindered by HCA. Such ketogenesis happens by means of an extramitochondrial pathway that conveys extramitochondrial acetyl-CoA, working in starch bolstered creatures. However, the same parameter was not hindered by HCA when livers from starved rats were perfused with oleate yet the ketogenesis enhanced fairly by HCA when livers from sustained rats were perfused with oleate. The intra mitochondrial pathway prevails either in starved creatures. On accounts of the rumen’s epithelium of sheep, there was no such restraint, loaning backing to the hypothesis that ketogenesis continues exclusively through the mitochondrial pathway.
Union of unsaturated fat manages unsaturated fat oxidation by an all-around described component. In this world view, amid unsaturated fat union of malonyl-CoA levels increment and result in hindrance of carnitine palmitoyl transferase intervened uptake of unsaturated fats into the locale of mitochondria. This outcomes in expansion of diacylglycerol atoms and cytoplasmic long-chain greasy acyl (LCFA)-CoAs and that may play a flagging capacity, which prompts the recommendation that levels of malonyl-CoA goes about as the sign of the availability of physiological energizes. One such proposition for malonyl-CoA is the mediation of supplement energetic emission in the beta cells. Glucose-detecting neurons, which control strengthening in the hypothalamus tissue, allocate a portion of the elements with the beta cells, including articulation of glucokinase and the adenosine-delicate potassium channel. Chen et al. demonstrated that HCA significantly repressed the glucose-fortified insulin emission from beta cells of pancreas furthermore gave validation to the critical share of malonyl-CoA suppression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase with going to increment of the cytosolic LCFA-CoA focus in GSIS from the ordinary pancreatic beta cell .
HCA may promote glycogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and lipid oxidation. The restraint of ATP: citrate lyase by HCA causes less nourishing sugar to be used for the blend of unsaturated fats, bringing about additional glycogen stockpiling in the muscles and liver. Studies by Sullivan et al. demonstrated that the rate had initiated in vivo hepatic glycogen amalgamation with the association of Hydroxycitric acid. Sullivan et al. also recommended that Hydroxycitric acid acted for the most part through its impacts on the ravenousness, presumably including increments in glycogen levels.
Aqueous extract from the rind of the fruit showed in vitros against oxidant movement in the DPPH, hydroxyl radical seeking, ferric thiocyanate, lipid peroxidation tests and aggregate peroxy radical catching. The concentrate displayed movement against the DPPH radical, peroxy radical hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation with IC50 estimations of 36, 50, 44 and 62 μg/mL, separately. Ascorbic acid (IC50 of 10 and 24 μg/mL against DPPH radicals and3 lipid peroxidation, individually), quercetin (IC50 36 μg/mL against hydroxyl radical) and4 TROLOX (IC50 18 μg/mL against peroxy radical) were utilized as idealistic controls. The study recommended that phenolic constituents present in the concentrate may be responsible for the movement. As consequent study by Shivakumar et al, found that ethanolic removes and hydro-alcoholic from the organic product skin applied in vitro cancer prevention agent action utilizing the DPPH, ferric thiocyanate measures and hydroxyl radical searching. The concentrates at a grouping of 300 μg/mL hindered DPPH radicals by 87% (ethanol) and 79% (hydro-alcoholic), though ascorbic acid at the same fixation displayed action of 94% Ethanol concentrates and Hydro-alcoholic at a focus of 1.4 mg/mL stifled the hydroxyl radical by 82% and 62%, individually when identified with ascorbic acid which4 restrained the hydroxyl radical by 97% at 1.4 mg/mL. The ferric thiocyanate examines additionally uncovered comparative results for both concentrates, which inquisitively hindered lipid peroxidation (positive control = α-tocopherol). Guttiferone K and Garcinol confined from the natural product appeared in vitro cautious impacts against lipid and protein oxidation. They altogether abbreviated the arrangement off carbonyl gatherings in platelet proteins and plasma, furthermore the level of thiobarbituric acid responsive species supported by peroxynitrite at a convergence of 25 mg/mL in6 together cases. In any case, these mixes did6 not prevent peroxynitrite-prompted plasma and platelet protein nitration .
The oral admission of an organic product separate at 1000 mg/kg BW every day for 450 days too rats lessened ethanol-prompted peroxidative damage. The inhibitory impact off this concentrate on6 the lipid levels and peroxidative harm actuated by ethanol is associated with its hostile to oxidant property. After treatment, the phases of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), were observed to be ordinary. In spite of the fact that, G. cambogia/HCA has been gathered off bringing about hepatotoxicity in people, an invitros reports demonstrated that Garciniacambogia extricate (60% HCA) at a 1% fixation debilitated palmitate-impelled lipo-harmfulness in HepG cells by sinking cell harm and receptive aldehydess incited by palmitate. In check, Antichol, which contains G. cambogia (8% w/w) as ones off the dynamic fixings, kept the cholesterol incited greasy decay off the liver and changes in the livers hostile to oxidant proteins, for example, super oxides dismutases, catalase and glutathione in rats .
A preparatory in vitro determination study by Subhashini et al., uncovered that an organic product concentrate of G. cambogia articulated tumouricidal movement against the cell viability in the murine neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro-A cells), secondary from an unrestrained harmful tumor with a LC50 estimation of 0.235 mg/mL. In spite of the fact that G. cambogiahas not been expansively examined against disease action, garcinol, disconnected from Garcinia indica furthermore exhibit in G. cambogia has gotten much investigative thought in such manner. An audit by Saadat and Gupta subtle elements the potentials piece of garcinolsas an anticancer operator. Its properties have all the tags of being as a consequence of its mitigating, antioxidative, antiproliferative, proapoptotic exercises and against angiogenic not-withstanding the store of histone acetyltransferases (HAT 300) and by conceivable post transcriptional balance by miRNA profiles confounded in carcinogenesis. A large group of in vitro contemplates have been accomplished to decide its belongings in pancreatic, bosom, colon, kidney, oesophageal, lung and prostate growths and in addition hepato-cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma, various myeloma, HeLA cells and in Burkitt's lymphoma 
Acetylcholinesterase proteins are existent in cholinergic cerebrum neural connections and neuro-solid joints, and assume a key part in the hydrolysis of acetylcholiner, a vast neurotransmitter. This catalyst is observed toobe responsible for, an underlying stage of Alzheimer's sickness, the loss of subjective capacity, by ending synaptic transmission. The water concentrates off the organic product skin of Garcinia cambogia created considerable anticholinesterase action by blocking cholinesterase by 30% and 67% at a fixation of 500 and 1000 μg/mL, individually. The movement was compared to the positive control neostigminewhichs curbed cholinesterase by 78% and 92% at a centralization of 5 and 10 μg/mL, individually.
Mathew et al. examined the diuretic activity of ethanolic and watery leaf concentrates of G. cambogia. The oral organization of dosess of 100and 200mg/kgbn/day to rats delivered a diuretic impact through the expansion of sodium, potassium and chloride channels in membrane (positive control = intraperitoneal furosemide 20 mg/kg).
Toxicology and dosage of HCA
Heymsfield et al. performed a fake treatment controlled, twofold visually impaired, randomized trial to demonstrate the viability of (2S, 3S)-HCA as a potential against large operators. Yet, trails and their discoveries neglected to distinguish either fat preparing or weight reduction impacts of (2S, 3S)-HCA past those of fake treatment-controlled trials.
Kriketos et al. theory study fizzled in exhibiting an impact of (2S,3S)-CA on Energy Expenditure (EE) or Respiratory Quotient (RQ) in the fasted state either amid decently serious activity on a cycle ergometer or amid rest tolerably great activity on a cycle ergometer under research centre environment in male grown-ups devouring a regular blended eating regimen .
Study by Mattes et al., did not bolster a impact of HCA on weight reduction through the concealment of yearning. Impacts of the HCA were not observed on appetitive variables. The dynamic treatment did not display enhanced dietary consistence or huge connections between vitality admission or weight change and appetitive variables. The study presumed that the compound might be more helpful for weight maintaining after an underlying misfortune .
As reported before, when wholesome supplements contain high measure of glucose, HCA altogether lessens body weight get back and was not decreased, if diet contains 24% of the vitality as fat. Leonhardt et al. considered whether healthful supplementation of HCA reductions nourishment admission and body weight recover in rats after 0–5% weight reduction. In their study HCA condensed body weight recapture after significant body weight reduction, and the impacts are most presumably connected to its hindering impact on lipogenesis, implying an extremely solid impact of HCA on sustenance allow and expanded vitality payment .
Theory given by Kovacs et al. that HCA supplementation may influence desire and Body Weight (BW) regulation by metabolic rate and by expanding fat oxidation, reflected by an upgrade in EE and mix of HCA and Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCT) found to demonstrate a more grounded impact on unsaturated fat oxidation and along these lines on satiety contrasted with HCA alone. Be that as it may, the outcomes did not bolster the theory.
Hayamizu et al. found that concentrates of Garciniacambogia can proficiently enhance glucose digestion system and showcase leptin-like movement. The particular instrument for concealment of leptin and insulin generation was not clear. Their perceptions demonstrate that upregulation of leptin generation is joined by improved insulin creation. They reasoned that further studies are expected to elucidate if the leptin like system and its movement are effectively because of the HCA .
With a specific end goal to think about the impact and the security of Garcinia concentrate on angiogenesis in people, Hayamizu et al. managed Garciniacambogia concentrate to human given at a measurement of 3,000 mg/day for 30days to assess the impact of surplus dosages on Blood and related side effects and impact of surplus measurements on serum testosterone level in sound men. Their study affirmed the security of Garcinia concentrate by high dosage organization study in solid man .
Saito et al. that in Zucker rats, being hereditarily inclined to corpulence was treated with HCA demonstrated that high measure of dosages (778mg HCA/kg/day and higher) prompted significant concealment of epididymal fat amassing, additionally had high testicular danger. However, it was not observed atq389mg HCA/kg/d or 5mmolHCA/kg eating regimen sand subsequently this level was regarded to be the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL).
Downs et al. have contemplated that, the basic attributes of a novel Ca+ and K+ bound HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it totally bioavailable and also water solvent. Both calcium and potassium go about as cushions in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been appeared to support serotonin accessibility, decrease ravenousness, expand fat oxidation, produce blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and tweaks heftiness administrative qualities without troubling the mitochondrial and atomic proteins imperative for regular biochemical and physiological capacities .
Deshmukh et al. have examined that on the security of HCA-SX for long haul human utilization, which may kill weight and related issue including cardiovascular dysfunctions, diabetes and joint inflammation. In their formative two era regenerative harmfulness study, HCA-SX did not bring on any maternal dangerous impacts, unfriendly consequences for the gravid uteri, delicate tissue anomalies, skeletal variations from the norm. In view of the after effects of this study, the NOAEL of HCA-SX is resolved as 240 mg/kg/day. .
Altiner et al. thinks about demonstrated that the impact on serum lipoprotein (an), apolipoproteins A (apo A) and B (apo B), and aggregate cholesterol levels, they achieved that, eating routine containing 65% HCA was deficient to bring down atherosclerotic lipoprotein levels .
Chuah et al. appeared in their two audits, set up a complete wellbeing profile of HCA as a dietary supplement for treating corpulence making note of genotoxicity, cytotoxicity intense lethality, subchronic security, teratogenicity and two-era conceptive studies. the security of HCA and HCA-SX for Human utilization was examined by clinical studies and reasoned that the complete exploratory confirmation had demonstrated No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) at levels up to 2800 mg/day, proposing its wellbeing for use.
Supplementation of Hydroxycitric acid can considerably lessen instinctive fat collection and adipocyte size by means of restraint of unsaturated fat synthase movement and instinctive fat tissue's mRNA expression, alongside promoted catalyst action and excellent expression worried in fat unsaturated fat β-oxidation. HCA supplementation can ensure against HFD-actuated corpulence by changing the fat unsaturated fat amalgamation and β-oxidation, however instigates hepatic fibrosis, irritation and oxidative anxiety.
The outcomes acquired in a gathering of toxicological and wellbeing contemplates an exhaustive security profile on Garcinia cambogia extricate/Hydroxycitric acid as healthful supplements for treating weight has been set up. Genotoxicity study, Cytotoxicity study, intense poisonous quality studies, subchronic 90-day wellbeing study, teratogenicity studies, two-era conceptive and clinical studies on Garcinia cambogia separate/HCA bolster its security for human utilization.
Hydroxycitric Acid is considered to be safe Nuetraceutical for the reduction of obesity and its related problems. HCA is found in the fruits, leaves of Garcinia and also in microorganism which grow symbiotically with Garcinia tree. Morphological, biochemical tests and 16srRNA of microbes producing is reported by Hida et al . Future work involves in Enrichment medium was to formulated and medium components, conditions were assessed for the production of HCA. Qualitative and Quantitative method were need to be optimized for Hydroxy Citric Acid Production from the identify culture .
1. T. Farhat, R. J. Iannotti, and B. G. Simons-Morton, “Overweight, obesity, youth and health-risk behaviours,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 258–267, 2010.
2. Richard A Collins hydroxycitric acid, as an weight-loss formulations and appetite-suppressor products the biomedical scientist September 2006
3. R. Revathi, R. Ravi, V. S. Saravanan, T. Ethiraj, T. Sudhamani Isolation and characterization of (-) hydroxy citric acid from garcinia cambogia fruit extract ijprd/pub/arti/vol-2/issue-7/sep/015 2010
4. Kumar, S., Sharma, S. And Chattopadhyay, S.K. Rapid and sensitive HPLC-PDA method for simultaneous identification and quantification of dietary weight reducing compound hydroxy citric acid lactone and chemo preventive compounds isoxanthochymol and xanthochymol in Garcinia indica International Food Research Journal 20(1): 397-402 (2013)
5. Devendra K Chauhan, A k Thkur , A Dass , J M Lima and S K Malik, National bureau of plant Genetic Resources Direct Organogenesis from leaf explants of Garcinia Indica Choisy : An important medicinl plant Indian journal of Biotechnology Vol 11 April pg 215-219 2012
6. S. Ansari, B. Chauhan, N. Kalam and G. Kumar, "Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review", J Adv Pharm Tech Res, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 4, 2013.
7. Naveen GPAN, Krishnakumar G, “Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Garcinia gummi-gutta Fruit-A Review”, Species, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 04-05, 2013
8. J. Triscari and A. Sullivan, "Comparative effects of (−)-hydroxycitrate and (+)-allo-hydroxycitrate on acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis in vivo", Lipids, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 357-363, 1977.
9. N. Saadat and S. Gupta, "Potential Role of Garcinol as an Anticancer Agent", Journal of Oncology, vol. 2012, pp. 1-8, 2012.
10. L. Chuah, W. Ho, B. Beh and S. Yeap, "Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (−)-HCA", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, pp. 1-17, 2013.
11. S. Chen, A. Ogawa, M. Ohneda, R. Unger, D. Foster and J. McGarry, "More direct evidence for a malonyl-CoA-carnitine palmitoyltransferase I interaction as a key event in pancreatic beta-cell signaling", Diabetes, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 878-883, 1994.
12. Subhashini N, Nagarajan G, Kaviman S. “In vitro antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Garcinia combogia”, Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 3:129–32,2011.
13. H. Brunengraber, J. Sabine, M. Boutry and J. Lowenstein, "3-β-Hydroxysterol synthesis by the liver", Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 392-396, 1972.
14. S. Heymsfield, D. Allison, J. Vasselli, A. Pietrobelli, D. Greenfield and C. Nunez, "Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Potential Antiobesity Agent", JAMA, vol. 280, no. 18, p. 1596, 1998.
15. R. Mattes and L. Bormann, "Effects of (−)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables", Physiology and Behavior, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 87-94, 2000.
16. M. Leonhardt, B. Hrupka and W. Langhans, "Effect of hydroxycitrate on food intake and body weight regain after a period of restrictive feeding in male rats", Physiology and Behavior, vol. 74, no. 1-2, pp. 191-196, 2001.
17. Hayamizu K, Ishii Y, Kaneko I, Shen M, Okuhara Y, Shigematsu N, Tomi H, Furuse M, Yoshino G, Shimasaki H. “Effects of garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial”. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2003 Sep;64(8):551-67. doi: 10.1016/j.curtheres.2003.08.006.
18. Kovacs EM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WH. “The effects of 2-week ingestion of (--)-hydroxycitrate and (--)-hydroxycitrate combined with medium-chain triglycerides on satiety, fat oxidation, energy expenditure and body weight”. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Jul;25(7):1087-94. 2001.
21. A. Altiner, A. Ates, F. Esen Gursel and T. Bila “Effect of the antiobesity agent garcinia cambogia extract on serum lipoprotein (a), apolipoproteins a1 and b, and total cholesterol levels in female rats fed atherogenic diet”. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 22(4): 2012, Page: 872-877 ISSN: 1018-7081.
22. Yamada, Hiroyuki Hida, Yasuhiro Yamada Chemistry, physiological properties, and microbial production of hydroxycitric acid- Takashi -Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology July Springer, Volume 75, Issue 5, pp 977-982 2007 .
23. Hiroyuki Hida, Yasuhiro Yamada, Yamada production of Hydroxycitric acid by microorganism Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem 69(8),1555-1561 2007.
Received on 08.02.2019 Modified on 02.03.2019
Accepted on 30.03.2019 © RJPT All right reserved