Priya Tiwari1, Subas Chandra Dinda1, Vaseem Ahamad Ansari2*,
Tarique Mahmood2, Farogh Ahsan2
1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rama University, Mandhana, Kanpur (U.P.), India 209217
2Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow (U.P.), India 226026
Plant materials found to help the human for their survival in several ways by providing food, shelter, cloth, and medicines. Ficusreligiosa is commonly known as Peepal found to play a role in combination several diseases in traditional practice. It’s a large evergreen tree and throughout the India. Ficusreligiosa is known to be a native Indian tree. It is a familiar sight in Hindu temples, Buddhist monasteries and shrines, villages and at roadsides. It is known to be a sacred plant in India and since ancient times it is widely being used to treat various ailments. It has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments of the CNS, GIT, reproductive system, endocrine system, respiratory system and infectious disorders. The present review is an attempt to provide a detailed botanical description, classification, Phyto-chemical study, Pharmacological properties of the plant. The various parts of the plants such as stem, bark, fruits, buds, latex are used to treat different diseases such as dysentery, mumps, jaundice, heart diseases, constipation, skin diseases, etc. According to Ayurvedic system of medicine, F. Religiosa (Peepal tree) is well known to be useful in diabetes. Since last couple of years it has also been investigated for the presence of various phyto-constituents belongs to (phenolics, sterols and flavonoids groups).
In spite of great advances of modern scientific medicine, traditional medicine is still the primary form of treating diseases of majority of people in developing countries including India; even among those to whom western medicine is available, the number of people using one form or another of complementary of alternative medicine is rapidly increasing worldwide. Increasing knowledge of metabolic process and the effect of plants on human physiology has enlarged the range of application of medicinal plants. Herbal medicines are of great impotance to the health of individuals and communities, but their quality assurance need to be developed. During the last decade, the use of herbal medicine has been increased. Consequently, an increase in traditional tread in herbal medicines and other type of traditional medicines has occurred.
Proper use of these different types of medicines has therefore become a concern. In recent years, the use of herbal medicines worldwide has provided an excellent opportunity to India to look for therapeutic lead compounds from an ancient system of therapy, i.e. Ayurveda, which can be utilized for development of new drug. Ficusreligiosa (belonging to family Moraceae), commonly known as Peepal, is the most popular member of the genus Ficus. F. religiosa.is a large perennial tree, glabrous when young, found throughout the plains of India up to 170 m. In the Himalayas, largely planted as an avenue and road side tree. It is one of the longest living trees of the world. Peepal is native to India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and China. In Ayurveda, F. religiosa belongs to a class of drugs called rasayana. Rasayana are rejuvenators, antioxidants and relieve stress in the body.
In medicinal field, F. religiosa is gaining great attention because of around most phyto-constituents. Various studies indicate that Ficus religiosa are widely used in the management of many types of diseases like Respiratory disorders, sexual disorders, central nervous system disorders (CNS), cardiovascular disorders (CVS), gastric problems, skin infections and diabetes & many more. The genus Ficus (Moraceae) constitutes one of the largest genera of angiosperms includes with more than 800 species and 2000 varieties of Ficus genus, occurring in most tropical and subtropical forests worldwide. It is sometimes also called kalpruksha.
Mythological Significance of Ficus Tree:
Trees are the best nature’s greatest gift they are worshipped in each and every religion as a matter of gratitude. Puranic Literature divides our earth into seven concentric islands. All these islands are named after trees or plants in Sanskrit.
The seven islands are:
1. Jambudvipa: Jambu Syzygium cumini.
2. Plakshadvipa: Plaksha Ficus religiosa.
3. Salmalidvipa: Salmali Bombaxceiba.
4. Kushadvipa: Kusha Desmostachyabipinnata.
5. Kraunchadivpa: Krauncha Curlew-heron.
6. Shakadvipa: Shaka Tectonagrandis,
7. Pushkaradvipa: Pushkara Nelumbonucifera.
Plakshadvipa: Plaksha Ficus religiosa Plaksa is a Sanskrit term for the sacred fig which is botanically known as Ficus religiosa. According to Vamana Purana, the Sarasvati was rising from the Plaksa tree (Pipaltree). In the Rigveda Sutras, Plaksa Pra-sravana refers tothe source of the Sarasvati.
Specific epithet: Religiosa Linnaeus
Botanical Name: Ficus religiosa
Bengali: Asvattha, Ashud, Ashvattha
English: Pipal tree
Gujrati: Piplo, Jari, Piparo, Pipalo
Hindi: Pipala, Pipal
Kannada: Arlo, Ranji, Basri, Ashvatthanara, Ashwatha, Aralimara, Aralegida, Ashvathamara, Basari, Ashvattha
Malayalam: Arayal Marathi: Pipal, Pimpal, Pippal
Punjabi: Pipal, Pippal
Tamil: Ashwarthan, Arasamaram, Arasan, Arasu, Arara
F. religiosa is a large deciduous with grey-brownish specks. It is native from India to Southeast Asia which grows up to 5000ft with the trunk which height up to 1 meter. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged and broadly ovate, glossy, dark green leaves, 10-18 by 7.5-10 cm, with unusual tail-like tips, pink when young, stipulate. Petioles are slender and 7.5-10 cm long with Galls on leaves of peepal. Flowers axillary sessile, unisexual. Fruits are circular in shape is called as Figs which enclosed in florescence. When fruits raw, they are green in colour during summer but after ripening they turn black through rainy season. The specific epithet “religiosa” alludes to the religious important attached to this tree. The prince Siddhartha is said to have sat and meditated under this tree and there found enlightment from which time he became a Buddha. The tree is therefore sacred to Buddhists and is planted beside temples.
Figure 1: shows the F. religiosa (peepal) tree
The stem bark and leaves of F. religiosa are reported phytoconstituents of phenols, tannins, steroids, lanosterol, stigma sterol, lupen-3-one. The active constituent from the root bark F. religiosa was found to be β- sitosteryl-D glucoside, The seeds contain phytosterolin, β-sitosterol, and its glycoside, albuminoids. The fruit of F. religiosa contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents and flavonoids (Figure 1).
When study about its transverse section of bark it shows rectangular to cubical, thick walled cork cells and dead elements of secondary cortex, which consist of masses of stone cells; cork cambium distinct with rows of newly formed secondary cortex, mostly composed of stone cells towards periphery. Stone cells found scattered in large groups, which are rarely isolated; most of parenchymatous cells of secondary cortex contain numerous starch. grains and few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and when study about its secondary phloem a wide zone, it’s consisting of sieve elements, phloem fibers in singles or in groups of two and non-lignified and also contain numerous crystal fibers in outer region sieve elements mostly collapsed while in inner region intact phloem parenchyma mostly thick-walled.
Table 1: Bioactive/Phytochemical constituents isolated from F. Religiosa
Phenols, tannins, steroids, alkaloids and flavonoids, β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside, vitamin K, noctacosanol, methyl oleanolate, lanosterol, stigmasterol, lupen-3-one. Tannin, wax, saponin, Leucoanthocyanins. delphinindin-3-0-α-Lrhamnoside, Pelargonidin-3-0-α-Lrhamnoside, Leucocyanidin-3-0- β-D-galactosyl- cellobioside, Leucoanthocyanidin, 20- tetratriaconten-2-one, pentatriacontan- 5-one, 6 heptatria content-10-one, mesoanisosital.
Protein (4.9%), Essential amino acids(isoleucine, and phenylalanine), Flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, and myricetin), Also contains good amount of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid 11, Asgaragine, tyrosine, undecane, tridecane, tetradecane, (e)-β-ocimene, α- thujene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-terpinene, limonene, dendrolasine, dendrolasine α-ylangene, α-copaene, β-bourbonene, β-caryophyllene, α-trans bergamotene, aromadendrene, α-humulene, alloaromadendrene, germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, γ-cadinene and δ-cadinene.
  
Phytosterolin β-sitosterol, and its glycoside, albuminoids, carbohydrate, fatty matter, Coloring matter, Caoutchoue 0.7-5.1%.
campestrol, stigmasterol, isofucosterol, α-amyrin, lupeol, tannic acid, arginine, serine, aspartic acid, glycine, threonine, alanine, proline, tryptophan, tryosine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, n-nonacosane, n-hentricontanen, hexa-cosanol and n-octacosan.
Phyto-chemistry is the chemistry of plants or chemical constituents of plants. Phytochemistry understood in pharmacy as the chemistry of natural products used as drugs or of drugs plants with the emphasis on biochemistry. The constituents are therapeutically active or inactive. The inactive constituents are structural constituents of the plants like starch, sugars or proteins. The inactive constituents have however pharmaceutical uses. The active constituents are secondary metabolites, like alkaloids glycosides, volatile oils, tannins etc. They are single substances or usually mixtures of many substances. The secondary products of metabolism are formed from primary products and the plant is not able to reutilize them and they are deposited in the cells and then called secondary metabolites. The bark also contains tannin, wax, saponin, leucocyanidin-3-0-β-D-glucopyrancoside, leucopelar gonidin-3-0-β-Dglucopyranoside, leucopelargonidin-3-0-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, lupeol, cerylbehenate, lupeol acetate and α-amyrin acetate. Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic analysis of flavonoids inF. religiosa using kaempferol, rhamnetin, myricetin, isorhamnetin and quercetin as a standards. (Table 1).
Pharmacological activities present in F. religiosa (Pharmacognostical activities):
The anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa bark (FRAE) in normal glucose loaded hyperglycemic and streptozotox in induced diabetic rats. At the dose of 25, 50 and 100mg/kg than 25mg/kg FARE also showed significant Increase in serum insulin body weight and glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle of STZ- induced diabetic rats while there was significant reduction in the levels of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol. FRAE also showed significant anti-lipidperoxidative effect in the pancreas of STZ induced diabetic rats.
Aqueous extract of F. religiosa in doses of 50 and 100mg/kg exhibited pronounced reduction in blood glucose levels. This nature of effect was related with hypoglycemic drug glybenclamide. It has been also proved that F. religiosa significantly increases serum insulin, body weight and glycogen content in liver. Bark of F. religiosa shows similar effects and exhibits minimum fall of the blood sugar level.
The aqueous extract of F. religiosa in doses of 50 and 100mg/kg exhibited pronounced reduction in blood glucose levels. It has been also proved that F. religiosa significantly increases serum insulin, bodyweight, glycogen content in liver. Bark of F. religiosa shows similar effects and exhibits maximum fall of the blood sugar level.
The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of F.religiosa (leaves) was studied using the agar well diffusion method. The test was performed against four bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and against two fungi: Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that 25mg/ml of the extract was active against all bacterial strains and effect against in compare to two fungi was much less.
The methanolic extract of bark was 100% lethal for Haemonchus. Contortus worms during in vitro testing. The acetone extracts of seven plant species Tamarindus indica, F. indica, F. religiosa, Tabernaemontana livaricate, Murraya koenigii, Chenopodium album and Syzygium cuminii were evaluated for their ovicidal activity. Murray a, Tabernaemontana and Chenopodium showed 70%, 75% and 66.6% ovicidal action at 100% dose level whereas at the same dose level T. Indica, F. indica, F. religiosa and S. cuminii showed 48.3%, 41.6%, 13.3%, 53.3% ovicidal action respectively. According to Uma et al different extracts (methanol, aqueous, chloroform) of the bark of F. religiosa has inhibitory effect on the growth of three enteroxigenic E. coli, isolated from the patients suffering from diarrhoea.
Wound healing activity:
This activity was explored by incision and excision wound models using F. religiosa leaf extracts which was prepared as lotion (5 and 10%) were applied on Wistar albino strain rats. Povidine iodine 5%was used as Standard drug. Higher rate of wound contraction, decrease in the time for epithelialisation, high skin breaking strength were detected in animals treated with 10% leaf extract ointment  when compared to the control group of animals. It has been reported that tannins possess ability to increase the collagen content, which is one of the factor for promotion of wound healing.
The analgesic activity of stem bark of F. religiosa using the acetic acid induced writhing (extension of hind paw) model in mice using Aspirin as standards drug. It showed dropping in the number of writhing of 71.56 and 65.93%, respectively at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Thus, it can be concluded that extract showed the analgesic effect probably by inhibiting synthesis or action of prostaglandins.
F. religiosa have been reported to contain highest amount of Serotonin which is responsible for its anticonvulsant effect. Further, investigation the anticonvulsant effect of methanolic extract of F. religiosa figs on Maximal electroshock-induced convulsions (MES), Picrotoxin-induced convulsions, and pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions (PTZ). In Ayurveda it is claimed that leaves of F. religiosa also possess anticonvulsant activity. The anticonvulsant effect of the extract obtained from the leaves of peepal was evaluated against PTZ (60mg/kg, i.p) induced convulsion in albino rats. The study revealed 80 to 100 % protection against PTZ induced convulsions when given 30-60 minutes prior to induced convulsion, respectively. Patil et.al demonstrated that the anticonvulsant effect of the aqueous aerial root extract of F. religiosa is effective in management of chemically-induced seizures in rats. The extract was evaluated against strychnine-induced convulsions and pentylenetetrazole- induced convulsions animal models .
The ethanol extract of stem bark showed potential antiulcer activity. The antiulcer activity was evaluated in vivo against indomethacin and cold restrained stress induced gastric ulcers and pylorus ligation assay. The extract (100, 200 & 400mg/kg) importance reduced the ulcer index in all assay used. Administration of F. religiosa significantly reduced the ulcer index. The hydro alcoholic extract of leaves also presented antiulcer activity. The activity of extract was evaluated against pylorus ligation-induced ulcers, ethanol-induced ulcers and Aspirin-Induced ulcers. Determination of antiulcer effect was based upon ulcer index and oxidative stress.
F. religiosa has found to be potential anti-inflammatory & analgesic property. The mechanism underlying the effect is the inhibition of PG‟s synthesis. It was found that the leaf extract of F. religiosa has potential anti-inflammatory activity against carrageen an induced paw oedema. The inhibitory activity was found due to inhibition of release of histamine, serotonin (5HT), Kinins and PG’s.
The methanol extract of stem bark of F. religiosa has inhibitory effect on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats due to the inhibition of the enzyme cycylooxygenase (COX) leading to inhibition of PG‟s synthesis. Further, various studies revealed that tannin present in the bark possess anti-inflammatory effect. Moreover, it has been shown that methanolic extract of stem bark of F. religiosa is known to suppress inflammation by reducing both 5-HT &bradykinin (BK). Mangiferin isolated from drug has anti-inflammatory activity against carrageen an-induced paw oedema.
The in vivo studies of histamine induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs and in vitro isolated guinea pig tracheal chain and ileum preparation were performed. Pretreatment of guinea pigs with ketotifen (1mg/kg, p.o.), has significantly delayed the onset of histamine aerosol induced pre convulsive dyspnea, compared with vehicle control (281.8±11.7 vs112.2±9.8). The administration of methanolic extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) did not produce any important effect on latency to develop histamine induced pre convulsive dyspnea. Methanolic extract of fruits at a doses (0.5, 1 and 2mg/ml) has significantly potentiate the EC50 doses of both histamine and acetylcholine in isolated guinea pig tracheal chain and ileum preparation. HPLC analysis of methanolic extract showed the presence of high amounts of serotonin (2.89% w/w).
The aqueous extract of F. religiosa decreases oxidative stress in experimentally induced type- 2 diabetes in rats. Type- 2 diabetic rats gained relatively less weight during the course of development as compared to normal rats. The aqueous extract of F. religiosa improved the body weight of diabetic rats.
The ethanolic extract of leaves of Ficus religiosa was evaluated for antioxidant (DPPH), wound healing (incision, excision, and histopathological and dead space wound model) and anti-inflammatory (Carageenan induced paw odema) activity. The tested extract of different dilutions in range 200 μg/ml to 1000 μg/ml shows antioxidant activity in range of 6.34% to 13.35% .
To investigate the anti-amnesic activity of F. religiosa methanol extract of figs of F. religiosa were used. Figs areknown to comprise a high serotonergic content and modulation of serotonergic neurotransmission which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of amnesia. The anti-amnesic activity was investigated using methanolic extract of figs of F. religiosa on scopolamine-induced anterograde and retrograde amnesia in mice. The result showed anti-amnesic activity against scopolamine induced amnesia, in a dose dependent manner.
Traditional Uses of Ficus religiosa:
F. religiosa is a well-known ethno medicinal tree used in Ayurveda. It is used in the Indian traditional folk medicine also well documented. The use of different parts of F. religiosa in traditional system of medicine is mentioned below.
Healing and curative:
In the part of Leaves are laxative and a tonic. They relieve feverish feeling of coolness. They are also useful in arresting secretion or bleeding. In such cases, about 50 ml of raw juice of the leaves or 1 teaspoon of powdered dried leaves can be taken with water.
The leaves of the peepal are used in the treatment of heart diseases. The leaves are infused in water at night. Distilled the following morning and then stored in white bottles. About 15ml of this infusion is administered thrice daily. It is highly effective in relieving palpitation of the heart and cardiac weakness.
The leaves of peepal should be dried in the shade and powdered. Pills are made by adding the required quantity of a solution of anise and jaggery with water. In the same way, the fruits can be dried in shade, powdered and mixed with an equal quantity of sugar. This compound in doses of 4 to 6gms, taken at bedtime with milk, ensures proper bowl movement, the following morning.
Mumps and boils:
Peepal leaves smeared with ghee, warmed over a fire and bandaged over the inflamed part (mumps) to get relieve. A leaf of peepal smeared with ghee can be banged like worm on the boil. If there is any pus formation, it will burst, if it is in preliminary stages, the growth will subside in initial stage itself.
For many vaginal diseases, a decoction from the bark is employed to cleanse the vagina as a wash. A decoction prepared from the bark of peepal and tamarind or their freshly extracted juice is given as a drink for patients with difficult menstruation or even absence of menstruation. For pregnant ladies who have a tendency or fear of abortion, six maashaas of bark powder is to be given with a decoction of the rind of an orange. This is continued 3-8 times a day for a week.
Even intolerably severe pain in the stomach is relieved by drinking a decoction of the bark with salt and jaggery. Severe and repeated vomiting is relieved by using the inner bark of the tree.
The bark is dried in the shade and powdered finely. This, when mixed with honey repeatedly in a dosage of 4 to 8 rattiis, relieves vomiting due to kapha. Uncontrollable thirst is also quenched by water in which burnt peepal bark is dipped for cooling. An enema from the tree’s sprouts, cooked in milk and filtered, is advantageously employed for dysentery, rectal prolapse, haemorrhage and fever.
Fever and Joint pains:
Peepal is effective in fever because of its cooling nature. Burn the bark fully to ashes. Sieve this through a fine cloth and sprinkle on the bed of a patient with fever and eruptions. Take five tolaas (50gms) of bark and cook it in five liters of water. When the quantity of liquid is reduced to 100ml, filter, add a little honey and let the patient drink a half in the morning and the rest in the evening. This cures rheumatism even where aggravation of all the three doshas has occurred.
For an asthmatic patient, the powder from the dried fruit is given with water. A cough of any type is relieved by taking it with honey. This is also believed to render the voice sweet and melodious. For whooping cough[26-27] in children, giving the powder of peepal lac in a dosage of 3 rattiisa long with 3 maashaas of butter, three times a day, has been seen to be beneficial.
A patient with itching or eczema is advised to drink a decoction of peepal bark. For eruptions, the bark is rubbed on a grind stone with water and the paste is applied gently. This is said to aid maturation of the eruptions. Old peepal trees develop a thin papery cover over the bark. This is dried, powdered fine and stored. For wounds, first smear a thin layer of gingely (sesame) oil and then sprinkle this powder so that a thick layer is formed. If discharge from the wound emerges from this layer, apply the oil again, followed by another thick sprinkling of the powder. By these measures, even severe wounds, that are not filling up heal easily.
Orodental problems and Ear problems:
A decoction or cold infusion of the bark strengthens the gums, heals them, offering relief even in severe toothache. Growing children often suffer from frequent mouth ulcers. A favorite and effective remedy is application of the paste of the powdered bark and tender leaves with honey. Take tender young peepal leaves, grind and cook them in gingely (sesame) oil over a low fire. A Small quantity of this oil is to be poured into the painful ear, after making it comfortably warm, to relieve pain.
The leaves of the peepal are used in the treatment of heart diseases. The leaves are infused in water at night. Distilled the following morning and then stored in white bottles. About 15 ml of this infusion is administered thrice daily. It is highly effective in relieving palpitation of the heart and cardiac weakness.
Other uses of Ficus
People in India collect the leaves, clean and dry then paint them with the gold acrylic in order to preserve them for years. From the bark of the tree, reddish dye is extracted. People tie threads of white, red and yellow silk around it to pray for pregnancy. The Peepal tree has its own symbolic meaning of enlightenment and peace (Table 2).
Table 2: The traditional uses of Ficus at a glance
Plant parts traditional uses (as/in)
Anti-inflammatory, Burn, Astringent
Cooling, Skin diseases, Vomiting
Leaves and tender shoots
Purgative, Wounds, Skin diseases
Asthma, Cough, Sexual disorder
Asthma, Laxative, Purgative
Tuberculosis, Fever, Paralysis
Unique Properties of F. religiosa:
There are various unique features of this plants i.e F. religiosa as it releases oxygen all the time which makes it different from other plant. Most plants largely uptake Carbon dioxide (CO2) and release oxygen during the day (photosynthesis) and uptake oxygen and release CO2 during the night (respiration)., But Some plants such as F. religiosa (Peepal) can uptake CO2 during the night also like day because of their ability to perform a type of photosynthesis called Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). However, it is not true that they release large amounts of oxygen during the night. F. religiosa is a hemi epiphyte in its native habitat i.e. the seeds germinate and grow as an epiphyte on other trees and then when the host-tree dies, they establish on the soil. It has been suggested that when they live as epiphyte, they use CAM pathway to produce carbohydrates and when they live on soil, they switch to C3 type photosynthesis.
So, F. religiosa (Peepal) would either release or not release CO2 in the night depending on if they are epiphytic or not. For other CAM plants, it would depend on if they have adequate water or not, or other environmental factors. Recently one more hypothesis has predicted that leaves of F. religiosa are able to charge the battery of mobile. With scientific approaches, in future, this hypothesis can reduce the usage of charger and can be good source of renewable energy.
Presently enormous research group are showing curiosity and interest in the medicinal properties of F. religiosa. Rasayana property of F. religiosa is related with its potential anti-diabetic activity. The present review describes the history, origin, mythological, phyto-chemical, pharmacology and therapeutic potential of F. religiosa. It is a large evergreen tree found throughout India. It was explored and used in various systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy. Various parts of F. religiosa are used for the treatment of diabetes, burns, gynaecological problems, diarrhea, nervous disorders etc. in traditional system of medicine. The Bioactive constituents found in F religiosa after the phytochemical analysis are tannins, saponins, ﬂavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides etc.
The review reveals that this plant contains several constituents. Although scientific studies have been carried out on a large number of Indian botanicals, a considerably smaller number of marketable drugs or phyto-chemical entities have entered the evidence-based therapeutics. Efforts are therefore needed to establish and validate evidence regarding safety and practices of Ayurvedic medicines.
Hence, the detail study and research work can be carried out on human, so that in future, we can develop different pharmaceutical product. The multiple benefits of F. religiosa made it a true miracle of nature & are highly regarded and used plant in Ayurvedic medicine. It is one of the most versatile plants having a wide spectrum of medicinal activities.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST:
The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Author sincerely pays his heartfelt respect and gratitude toward Prof. Syed Waseem Akhtar, Hon. Chancellor and Prof. Aqil Ahmad, Hon. Vice Chancellor (Acting), Integral University for providing an excellent research environment. The university has provided a manuscript communication number for further communication (IU/R&D/2019-MCN000557).
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Received on 30.04.2019 Modified on 28.05.2019
Accepted on 27.06.2019 © RJPT All right reserved