In-Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Tamilnadia uliginosa Fruits

 

Sudhakar kommu1*, M. Chinna Eswaraiah1, D. Pavan Reddy1, Santosh Illendula2

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Anurag Pharmacy College, Kodad, Suryapet, TS, India.

2Dept. of Pharmaceutical Analysis and QA, NCOP, Nalgonda, TS, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sudhakarpharma001@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Plants are the backbone of life on earth and an essential resource for humans. Everything humans consume is obtained from plants directly or indirectly. In the Indian mythology several plants with various properties of healing have been mentioned earlier, thus the history of use of medicinal plants in India dates back to 3500-1800 BC. These medicinal plants contain active principles which are highly potent against parasites. Parasites cause a quantum of health hazards and economic losses to human beings and animals. Therefore, medicinal plants are still a concern of research for their anthelmintic activity and other beneficial effects; because of increasing contraindications in the application of synthetic medicines. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethnolic and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits of Tamilnadia uliginosa using Pheretima Posthuma. Various concentrations (25, 50, 100 mg/ml) of all extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard and saline water as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in extracts but ethnolic extract shows more activity as compared to ethyl acetate extract.

 

KEYWORDS: Tamilnadia uliginosa, Albendazole, anthelmintic activity and paralysis.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Parasitic diseases cause major morbidity and mortality in animals globally, and considerable losses to food production. Helminthes are the most common infectious agents of humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world populations. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurrence is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symptoms like anemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.1

 

Control of helminthes relies almost exclusively on a limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. The excessive use of such drugs has led to widespread resistance in these nematodes to most classes of anthelmintics, seriously compromising the control of parasites in many countries.

 

Therefore, novel and complementary helminth control options are urgently needed. The use of natural plant extracts as anthelmintics for humans and livestock has long been practiced. Natural compounds from plants provide a unique opportunity in the search for new, effective and safe anthelmintics. In China, for example, plant-derived medicines have been used for centuries to treat many disease conditions in humans and other animals, including parasitic diseases. It is likely that many of these natural medicines may be acting on pathways in worms that differ from targets of currently used anthelmintic drugs and, therefore, might be able to kill nematodes that are resistant to one or more anthelmintics. However, for the vast majority of such natural compounds, there has been limited systematic, scientific evaluation of efficacy, mode of action and identity of their active components and no plant-based anthelmintic is yet commercially available.2

 

Anthelmintic effects of plants are normally ascribed to secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, terpenoids or polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins (CT). They are found in plant material from both tropical and temperate areas, and have been widely investigated for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also apparent that CT can have anthelmintic effects.3 In this context, medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites may be an effective alternative for parasite control. The medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites could be either used as phyttheraeutic materials or fed as nutraceuticls. Tamilnadia uliginosa is a member of the family Rubiaceae.  The name of the genus Tamilnadia based on name of the state of Tamilnadu in India. In Telugu it is called as Adavimanga, it is useful to treat various diseases by the local peoples. The present study deals with   anthelmintic activity of Tamilnadia uliginosa fruits by using a standard laboratory procedure. The assay was performed on adult Indian earthworms like Pheretima posthuma due to its anatomical and physiological resemblance with that of intestinal round worm parasite of human beings. Because of easy availability, earth worms have been used widely for the initial evaluation of anthelmintic compounds in-vitro

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The methodology adopted to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of fruits of Tamilnadia uliginosa plant here under.

 

Collection and Authentication of plant material:

The fruits of Tamilnadia uliginosa were collected from the talakona regions of chittoor dist, Andhra Pradesh and India. The plant material was taxonomically identified by botanist Dr. Madhava Chetty, Asst. Prof, SVU, Tirupathi. A voucher specimen has been preserved in our laboratory for future reference. The plant material was dried in shade, pulverized, passed through sieve no. 40 and stored in air tight container and used for further extraction.

 

Preparation of plant extracts:

100 g air dried powder was packed in a filter paper and  subjected to successive solvent extraction by using soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours (approx.)  in increasing order of polarity by using following solvents like petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol finally with water  and temperature was adjusted as per solvents been used in the extraction. The extracts were concentrated under rotary evaporator. The resulting semisolid residue was pounded to dryness under hot-air dryer to obtain a powdery crude extract.

 

Phytochemical screening4-9:

The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening in order to detect the presence of various groups of phytoconstituents by using standard phytochemical procedures.

Experimental procedure10, 11:

Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits of Tamilnadia uliginosa were investigated for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (25, 50, 100 mg/ml) of each extract were tested by bioassay, which involved in determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Albendazole was used as standard reference and saline water as control. The assay was performed on adult Indian earthworms. The earthworms were collected from moist soil and washed with normal saline to remove all faecal matter and were used for anthelmintic study. The earthworms were used for experimental protocol.  The earthworms were divided into four groups consisting of six earthworms in each group. All the extract and standard drug solution were freshly prepared in normal saline before starting the experiments. Different extracts and standard drug solutions were poured in different Petri plates.  All the earthworms were released into 10 ml of formulation as follows: Ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate extract and Albendazole in three different concentrations. Observations were made for the time taken to paralysis and death of individual worms. Time for paralysis was noted when no movement of any sort could be observed except when the worms were shaken vigorously. Death was concluded when the worms lost their motility when dipped in warm water (500C) followed with fading away of their body colours.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Preliminary phytochemical screening has shown the presence of tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids etc. in extracts of Tamilnadia uliginosa fruits. Some of these phytoconstituents may be the responsible to show a potent anthelmintic activity when compared to the standard drug.  Ethanolic extract of Tamilnadia uliginosa exhibited anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner giving shortest time of paralysis and deaths compared to ethyl acetate extract. Ethanolic extract of at 100 mg/ml concentration shows paralysis at 23 min and death 30 min, whereas ethyl acetate extract shows paralysis at 28 min and death 39 min respectively. The reference drug Albendazole exhibited the same at 14 min and 18 mins respectively. Based on phytochemical screening tannins were shown to produce anthelmintic activity. Chemically tannins are polyphenolic compounds. Tannins can bind to free proteins in the GIT of host animal or glycoprotein on the cuticle of the parasite and may cause death.11 Future scope involve need of isolation of active constituents which are responsible for activity. .

 

 


 

 

 

Table-1: Anthelmintic activity of extracts of Tamilnadia uliginosa fruits

S. No

Groups 

Conc.(mg/ml) 

Response

 

Time taken for paralysis (min)

Time taken for death (min)

   1

Normal  control 

      -------

        ---- 

---------------

   2

Ethyl acetate

25

50

100

33

31

28

50

43

39

   3

 

Ethanol

25

50

100

35

28

23

42

36

30

  4

 

 Albendazole

25

50

100

30

26

14

38

32

18

 

 

Fig-1 Graphical representation of Anthelmintic activity of extracts of Tamilnadia uliginosa fruits

 

 

 


CONCLUSION:

The anthelmintic activity of Tamilnadia uliginosa fruits extracts suggests that it is effective against parasitic infections of humans. Further, in future it is necessary to identify and isolate the possible active phyto-constitutents which are responsible for the anthelmintic activity and study its pharmacological actions.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT:

We wish to thank Management and Dr.M.Chinna Eswaraiah, Principal of our institution for their moral support and blessings and also express our heartful thanks to them for motivating us with strength and spirit.

 

REFERENCES:

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11.   K. Gnaneswari et al, In-vitro Anthelmintic activity of Leonotis nepetiifolia (L.)  R. Br., a potential medicinal plant, J. of Chem. and Pharmaceutical research. 5(2); 2013:345-348. 

 

 

 

 

Received on 15.06.2018          Modified on 10.07.2018

Accepted on 30.07.2018        © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(1): 321-323.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00058.1