Influence of Different Doses of Vermicompost and NPK on Growth of Herb Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-Ayu

 

A Ranganadha Reddy1*, K. S. Ravi Teja1, Rinku P. Varghese1, M. Deepthi1, K P Sastry2

1School of Biotechnology, Vignan University, Guntur 522213, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Hyderabad 500039, Telangana, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: rangaaluri@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Experimental studies were carried out to study the influence of various organic and inorganic components (nutrients) with different combinations of vermicompost and NPK concentrations against the species of Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-Ayu at CIMAP, Research Centre, and Hyderabad during October 2010 to May, 2011. These studies focused  on the integrated nutrient management for production of higher herb in the species Ocimum tenuiflorum variety CIM-AYU. In the first phase experimental studies - six different levels of vermicompost and NPK (0- 3.0 tons/ha) were applied and the observations were made against the with application of 3.0 tons of vermicompost per hectare resulted in better growth  in Ocimum tenuiflorum variety CIM-AYU. Similarly a significant improvement in the number of leaves per plant was noticed due to vermicompost application. The considerable amount of increase in plant weight was noticed due to application of three tons of vermicompost and NPK per hectare/s

 

KEYWORDS: Ocimum tenuiflorum, Vermicompost, NPK.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Ocimum tenuiflorum (Krishna Tulasi) belongs to the family Lamiaceae (labiate) [1] is a medicinal [2] and aromatic crop that is thought to have originated in north central India and now grows native throughout the eastern world tropics, which yields essential oil and aroma chemicals and find diverse uses in the cosmetic industries as well as in indigenous systems of medicine.[3][4] Out of 160 species of Ocimum, found in India, Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn is cultivated in India on a industrial scale. It is distributed  in various parts of the country viz. in west Bengal, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu, Assam etc.[5] Essential oil of Ocimum tenuiflorum posses higher amount of linalool (39.39-55.26%) and moderate amounts of methyl chavicol (0-6.66%), nerol (0.48-8.0%), geraniol (0.26-1.75%) and citral (4.26-6.79%).[6]

 

Recent analysis of the chemical constituents in the essential oils of Ocimum tenuiflorum revealed the presence of α-humulene (0.71%), germacrene D (2.11-4.91%), β-elemene (1.59-6.35%), methyl eugenol (36.47-76.27%) and β-caryophyllene (8.71-56.63%).[7] The essential oils, mainly used in perfumery, food industries and also possess anti-microbial  and insecticidal properties. It inhibits the in vitro growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Micrococcus pyrogenes variety aureus. It has significant insecticidal activity against mosquitoes. Vermi compost improve herbs quality foliage yield, essential oil content, and oil yield. Vermicompost contains Nitrogen, Phosphorous,Potassium, Calcium, Sulphur and Magnesium Conserved Nutrients from Nature. Vermicompost is the product obtained by composting organic material  using earth worms.[8] Earth worms like Edudrilus eugeniae,Eistenia fetida and Perionyx erxcauatus have been identified as the organisms to process the biodegradable organic material.[9] The chemical composition of basil oil is reported as -pinene 0.1-0.4%, camphene 0.02-0.1%, ßpinene 0.07-0.8%, myrcene 0.12-0.8%, limonene 2.0-9.3%, cis-ocimene 0.1-0.6%, p-cymene 0.05-0.15%,cis-3-hexenol 0.02-0.08%, fenchyl acetate 0.1-0.5%,camphor 0.37-0.75%, linalool 40-54%, fenchyl alcohol 2-9%, methyl chavicol 23-26%, -terpineol 0.8-1.9%, citronellol 0.65-3.7%, geraniol 0.03-0.30%,methyl cinnamate 0.05-0.34% and eugenol 5-12%.[10][11][12]

 

Exp-I: Influence of different levels of Vermicompost  and NPK on Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-Ayu Plantation:

Nursery: 

Fully grown seedlings of size 4-6” were planted in field as per the lay out plan.

 

Treatment imposition:

The crop was planted on 17.08.2010 to 20.08.10. Vermicompost  and  NPK as per treatments were applied 10 days after planting. 

Maintenance: The crop was kept weed free and regularly irrigated

 

Observations recorded:

Observations on Herb:

Observations were taken at different intervals starting from 10 days after vermicompost and NPK application.  In each treatment five plants were removed at random from the plants and washed under tap water. The plants were partitioned   in to lamina, petiole and stem. Fresh and dry weights of individual components were taken separately. Later observations were recorded. Details about the observations recorded are presented here; The details are presented here; (See Table no.3).

 

Height of plant (cm):

The height of the regular plants was measured from the base of the plant and expressed as average in centimeters.

Number of leaves/plant:

The leaves were separated from the stem. The number of fresh and entire leaves were recorded and expressed as average.

 

Weight of leaves (gms):

Five plants from each treatment were selected randomly. After cleaning, the plants were separated in to leaves, stems and roots. The weight of the leaves of each plant was taken by using electronic balance and it is expressed as average.

 

Weight of stem (gms):

Five plants from each treatment were selected randomly. After cleaning, the plants were separated in to leaves, stems and roots. The weight of the stem of each plant was taken by using electronic balance and it is expressed as average

 

Fresh weight of plant (gms):

Five plants from each treatment were selected randomly.  The fresh weight of the plant of each plant was taken by using electronic balance and it is expressed as average.

 

Dry weight of leaves (gms):

The separated leaves from Six plants were dried in oven at 60°C till constant weight and the dry weight was recorded.

 

Dry weight of Stem (gms):

The separated leaves from Six plants were dried in oven at 60°C till constant weight and the dry weight was recorded.


 

Table-1: Vermicompost applications at Different levels   

SNO

Treatment

Vermicompost  tons/ha and NPK

Vermicompost Kg/plot and NPK Kg/plot  

1.

T1

100%VC+0% NPK

7.20 Kg VC+0.0g NPK

2.

T2

75%VC+25% NPK

5.40 Kg VC+120g NPK

3.

T3

50%VC+50% NPK

3.60 Kg VC+240g NPK

4.

T4

25%VC+75% NPK

1.80 Kg VC+360g NPK

5.

T5

0%VC+100%NPK

0.00 Kg VC+480g NPK

6

T6

Control

Control

 

Table-2: Table shows the replication of treatments with Vermicompost (VC: Vermicompost, NPK: Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, T: treatment, R: replication)

Experiment I                                                 

T1 Control

2R1T7.20  Kg VC+0 gm NPK

2R2T1 7.20  Kg VC+0 gm NPK

2R3T7.20   Kg VC+0 gm NPK

2R4T7.20   Kg VC+0 gm NPK

2R1T5.40 Kg VC+120 gm NPK

2R2T2 5.40 Kg VC+120 gm NPK

2R3T5.40 Kg VC+120 gm NPK

2R4T2 5.40 Kg VC+120 gm NPK

2R1T3 3.60 Kg VC+240 gm NPK

2R2T3 3.60 Kg VC+240 gm NPK

2R3T3 3.60 Kg VC+240 gm NPK

2R4T3 3.60 Kg VC+240 gm NPK

2R1T4 1.80 Kg VC+360 gm NPK

2R2T4 1.80 Kg VC+360 gm NPK

2R3T4 1.80 Kg VC+360 gm NPK

2R4T4 1.80 Kg VC+360 gm NPK

2R1T5 480gm NPK

2R2T5 480gmNPK

2R3T5 480gm NPK

2R4T5 480gmNPK

2R1T6 (Control)

2R2T6 (Control)

2R3T6 (Control)

2R4T6 (Control)

 


 

 

Table 3: Collection of fresh plant samples at regular intervals after plantation.

S.No

Days  after  planting

Code

1

30

Stage I

2

60

Stage II

3

90

Stage III

4

120

Stage IV

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Experimental studies with application of Vermicompost and NPK – observations and results

 

Morphological characters:

The Plant height significantly improved by treatments at different stages (Table-4 and Figure-1). A highly significant increased in plant weight was noticed due to application of vermicompost and NPK per hectare (table-5andFigure-2). Similarly, a significant improvement in the number of leaves per plant was noticed due to vermicompost and NPK application (table-6and Figure-3). Similar improvement were noticed in case of the height of the plant(cm), plant weight(gms), number of leaves, stem weight(gms), leaf weight(gms), leaf dry weight(gms), stem dry weight(gms), leaf area(sq.cms) and leaf dry weight (table 4,5,6,7,8,9,10and11 and Figure-1,2,3,4and5).

 

Plant Height (cms):

The results pertaining to the plant height as influenced by different treatments during the experimental period is presented in Table-4.

 

Table-4: Vermicompost and NPK Effect on the plant height (cm) at different stages.

Treatment

Days after planting

I

II

III

IV

T1

58.13

77.00

89.00

95.00

T2

54.63

74.50

85.50

92.00

T3

52.75

74.00

83.50

87.50

T4

50.25

68.00

77.00

88.00

T5

48.25

69.00

76.00

85.50

T6

50.75

58.50

76.00

82.00

F'- Test

NS

*

*

*

C.D.(P=0.05)

5.381

7.287

9.109

9.168

C.V.%

7.513

7.194

7.799

7.361

Days after planting I-30 days, II-60 days, III-90 days, IV-120 days

NS: Not significant  * Significant at P=0.05

 

 

Figure-1: Vermicompost and NPK Effect on the plant height (cm) in the Ocimum tenuiflorum    var. CIM-Ayu at different days after planting.

Application of vermicompost in combination with NPK significant improvement in the plant height. (See Table-4 and Figure-1)

 

Plant Weight (gm) The results pertaining to the plant weight (g/plant) influenced by different treatments during the experimental period is presented in Table-5.

 

 

Figure-2: Vermicompost and NPK Effect on the plant weight (gms) in the Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-Ayu at different days after planting.

 

Table-5: Vermicompost and NPK Effect on the plant weight (g/plant) at different stages.

Treatment

Days after planting

I

II

III

IV

T1

97.00

286.50

293.50

320.00

T2

93.63

260.00

268.50

290.50

T3

78.38

261.00

282.50

316.00

T4

74.25

341.50

280.50

283.00

T5

83.75

339.00

228.50

266.00

T6

71.50

200.00

210.50

241.50

F'- Test

*

*

*

*

C.D.(P=0.05)

7.872

34.696

31.668

32.838

C.V.%

7.001

8.544

7.908

7.525

Days after planting I-30 days, II-60 days, III-90 days, IV-120 days

NS: Not significant  *Significant at P=0.05

 

Application of vermicompost in combination with NPK significant improvement in the plant weight. (See Table-5and Figure-2)

 

ermicompostNumber of Leaves:

The results pertaining to the number of leaves /plant as influenced by different treatments during the experimental period is presented in Table-6.

 

Table-6: Vermicompost  and NPK Effect on the number of leaves/plant at different stages.

Treatment

Days after planting

I

II

III

IV

T1

289.50

1008.00

1012.00

1118.00

T2

346.38

1041.50

891.50

974.50

T3

314.75

1114.50

908.00

1014.50

T4

291.63

1124.50

787.00

878.50

T5

249.25

1079.00

679.00

791.50

T6

206.75

879.00

654.00

766.50

F'- Test

*

*

*

*

C.D.(P=0.05)

30.929

129.781

87.774

97.581

C.V.%

6.933

8.436

7.423

7.371

Days after planting I-30 days, II-60 days, III-90 days, IV-120 days

NS:Not significant *Significant at P=0.05

 

Figure-3: Vermicompost and NPK effect on the number of leaves in the Ocimum tenuiflorum var.

 

CIM-Ayu at different days after planting:

Though there is an increase in plant weight and number of leaves also increases in the case of application of vermicompost in combination with NPK. (See Table-6 andFigure-3)

 

Stem weight (gm):

The results pertaining to the stem weight (gm) as influenced by different treatments during the experimental period is presented in Table-7.

 

Table-7: Vermicompost and NPK Effect on the Stem Weight (g/plant) at different stages

Treatment

Days after planting

I

II

III

IV

T1

43.00

179.50

196.00

231.00

T2

40.75

135.00

161.50

162.00

T3

34.25

127.50

183.50

234.50

T4

32.63

164.50

124.00

161.50

T5

37.38

165.50

147.00

172.00

T6

30.00

90.50

126.00

151.00

F'- Test

*

*

*

*

C.D.(P=0.05)

3.471

19.38

17.269

20.328

C.V.%

7.101

8.75

7.08

7.509

Days after planting I-30 days, II-60 days, III-90 days, IV-120 days

NS: Not significant * Significant at P=0.05

 

 

Figure-4: Vermicompost and NPK Effect on the stem weight (gms) in the Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-Ayu at different days after planting.

Application of vermicompost in combination with NPK significant improvement in the stem weight. (See Table-7 and Figure-4).

 

Leaf Weight (gm)

The results pertaining to the leaf weight as influenced by different treatments during the experimental period is presented in Table-8.

 

Table-8: Vermicompost and NPK Effect on the leaf weight (g) / plant at different stages.

Treatment

Days after planting

I

II

III

IV

T1

57.75

157.00

167.50

139.00

T2

57.50

125.00

107.00

117.00

T3

50.00

133.50

109.00

121.50

T4

46.38

147.00

94.50

105.50

T5

40.50

133.50

81.50

85.00

T6

40.88

129.50

74.50

88.00

F'- Test

*

*

*

*

C.D.(P=0.05)

4.964

15.569

10.539

11.843

C.V.%

7.088

8.434

7.425

7.567

Days after planting I-30 days, II-60 days, III-90 days, IV-120 days

NS: Not significant       * Significant at P=0.05

 

 

Figure-5: Vermicompost and NPK   Effect on the leaf weight (gms) in the Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-Ayu at different days after planting.

 

Application of vermicompost in combination with NPK significant improvement in the leaf weight. See Table-08andFigure-5)

 

Leaf Dry Weight (gm):

The results pertaining to the leaf dry weight as influenced by different treatments during the experimental period is presented in Table-9.

 

Table-9: Vermicompost and NPK Effect on the leaf dry weight (g) at different stages.

Treatment

Days after planting

I

II

III

IV

T1

15.88

28.00

32.50

36.00

T2

17.88

34.00

33.50

38.50

T3

16.25

36.50

34.00

30.50

T4

15.50

38.50

36.00

34.50

T5

17.38

39.50

33.00

31.50

T6

16.00

22.50

34.00

32.50

F'- Test

*

*

NS

*

C.D.(P=0.05)

1.625

4.049

3.749

3.856

C.V.%

6.995

7.867

7.858

7.343

Days after planting I-30 days, II-60 days, III-90 days, IV-120 days

NS: Not significant        * Significant at P=0.05

 

Application of vermicompost in combination with NPK significant improvement in the leaf dry weight. (See Table-09)

 

Stem Dry Weight (gm):

The results pertaining to the leaf dry weight as influenced by different treatments during the experimental period is presented in Table-10.

 

Table-10: Vermicompost and NPK Effect on the stem dry weight (g) at different stages.

Treatment

Days after planting

I

II

III

IV

T1

8.13

62.00

89.00

94.50

T2

8.63

43.50

77.00

79.50

T3

6.38

39.00

73.50

85.50

T4

5.88

64.00

67.00

71.00

T5

8.00

54.00

77.50

72.50

T6

7.50

31.50

59.50

66.00

F'- Test

*

*

*

*

C.D.(P=0.05)

0.602

6.387

8.009

8.35

C.V.%

5.89

9.245

6.906

6.846

Days after planting I-30 days, II-60 days, III-90 days, IV-120 days

NS: Not significant        * Significant at P=0.05

 

Application of vermicompost in combination with NPK showed significant improvement in the stem dry weight. (See Table-10)

 

Leaf Area (sq.cm):

The results pertaining to the leaf area as influenced by different treatments during the experimental period is presented in Table-11.

 

Table-11: Vermicompost and NPK Effect on the leaf area (sq.cm) at different stages.

Treatment

Days after planting

I

II

III

IV

T1

12.35

7.30

3.20

9.30

T2

7.40

8.30

3.40

4.80

T3

9.50

9.40

4.60

5.40

T4

9.10

9.80

5.90

7.50

T5

8.45

7.40

7.10

6.90

T6

5.40

5.50

6.60

6.40

F'- Test

*

*

*

*

C.D.(P=0.05)

1.108

1.222

0.632

0.771

C.V.%

7.125

9.167

8.201

8.146

Days after planting I-30 days, II-60 days, III-90 days, IV-120 days

NS: Not significant        * Significant at P=0.05

 

Area of the leaf was calculated by Systronics leaf area meter machine using the 20 sq.cm plate and the values were recorded. No significant improvement was noticed in case of area of the leaf.

 

RESULT:

A significant increase in plant weight was noticed due to application of three tons of vermicompost and NPK  per hectare. Similarly a significant improvement in the number of leaves per plant was noticed due to vermicompost and NPK application. Similar improvement was noticed in the case of stem weight, leaf weight, Leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and leaf area. Application of 100% vermicompost and NPK resulted in significant improvement in the plant height. Similarly a significant improvement in the plant weight number of leaves per plant, stem weight, leave weight, leave dry weight, and stem dry weight were noticed due to 100% vermicompost and NPK application.

 

REFERENCES:

1.        Bast F, Rani P, Meena D. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Indian subcontinent. ScientificWorldJournal.2014; 2014:847–482.

2.        Simon, J.E., A.F. Chadwick, and L.E. Craker. 1984. Basil. In:Herbs: An indexed bibliography, 1971-1980. Archon Books.

3.        Krishnan R. Natural outcrossing in sweet basil-Ocimum basilicum L. Indian Perfumer, 25(3and4); 1981: 74-77.

4.        Joy, P.P., Thomas, J., Mathew, S., Jose, G. and Joseph, J.Aromatic plants. Tropical Horticulture Vol. 2. (eds. Bose, T.K.,Kabir, J., Das, P. and Joy, P.P.). Naya Prokash, Calcutta, 2001;633-733

5.        Sobti SN. and Pushpangadan P. Studies in the Genus Ocimum : to genetics, Breeding and Production of New Strains of economic Importance, in CK. Atal and BM Kapur (eds), Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants. RRL, CSIR, Jammu-Tawi, 1982 :457-472.

6.        Omer E.A., Elsayed A-G.A., El-Lathy A., Khattab M.E., Sabra A.S., Effect of the nitrogen fertilizer forms and time of their application on the yield of herb and essential oil of Ocimum americanum L. Herba Pol., 54(1); 2008:34–46.

7.        Vani, S.R., S.F. Cheng and C.H. Chuah, Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum. Am. J. Applied Sci.,6(3); 2009: 523-528.

8.        Gandhi, M., Sangwan, V., Kapoor, K.K. and Dilbaghi, N.Composting of household wastes with and without earthworms.Environment and Ecology., 15(2);1997: 432-434.

9.        Patil, S.L and Sheelavantar M.N. Effect of moisture conservation practices, organic sources and nitrogen levels on yield, water use and root development of rabi sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] in the vertisols of semiarid tropics. Annals of Agricultural Research.,21(21); 2000 :32–36.

10.     Kumar, A., Sharma, A. and Virmani, O. P. Cultivation and utilization of rose geranium: A review. Cur. Res. Med. Arom.Plants., 7(3); 1985:137-147.

11.     A. Ranganadha Reddy, R. Bharath Kumar, T. C. Venkateswarulu, M. Indira,D. Ramyakrishna, M. Deepthi, K. P. Sastry Experimental studies on Influence of different doses of Vermicompost on essential oil yield of Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-Ayu Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2016; 9(12):1451-1457

12.     A. Ranganadha Reddy, R. Bharath Kumar, Dr.V.Ravi Kumar, M. Deepthi, T. Naga Lohita,M. Sriharsha, K.P. Sastry Experimental Studies on effect of Vermicompost and NPK on Essential oil yield of Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-Ayu. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2015; 8(11):1519-1525

 

 

 

Received on 16.09.2017             Modified on 01.11.2017

Accepted on 18.12.2017           © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(5):1713-1717.

DOI:  10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00318.9