Optimization in Component Based Fault Oriented Power Distribution System


S. P. Angelin Claret1,2,*, M. Germanus Alex3

1Research Scholar, Dept. of Computer Science, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India

2Assistant Professor, Dept. of Computer Science, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India

3Professor & HOD, Dept. of Computer Science, Kamarajar Govt. Arts College, Tirunelveli, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: spangelin@rediffmail.com, angelin.s@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in, mgalxus@yahoo.com



The maximum and minimum demand on load from one process to another process is estimated by the component based optimization method. The main aim of optimization is to limit the cost of meeting the load demand and the cost of system. This paper emphases on the estimation of optimization in component based fault identification and rectification in power distribution system. The component based fault detection algorithm identifies the fault identified region and the component based fault injection algorithm shows the regular flow of power distribution. The results are expressed in matlab software and thus show the existence of fault in a specified voltage level. The optimization can be identified by the two fault algorithms which express the extreme and least flow of power from one region to other.


KEYWORDS: Fault, Component Based Methods, Voltage, Optimization.




The development of Component-Based Systems introduces fundamental changes in the way systems are acquired, integrated, deployed and evolved. This approach is based on the idea that software systems can be developed by selecting appropriate off-the-shelf components and then assembling them with well-defined software architecture. This new approach is different from the traditional approach in which the software systems can only be built from the scratch. Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) can reduce development cost and time to market, and improve maintainability, reliability and overall quality of the software systems [1].


The fault occurs in any of the distribution system components may lead to component failure. The digital relays are used to find the fault occurred in the components. The power, voltage and current are the major metrics used by the relay for the estimation. This metrics is used for the identification of fault for the voltage level 0.0 to 0.3. A large number of adaptive systems are used to raise the flexibility of the distribution system. Various algorithms based on wavelet techniques, fuzzy logic, neuro fuzzy and artificial neural networks have used to detect the fault from the relay location [3, 4].  Fault Detection, Fault classification and Fault Location are the three methods used to identify and locate the fault stage [2]. Consecutive sample comparison and comparison of recent sample are the other two approaches to detect the fault [5, 6]. Kalman filtering, phasor estimation, discrete fourier transform methods are also used for the fault detection [7, 8].


A fault detection algorithm is used to detect the superimposed component in a fault signal. This algorithm compares the sum of absolute samples in the recent cycle and the previous cycle for the super imposed components [2].


The component based development uses various components connected together. A Path is used to measure the distance from one component to another component. To improve reliability optimal path is computed to find the best location [9].Component based development involves a system that includes of significant use of various components. A path is a distance between components from one location to other location. The needs of reusability and component selection the current component specification techniques has evaluated by Michael [10]. The planning of reusable components for the application of optimization is selected by the set of components [11]. This will include the maximum and minimum outputs for the processes during their distributions.


2. Faults In Power Distribution System:

Power Distribution System is process of distributing the generated power from substation to the consumers, residents and commercials.  During the distribution of power from sub stations to consumers various faults occurs which lack the power to distribute to the destination. The faults can be identified analyzed rectified and corrected [12].  Anything which cause failure is a fault and it occurs due to various reasons like transient faults non transient faults which include disasters, technical faults, etc., Various fault identification and detection algorithms are used to identify the regular and abnormal flow of power for the interval 0.0 to 0.3. Before using fault detection algorithm the flow of power is shown in Fig.1



Fig:1. Voltage drop from 0.0 to 0.3 interval


2.1. Fault Detection:

The three phase fault is used in the fault identification algorithm to accurately detect the flow of power. Three phase fault is shown in Fig.2, and is located in the substation to detect the fault. The substation is encapsulated by the component based methods. It is very efficient to estimate the fault, if it is surrounded by component based methods.

Fault Identification Algorithm:

1.    Let A, B, C are the three phases of power.

2.    P=A, B, C

3.    Let X, Y, Z are the three regions of power distribution system from substation.

4.    If (X=P) then power flows from substation to industrial region

5.    Else if (Y=P) then power flows from substation to agricultural region

6.    Else (Z=P) then power flows from substation to residential region.

7.    Evaluate Q=0.0 to 0.3 voltage level

8.    R=Three Phase Fault

9.    Apply R to detect the variation of fault.

10. F=∑X +∑Y+∑Z

11. if (P= (R*Q)) then

12. F= voltage drops and fails to distribute normal flow of power (identified)

13. Else

14. F =normal flow of power detected


The three phase fault that occurs during the distribution of power system can be identified by the component based fault detecting algorithm. This algorithm identifies the region of fault and rectified the faulty region. The work is shown by the matlab software for the range of 0.0 to 0.3 and identified there is a voltage drop from 0.1 to 0.2 as there is no full flow of Voltage.



Fig: 2. Three Phase Fault


After applying the fault detecting algorithm the exact voltage drop can be noticed. It is indicates there is a voltage shortage as shown in Fig.2.



Fig: 3. Minimal Voltage Shortage


2.2. Fault Clearance:

To remove the detected fault, the fault injection algorithm is used. Here three phase breaker and three phase Resistance Inductor and Capacitor (RLC) load is used to rectify the fault as shown in Fig.4 and Fig.5. These are embedded with the fault rectification algorithm which is located in the substation. Once this algorithm executes the normal flow of power will starts to flow.


Fig: 4. Three Phase Breaker


Fig: 5.Three Phase series RLC Load


Fault Injection Algorithm:

1.    R=Three Phase Fault

2.    Q=Three Phase Breaker

3.    S=Three Phase Series RLC Load

4.    If (R=(Q+S)) then

5.    Execute Normal flow power

6.    Else

7.    Variations in flow detected.


3. Voltage Drop - Injection:

Once the faults are analyzed and identified it should be cleared by applying the component based voltage injection algorithm. Once the dropped power is injected, the flow will attain its normal state. This can be corrected by injecting the necessary power by components. Once the power are injected by the fault injection algorithm the flow of power become normal which is shown in Fig.6.


Fig: 6. Normal Flow Of Voltage (no faults)


The overview of component based optimization is expressed in Fig.6. This shows the description of the component based optimization results that obtained before and after assigning the fault oriented algorithm and component based methods.


The component based optimization method is used to estimate the fault occurrences in the power distribution system. The fault detection algorithm concentrates on the identification of fault during the distribution of power. The three phase fault is used as a component based method to detect the fault. Fault Injection algorithm is used to clear the faulty region and allow the normal flow of power from one region to another. Three phase breaker and three phase RLC load to rectify the variation occur in the distribution of power. From this the minimum and maximum variations in flow of power can be identified to show its optimization. The fault detection and Injection algorithm produces the accurate result for its component based optimization.  By this the cost of using the system resources are reduced. This work can be extended to find the component based optimization in the generation and transmission lines.



The authors would like to thank various power centers for collecting the fault detection information.


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Received on 09.01.2018         Modified on 12.02.2018

Accepted on 01.03.2018      © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(3): 847-850.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00157.9