In Vitro Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of  Andrographis paniculata

 

T. M. Sree Vidhya1, Mrs. Geetha2

1BDS (CRRI), Saveetha Dental College, 162, Poonamalle High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai-600077.

2Dept. of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, 162, Poonamalle High Road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai-600077.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: vidhyadevan94@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Many clinical diagnoses depend on the electronic equipment to detect and treat the diseases from basic illness to fatal diseases or injuries. But, most of the diagnosis techniques are invasive and cause pain or uncomfortable issues to the patients. However, the non-invasive methods, like breath exhale testing which is completely painless. In this work, we report a preliminary study of simple and compact wireless smartphone based sensing device. This device was fabricated to detect the ammonia vapor in the human exhaled breath towards diagnosing renal disease. The sensing performance of the device was tested in laboratory conditions and the obtained results are as follows. The developed device exhibited good sensing response of 584 % with response and recovery time in the order of seconds towards 50 ppm for ammonia vapor. Furthermore, ammonia sensitivity and selectivity tests are carried out for the developed breath analyzer device and the results are reported.

 

KEYWORDS: Anti inflammatory, nilavembu, denaturation, asprin.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Inflammation is a normal, protective response to tissue injury caused by physical trauma, noxious chemicals or microbiological agents. There are mainly two types of inflammation, Acute inflammation which is associated with increased vascular permeability, capillary infiltration and emigration of leukocytes and Chronic inflammation which is associated with infiltration of mononuclear immune cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, fibroblast activation, proliferation (angiogenesis) and fibrosis.(1,2) Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance that reduces inflammation or swelling. Many drugs are used for anti-inflammation. The NSAIDs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, etc are used. Medicinal plants are believed to be an important source of new chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects.

 

Therefore, the developments of potent anti- inflammatory drugs from the natural products are now under considerations. Natural products are rich source for discovery of new drugs because of their chemical diversity. A natural product from medicinal plants plays a major role to cure many diseases associated with inflammation. (2, 3)The conventional drug available in the market to treat inflammation produces various side-effects. Due to these side-effects, there is need for the search of newer drugs with less or no side-effects. There are hundreds of phytoconstituents reported to have many pharmacological activities although most of these reports are of academic interest and very few find entry in clinical trials. This article reports the efficiency and anti-inflammatory activity of nilavembu powder (4, 5).

 

Nilavembukudinnerisa polyherbal siddha medicine which is originating from Tamil nadu. Nilavembu or Andrographis paniculata is the principle ingredient along with Chukku, Milagu and Vettiver. Its formula paves a way to control all types of fever and body ache. (8, 9, 10). It controls fever in a comprehensive way through healing the effect of rise in temperature, inflammation control and body pain relief. The aerial part of the plant, used medicinally which contains a large number of chemical constituents, mainly lactones, ditrepenoids, diterpene glycosides, flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides Synergistic action of herbal combination relives all types of fever irrespective of the type of causative organism. It exhibit potential antiviral activity against Dengue and Chikungunya fever. In fever associated with inflammatory conditions such as abscess it counteracts inflammation and reduces the body temperature (6, 7).

 

METHODOLGY:

In vitro anti-inflammatory activity:

Inhibition of protein denaturation:

The denaturation of proteins is one of the causes of inflammation. Hence, protein denaturation can be employed as in vitro screening model for anti-inflammatory compounds. The reaction mixture consists of test extract at different concentrations and 1% aqueous solution of bovine albumin fraction. pH of the reaction mixture was adjusted using small amount of 1N HCl. The samples were incubated at 37oC for 20 min and then heated at 57oC for 20 min. After cooling the samples, the turbidity was measured spectrophotometrically at 660 nm. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Percent inhibition of protein denaturation was calculated as follows:

 

Percentage inhibition = (Abs control – Abs sample) X 100/ Abs control

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Denaturation of proteins is a well documented cause of inflammation. As a part of the investigation on the mechanism of the antiinflammatory activity, ability of extract to inhibit protein denaturation was studied. It was effective in inhibiting heat induced albumin denaturation at different concentrations as shown in Table 1. Maximum inhibition, 70.12±1.12% was observed at 500µg/ml. IC50 value was found to be 105.35± 1.99µg/ml. Aspirin, a standard anti inflammatory drug showed the maximum inhibition, 77.12±1.42% at the concentration of 200µg/ml.

 

Table 1: Protein denaturation inhibiting activity

Sample concentration (µg)

Percentage activity %

Control (Aspirin) Concentration (µg)

Percentage activity

%

100

6.74 ± 0.81

50

17.97±0.50

200

16.23 ± 1.49

100

32.68±0.57

300

30.98 ± 1.29

150

47.39±1.50

400

49.73 ± 1.45

200

63.07±1.49

500

70.12 ± 1.12

250

77.12±1.42

IC 50 ( µg/ml)

105.35±1.99

IC 50 ( µg/ml)

39.78±0.50

 

 

 

CONCLUSION:

From our study it can be concluded that the extract of Andrographis paniculata as got anti inflammatory activity. The activity may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites like flavonoids, tannins, phenols, alkaloids etc. However purification of the bioactive compounds is absolutely necessary to understand the mechanism of action.

 

REFERENCE:

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2.     World Health Organization. Guidelines on clinical management of chikungunya fever. New Delhi: World Health Organization; 2008.

3.     Venkataranganna MV, Gopumadhavan S, Mitra SK, Anturlikar SD. Anti-inflammatory activity of JointCare B, a polyherbal Formulation. Indian Drugs 2000; 37: 543-546.

4.     Varier S. Indian Medicinal plants: a compendium of 500 species. 2nd ed. Vol. 1 and 2. Orient Longman Publication: Hyderabad; 1994.

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6.     Varier S. Indian Medicinal Plants: A compendium of 500 species. 2nd ed. Vol. 5. Orient Longman Publication: Hyderabad; 1996.

7.     OECD. OECD guideline for testing of chemicals, no.423. acute oral toxicity: acute toxic class method. Paris: OECD; 2011.

8.     Patra P, Jha S, Murthy PN, Vaibhav DA, Chattopadhyay P, Panigrahi G, et al. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Hygrophilaspinosa T. Anders Leaves (Acanthaceae). Trop J Pharm Res 2009; 8: 133-137.

9.     Vogel HG. Drug discovery and evaluation: pharmacological assays. 2nd ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2002, p. 772-773.

10.   Vyas S, Agrawal PR, Solanki P, Trivedi P. Analgesic and anti-Inflammatory activities of Trigonella foenumgreceum seed extract. Acta Pol pharm 2008:65:473-476.

 

 

 

 

Received on 15.09.2017         Modified on 02.11.2017

Accepted on 06.12.2017      © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(3): 957-958.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00178.6