Potential Medicinal Plants to Treat Leprosy-A Review

 

Ranjitha Dhevi V. Sundar, Sugashini Settu, Saranya Shankar, Gayathri Segaran,

Mythili Sathiavelu

School of Bioscience and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632014, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: smythili@vit.ac.in

 

ABSTRACT:

Therapeutic plants have many different medicinal properties and thereby it helps in finding out a proper health care system. Since ancient times the drugs were derived mainly from the herbal origin either from the whole plant or from different organs like leaves, root, stem, bark, seed, flower etc., and some drugs are prepared from excretory plant product such as gum, resins and latex. Mycobacterium leprae is a bacteria which causes a chronic disease called Leprosy which damages the peripheral nervous system and skin. Slowly the disease develops and results in deformities and skin lesions, most commonly it affects the cooler places on the body like testicles, earlobes, eyes and nose. It was estimated that about two to three million people were permanently disabled because of leprosy. The highest number of cases was seen in India followed by Brazil and Burma. Leprosy is common in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates,and it affects humanity for over 4,000 years.

 

KEYWORDS: Medicinal plants, Phytochemicals, Leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae, Disfiguring.

 


INTRODUCTION:

Mycobacterium leprae is anetiologic agent, identified by the Norwegian doctor Gerhard Hansen, which causes a chronic infectious disease called leprosy or Hansen’s disease.1,2. Over 4000years Leprosy affects humanity and it causes two to three million people to disable permanently3,4. For ages, it is considered as an incurable disease. Around the world, a second greatest number of leprosy cases was estimated in Brazil. Nerve damage, disfiguring skin sores and progressive debilitation are some of the characterization of this disease. They are not easily transmittable and it has long incubation period (time before symptoms appear), that makes it difficult to determine where or when the disease was contracted.comparing to adult, children are more prone to contracting the disease1,2. Around the world, it was estimated as more than 5 million people were infected by Mycobacterium leprae and are mostly seen in Latin America, Asia,Pacific Islands and Africa1.

 

Rashmi Sarkar et al. reported that in comparison with men, younger age group women were affected by leprosy5. For synthesizing medicines there is a need for new bioactive products, semi-synthetic medicines or lead compounds which can be derived from plant source as it is considered to have molecules with medicinal potential. By ethnobotanical, biological, ethnopharmacological, pharmacological, chemical and toxicological studies, the potential medicine source can be exploited.

 

Tuberculoid and Lepromatous are the two forms of Leprosy. Skin sores are produced by both the forms in which lepromatous is the most severe form producing large, disfiguring lumps and bumps (nodules lepromatous). People lose their hands or feet who have long term leprosy due to repeated injury that was  resulted from a lack of sensation2. Since prehistoric times, medicinal plants serves as a source for many natural medicines. Aspirin, digitalis, paracetamol, quinine and vinblastine are some of the modern medicine which has their source from the natural compounds of medicinal plants like willow bark (Salixspp.), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), quinine bark (Cinchona officinalis) and Madagascar periwinkle (Vincarosea) respectively6.

Various phytochemical present in plants plays a vital role in reducing the development of many diseases by improving diverse organ functions of the human body, by acting as antioxidants and by providing required nutrients7. Flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, coumarins and vitamins are some of the active substances present in the medicinal plants ,thereby it has a wide application in therapeutic field and it protects the body of a human being from various disease by interrupting at different stages of pathogens development6.Though there is a great advances in development of modern scientific medicine, still in many developing countries majority of the people relay on traditional medicine for treating diseases8. Because of an excellent opportunity provided by herbal medicines worldwide, several new drugs can be developed by utilizing them in Ayurveda 8.

 

On the earth, there were about 2,50,000 higher plant species, in that more than  80,000 were medicinally used for thevarious purpose9.As medicinal plant has many different medicinal properties, it helps in finding out a proper health care system10.Basically, India is said to be an herbarium of the world. To cure many diseases nature serves as a storehouse of medications, in which tribal and rural areas of our country are still exercising herbal medicine for their healthcare purposes11. According to  World Health Organization (WHO), in developing countries approximately about 80% of the people depend on traditional medicine11. For maintaining and improving human life plants play a major role for thousands of years, in which it provides beneficial components in beverages, cosmetics, medicines and dyes12. At community level farmers, herbalists, healers, spiritualists and hunters uses traditional medicine for many centuries as a primary health care system13.For treating skin diseases (leucoderma and leprosy) and wound, tribal and non-tribal people in different areas uses  plants in many ways14.

 

Dapsone, rifampicin and clofazimine are used as multidrug therapy against leprosy, that is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Among this rifampicin is the most significant anti-leprosy drug. According to WHO, Dapsone is considered to be very safe and has rare side effects. clofazimine and rifampin can be used as multi drug therapy in combination with Dapsone, a sulfone compound. Rifampicin is a semisynthetic compound derived from Amycolatopsis rifamycinica and it is a bactericidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group3.


 

Phytochemical constituents of the medicinal plants used in the treatment of leprosy.

S.no

Plant

Phytochemical constituents

Reference

1.    

Tinospora cordifolia

Alkaloids, Steroids, Polysaccharides

6

2.    

Euphorbia tirucalli

Flavonoids, Phenol, Proanthocyanidins

15

3.    

Calotropis procera Linn.

Proteins, Amino acid, Alkaloid, Phenol, Saponin, Flavonoids, Tannin, Fats, Oils, Triterpenoids, Steroids, Reducing Sugar’s and glycoside

10

4.    

Cassia tora Linn.

Alkaloid, Phenol, Saponin, Carbohydrate, Glyco-sides, Protein

11

5.    

Sonchus arvensis Linn.

Phenol, Flavonoid

16

6.    

Terminalia chebula Retz

Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponin, Phenol, Steroids, Tannin ,Glycoside

17

7.    

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

Glycoside, Steroids, Terpinoids, Tannins, Phenols

18

8.    

Musa paradisiacal

Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Phenols, Saponins, Phytates, Oxalates

19

9.    

Mimosa pudica

Proteins, Tannins

20

10.  

Cordia dichotoma (Forsk)

Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Tannins, Proteins, Terpens, Reducing sugars

21

11.  

Pandanus tectorius Soland

Phenolics, Flavonoids, Terpenoid, Steroids, Saponins, Glycosides

22

12.  

Pterospermum acerifolium Willd

Alkaloids, Glycosides, Tannins, Triterpenoids, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids

23

13.  

Parkia biglobosa

Anthocyanin, Flavonoid, Saponin, Glycosides, Tannins

24

14.  

Ocimum basilicum L.

 Terpenoids, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Saponin Glycosides, Ascorbic acid

25

15.  

Leucas martinicensis (Jacq.) Ait. F

Flavonoids, Alkanoids, Volatile oil

26

16.  

Bombax ceiba L.

Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Steroids, Saponins, Tannins

27

17.  

Ficus hispida Linn.f

 Steroids, Triterpenoids, Phenols, Tannins, Flavonoids

28

18.  

Carea arborea Roxb.

Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Steroids, Terpenoid

29

19.  

Tabernaemontana divaricata L.

Alkaloids, Tannis, Resins, Proteins, Amino acids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Phenols, Glycosides, Steroids, Triterpenoids, Fixed oils and fats

30

20.  

Bauhinia variegata Linn.

 Lupeol, Alkaloids, Oil, Fat, Glycoside, Phenol, Lignin, Saponins, Tannins, Carbohydrates, Reducing sugar, Protein,  Fiber, Calcium, Phosphorus

31

21.  

Striga hermonthica

Saponins, Streroids, Tannins and Terpenoids, Alkaloids, Cardiac glycoside, Phlobatanins, Anthraquinones

32

22.  

Anacardium occidentale L.

Saponins, Streroids, Tannins, Phenol, Alkaloids Anthraquinones

33

23.  

Afzelia africana Sm.

Alkaloids, C.glycoside, Carbohydrate, Flavonoids, Saponins , Steroids, Tannins

34

24.  

Vitexdoniana Sweet

Alkaloids, Steroids,Flavonoids, Tannins, Glycosides ,Saponins

35

25.  

Albizzia libbeck

Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Steroids, Saponin, Phenol, Tannin, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Glycosides

36,37

26.  

Amaranthus spinosis

Fixed oils and fats, Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Gum, Mucilage, Phenol, Protein/amino acids, Tannins, Saponins

38

27.  

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

 Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Lignin, Glycosides, Terpenoids, Saponins, Carbohydrates, Protein, Fats

39

28.  

Centella asiatica Linn.

Alkaloids, Protein / Amino acid, Reducing sugar, Saponins, Tannins, Triterpenoids, Starch, Fixed oil

40

29.  

Hiptage benghalensis (L.)

Tannins, Saponins, Flavonoids, Gums& Carbohydrates, Alkaloids, Reducing Sugars,  Terpenoids

41

30.  

Holarrhena antidysenterica Foxh

Alkaloids , Flavonoids , Sterols , Quinine , Glycosides

42

31.  

Plumeria rubra Linn.

Tannins, Phlobatannins,, Saponin Flavonoid, Steroids, Terpene, Cardiac glycoside ,Reducing sugar

43

32.  

Chaulmoogra odorata

Flavonoids, Proteins, Triterpenoids, Tannins, Glycosides, Saponin, Fixed oils, , Proteins, Alkaloids, Carbohydrates

44

33.  

Azadirachta indica

Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Reducing sugars, Flavanoids, Glycoside, Glycoside, Tannins, Phenol, Saponins, Triterpenoids, Steroids

45

34.  

Borassus flabellifer Linn.

Tannins, Saponin , Flavonoids , Terpenoids , Glycosides

46

35.  

Cassia fistula Linn.

Anthraquinones,  Flavonoids,  Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Reducing sugars,  Saponins, Tannins,  Carbonyl, Phlobatanin, Steroids

47

36.  

Commelina benghalensis L.

Resins, Balsams, Flavonoids, Saponins, Volatile oils, Phlobatannins, Carbohydrate, Tannin, Glycoside

48

37.  

Abutilon indicum (L.)

Saponins, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Steroids, Sapogenins, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids

49

38.  

Ficus racemosa L.

Phenol, Flavonoids, Alkaloids

50

39.  

Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth

Steroid, Alkaloid, Flavonoid, Reducing sugar, saponin

51

40.  

Millingtonia hortensis Linn.

Carbohydrate, Flavonoids, Tannin, Steroid

52

41.  

Acacia catechu willd

Saponins, Tannins, Phenol, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids, Alkaloids,Glycosides

53

42.  

Achyranthes aspera

Carbohydrates, Protein, Glycosides, Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Flavonoids

54

43.  

Alangium salvifolium

Proteins, Steroids, Glycosides, Alkaloids, Triterpenoids

55,56

44.  

Brassica nigra

Saponins, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Reducing sugar, Phlobatannins, Volatile oil

57

45.  

Terminalia catappa

Tannins, Flavanoids, Steroids, Xantons, Saponins

58

46.  

Ricinus communis

Flavonoids, Saponins, Glycosides, Alkaloids, Steroids

59

47.  

Ocimum sanctum L.

Saponin, Sterol, Anthroquinone, Flavonoid, Phenol, Tannin, Terpenoid, Alkaloid, Carbohydrates

60

48.  

Andrographis paniculata

Steroids, Phenols, Terpenoids, Alkaloids, Saponins, Flavonoids

61

49.  

Voacanga Africana stapf

Alkaloids,Anthranoids, Anthraquinone, Cardiac glycosides, Phenol, Starch, Tannins

62

50.  

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

 Phenols, Tannins, Steroids, Terpenoids, Alkaloids, Flavones

63

51.  

Coriandrum sativum

Carbohydrates,  Reducing sugars, Glycosides, Triterpenes, Proteins, Essential oil

64

52.  

Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub

Carbohydrate, Flavonoid, Glycosides, Saponins, Terpenoids, Steroids

65

53.      

Acacia leucophloea

Alkaloids, Carbohydrate, Saponin, Proteins, Amino Acids, Anthraquinone, Tannin, Flavonoids, Fixed oils, Fats,Cardiac Glycosides, Steroids, Terpenoids

66

54.      

Jatropha gossypifolia

Phenol, Tannin, Starch grains, Saponin, Lignin

67

55.      

Thevetia nerifolia

Alkaloid, Steroid, Phenol, Flavonoid, Terpenoid

68

56.      

Hydnocarpus wightiuna

Flavonoids, Glycosides, Carbohydrates, Amino Acids

69

57.      

Aristolochia bracteolate Retz

Alkaloids, Triterpenoids, Steroids and Sterols, Flavonoids, Tannins, Phenol, Cardio glycosides

70

58.      

Jatropha curcas

 Trepenoid, Phenolics, Flavonoid, Saponins

71

59.      

Momordica charantia L.

Flavanoids, Saponins, Terpenoids, Alkaloids, Proteins, Cardiac glycosides,  Anthraquinones, Anthocyanins, Steroids

72

60.      

Withania somnifera Dunal

Glycosides, Glucose, Condensed tannins, Flavonoids, Alkaloid, Amino acids, Steroids, Volatile oil, Starch, Reducing sugars

73

61.      

Eclipta alba Hassk.

Alkaloids, Saponin, Flavonoids

74

62.      

Alstonia scholaris Linn.

Carbohydrates, Alkaloid, Glycosides, Steroids,  Phenol, Flavonoids, Proanthocyanidins

75,76

63.      

Caesalpinia sappan Linn.

Alkaloid, Carbohydrates, Flavonoid, Cardiac glycosides

77

64.      

Saussurea lappa Clarke

Alkaloids, Glycosides,Tannin,  Carbohydrate, Proteins, Phenols, Flavonoid, Gums and mucilage

78

65.      

Lycopersicon esculantam Mill

Carotenoids, Tannins,  Alkaloids, Phenol, Flavonoids

79

66.      

Theobroma cacao L.

Tannins, Saponin ,Cardiac,Glycosides,Terpenoids,Flavonoids

80

67.      

Pistia stratiotes L.

Sterols, Resin

81

 

68.      

Asparagus racemosus

Phytosterols, Triterpenoids,  Saponins , Alkaloids Carbohydrates ,Flavanoids, Lactones ,Tannins and phenolic compounds, Proteins, Glycosides, Fixed oils, Fatty acids

82

69.      

Aegle marmelos

Flavonoids, Phenolic compounds, Phytosterols, Saponins

83

70.      

Gloriosa superb

Proteins, Phenols, Tannins, Starch, Terpinoides, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Alkaloids, Saponin

84

71.      

Pongamia pinnata

Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Reducing Sugars, Tannins, Phenolic Compounds, Saponins

85

72.      

Coleus vettiveroides

Phenols , Flavonoids

86

73.      

Allium sativum

Saponins , Tannins,Steroids, Carbohydrates , Cardiac glycosides

87

74.      

Costus speciosus

Carbohydrates, Alkaloids, Glycosides, Saponins ,Flavonoids,Phenols

88

75.      

Cussonia arborea,

Alkaloids ,Flavonoids , Steroids, Cardiac Glycosides, Tannins

89

76.      

Combretum glutinosum Perr.

Saponins, Phenols, Tannins ,Flavonoids

90

77.      

Psorospermum senegalense Spach.

Cardiac glycoside, Carbohydrate, Tannins, Flavonoids Steroids, Alkaloids, Glycosides, Triterpenes

91

78.      

Khaya senegalensis

Alkaloids, Flavonoids , Steroids, Saponins, Tannins, Triterpenoids

92

79.      

Trichilia emetica Vahl.

Anthraquinones, Xanthines, Cardioactive Glycosides, Flavonoids, Essential Oils, Lignans, Saponins

93

80.      

Acacia seyal Del.

Proteins, Phenolics, Flavonoids, Anthocyanin

94

81.      

Opilia celtidifolia (Guill. et Perr.) Endl. ex Walp.

Triterpenoid , Saponins, Flavonoids, Polysaccharide, Phenol

95,96

82.      

Salvadora persica L.

Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Tannins, saponins, Carbohydrate

97

83.      

Acacia senegal (L.)Willd.

Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids

94

 

 

List of medicinal plants used in the treatment of leprosy

S.no

Botanical name

Family

Common name

Parts used

References

1.      

Tinospora cordifolia

Menispermaceae

Heart-leaved moonseed

Stem

6

2.    

Euphorbia tirucalli

Euphorbiaceae

Firestick plants

Wood decoctions

8

3.    

Calotropis procera Linn.

Asclepiadaecae

Apple of Sodom

Different parts of the plant Root

10,98

4.    

Cassia tora Linn.

Caesapiniaceae

Sickle senna

Seeds

11

5.    

Sonchusarvensis Linn

.steraceae

Field milk thistle

Roots Leaves

99

6.    

Terminalia chebula Retz

Combretaceae

Chebulic myrobalan

Fruit

99

7.    

Triumfettapilosa Roth.

Malvaceae

Burbark

Leaf Flower

99

8.    

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

Fabaceae

Sisu North Indian Rosewood,

Decoction of the bark and leaf  Wood

99100

9.    

Musa paradisica

Musacaea

Banana

Astringent plant sap

101

10.  

Mimosa pudica

Mimisace

Sensitive plant

Root

12

11.  

Cordia dichotoma(Forsk)

Boraginaceae

Sebesten plum

Leaves Stem bark

102

12.  

Pandanustectorius Soland

Pandanaceae

Screw pine, Ketki

Leaves

102

13.  

Pterospermum acerifolium Willd

Stericuliaceae

Karnikara, Hathipaila

Stem bark

102

14.  

Parkia biglobosa

Fabaceae

African locust bean

Dried leave

13

15.  

Ocimum basilicum L.

Lamiaceae

Great basil

Dried stem bark

13

16.  

Mitracarpushirtus L.(Dc)

Rubiaceae

Girdlepod

Root Plant

13

17.  

Leucasmartinicensis (Jacq.) Ait. F

Lamiaceae

Whitewort

Root Plant

13

18.  

Bombax ceiba L.

Malvaceae

Semar

Roots of young plants Leaf Bark Flower

103,104

19.  

Ficus hispida Linn.f

Moraceae

Papasih

Fruits

103

20.  

Careaarborea Roxb.

Lecythidaceae

Slow match tree

Leaves Bark

103

21.  

Tabernaemontana divaricata L.

Apocynaceae

Crepe gardenia

Leaves Seeds Roots

103

22.  

Dioscorea transversa R. Br.

Dioscoreaceae

Pencil yam, Pokmaso

Seeds Tuber

103

23.  

Bauhinia variegata Linn.

Fabaceae

Orchid tree

Plant Bark

14

24.  

Striga hermonthica

Orobanchaceae

Purple witchweed

Plant

105

25.  

Anacardium occidentale L.

Anacardiaceae

Cashew

Leaves

106

26.  

Afzelia africana Sm.

Caesalpiniaceae

Afzelia

Bark powder

98

27.  

Vitexdoniana Sweet

Lamiaceae

Nkokoro

Root

107

28.  

Albizzia libbeck

Mimosaceae

Lebbek treeor flea tree,

Seed oil Bark

108

29.  

Amaranthus spinosis

Amaranthaceae

Prickly amaranth

Whole plant

108

30.  

Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Verbenaceae

Goomar teak

Flowers Fruits

39,9

31.  

Centella asiaticaLinn

Apiaceous

Asiatic pennywort

Whole plant

109,110

32.  

Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz.

Malpighiaceae

Hiptage

Leaves Bark

109

33.  

Holarrhena antidysenterica Foxh

Apocynaceae

Bitter Oleander

Bark Seeds

109

34.  

Plumeria rubra Linn.

Apocynaceae

Frangipani

Leaves

109

35.  

Chaulmoogra odorata

Flacortiaceae

Chhal Mogra

Seed oil

1

36.  

Azadirachta indica

Meliaceae

Neem

Seed Leaf Root

104

37.  

Borassus flabellifer Linn.

Aracaceae

Tadi

Flower Root

104

38.  

Cassia fistula Linn.

Fabaceae

Amaltas

Leaf Seed Root

104

39.  

Commelina benghalensis L.

Commelinaceae

Fatniya

Leaf Root latex

111,112

40.  

Abutilon indicum (L.)

Malvaceae

Indian Mallow

Paste of plant

111

41.  

Ficus racemosa L.

Moraceae

Cluster fig tree

Fruit

111

42.  

Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth

Fabaceae

Madras thorn

Paste of bark

111

43.  

Millingtonia hortensis Linn.

Bignoniaceae

Indian cork tree

Stem

113

44.  

Acacia catechu willd

Fabaceae

Cutch Tree

Extract of plant

114

45.  

Achyranthes aspera

Amaranthaceae

Achyranthes aspera

Whole plant

2

46.  

Alangium salvifolium

Cornaceae

Ankol

Stem Bark, Leaves

2,32

47.  

Brassica nigra

Brassicaceae

Black mustard

Leaf

2

48.  

Terminalia catappa

Combretaceae

Indian almond

Stem

2

49.  

Ricinus communis

Euphorbiaceae

Eranda

Whole plant Seeds

2,13

50.  

Ocimum sanctum L.

Lamiaceae

Tulasi

Leaf

116

51.  

Andrographis paniculata

Acanthaceae

Green Chirayta

Paste of leaf

116

52.  

Voacanga Africana stapf

Apocynaceae

o-banawa

Leaf

117

53.  

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

Asteracea

East india globe thistle

Whole plant

118

54.  

Coriandrum sativum

Umbelliferae

Coriander

Seeds

119

55.  

Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub

Fabaceae

Bastard teak

Flowers

120

56.  

Acacia leucophloea

Fabaceae

Distiller's Acacia

Bark

121

57.  

Jatropha gossypifolia

Euphorbiaceae

Bellyache bush

Latex Leaf juice

121

58.  

Thevetia nerifolia

Apocynaceae

Yellow oleander

Root

121

59.  

Hydnocarpus wightiuna

Achariaceae

Jangli Almond

Oil

122

60.  

Aristolochia bracteolate Retz

Aristolochiaceae

Worm killer

Whole plant

123

61.  

Jatropha curcas

Euphorbiaceae

Physick nut

Plant

123

62.  

Momordica charantia L.

Cucurbitaceae

Titakerela

Fruit

112

63.  

Withania somnifera Dunal

Solanaceae

Achagandha

Leaves Roots

112

64.  

Eclipta alba Hassk.

Asteraceae

Kaharaj

Whole plant

112

65.  

Alstonia scholaris Linn.

Apocynaceae

Blackboard tree

Bark

124

66.  

Caesalpinia sappan Linn.

Leguminosae

Sappanwood

Heart wood

124

67.  

Saussurea lappa Clarke

Compositae

Costus

Plant Root

124

68.  

Lindernia crustacean (L.)

Linderniaceae

Malaysian false pimpernel

Whole plant

125

69.  

Lycopersicon esculantam Mill

Solanaceae

Tomato

Leaf along with castor oil

125

70.  

Theobroma cacao L.

Malvaceae

Cacao tree

Fruit infusion of dry pod

125

71.  

Abolboda Americana

Xyridaceae

-

Root Leaf

125

72.  

Pistia stratiotes L.

Araceae

water cabbage

Leaf extract

126

73.  

Asparagus racemosus

Liliaceae

Satavari

Plant

9

74.  

Aegle marmelos

Rutaceae

Bael

Root

9

75.  

Gloriosa superb

Liliaceae

Glory lily

Root paste

9

76.  

Pongamia pinnata

Papilionaceae

Indian beech

Leaves

9

77.  

Coleus vettiveroides

Lamiaceae

Vettiver

Whole plant

9

78.  

Allium sativum

Liliaceae

Garlic

 

9

79.  

Costus speciosus

Zingiberaceae

Costus

Rhizomes

9

80.  

Cussonia arborea

Araliaceae

Octopus cabbage tree

Bark from the root

98

81.  

Combretum glutinosum Perr.

Combretaceae

-

Peeled green fruit

98

82.  

Psorospermum senegalense Spach.

Hypericaceae

-

Decoction of the bark or roots

98

83.  

Khaya senegalensis

Meliaceae

African mahogany

Decoctions or macerations of the bark

98

84.  

Trichilia emeticaVahl.

Meliaceae

Natal mahogany

Root Bark

98

85.  

Acacia seyalDel.

Mimosaceae

Shittimwood

Bark

98

86.  

Opilia celtidifolia(Guill. et Perr.) Endl. ex Walp.

Opiliaceae

French petit mangolier

Root

98

87.  

Salvadora persica L.

Salvadoraceae

Mustard tree

Root

98

88.  

Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.

Leguminosae:Mimosoideae

Gum acacia

Gum

127

 

 

 

 

 

Synthethic drugs used to treat leprosy

S.no

Synthetic drugs used

Activity

Structure

References

1.                 1

Clofazimine

 Binds to mycobacterial DNA, inhibits mycobacterial growth 16B

 

128,129

2.                 2

Dapsone

Inherent level of bactericidal activity15B

 

130,131

3.                 3

Rifampicin

High bactericidal activity on M. leprae14B

 

132,133

4.                 4

Ofloxain

Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase 18B

 

134,135

5.                 5

Prednisolone

Inhibition of macrophage accumulation

 

134,136

 


CONCLUSION:

The review has highlighted several medicinal plants which were used as remedies for treating leprosy. The compounds from them are effective and thereby it was scientifi­cally validated. Healthcare system of the state and the country can be improved by the adequate knowledge of these plants. Potent antibiotics can be developed by the compounds that are established from these medicinal plants. There are plenty of medicinal plants available which can be used to treat a wide range of human ailments. Due to lack of interest among the younger generation as well as their trend to migrate to cities for cost-effective jobs, there is a probability of losing this wealth of knowledge in the near future. Thus it becomes mandatory to attain and conserve this traditional system of medicine by appropriate documentation and identification of specimens. Healthcare delivery system can be improved by targeting the traditional medical practice with the involvement of government thereby it can be beneficial to the drug industries and a lifetime breakthrough to the scientific world. More scientific researchers are required to gain valuable traditional knowledge of herbal medicines, in order to check the properties of plant and phytochemical analysis for the exploration of new drugs. This review summarizes the information about the use of medicinal plants and few synthetic drugs that are used in the treatment of leprosy, thereby this may help in future for the researcher.

 

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Received on 29.08.2017          Modified on 12.10.2017

Accepted on 24.11.2017        © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2018; 11(2):813-821.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00153.1