In Vitro Study -anti inflammatory activity of Sage oil


M. Vaishali1, Dr. R.V. Geetha2, Pradeep Kumar. R3*       

1Final YEAR BDS Under Graduate student, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai

2Professor, Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai

3Reader, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai

*Corresponding Author E-mail:



The study is to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts of Sage. Sage is an herb native to the Mediterranean, belonging to the Lamiaceae (mint) family along with oregano, lavender, rosemary, thyme and basil. In Ayurveda, sage has been used for its medicinal properties for various indications. flavonoids, phenolic acids, and oxygen-handling enzymes are components of sage, which include mainly superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. Assessment of in-vitro anti inflammatory activity was done by inhibition of protein denaturation. The usage of natural products has less side effects and its easily available. Hence, sage being a natural product can be used for its anti-inflammatory property.


KEYWORDS: Sage oil, anti inflammatory, Protein denaturation.





Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance that reduces inflammation or swelling. Many drugs are used for anti-inflammation. Sage is an herb native to the Mediterranean, belonging to the Lamiaceae (mint) family along with oregano, lavender, rosemary, thyme and basil. Sage leaves are grayish green in color with a silvery bloom covering. They are lance-shaped and feature prominent veins running throughout. Sage has been held in high regard throughout history both for it culinary and medicinal properties. Its reputation as a panacea is even represented in its scientific name, Salvia officinalis, derived from the Latin word, salvere, which means "to be saved."


Anti-inflammatory properties:

Rosmarinic acid can be readily absorbed from the GI tract, and once inside the body, acts to reduce inflammatory responses by altering the concentrations of inflammatory messaging molecules (like leukotriene B4). The rosmarinic acid in sage and rosemary also functions as an antioxidant.


The leaves and stems of the sage plant also contain antioxidant enzymes, including SOD (superoxide dismutase) and peroxidase. When combined, these three components of sage—flavonoids, phenolic acids, and oxygen-handling enzymes—give it a unique capacity for stabilizing oxygen-related metabolism and preventing oxygen-based damage to the cells. Increased intake of sage as a seasoning in food is recommended for persons with inflammatory conditions (like rheumatoid arthritis), as well as bronchial asthma, and atherosclerosis. The ability of sage to protect oils from oxidation has also led some companies to experiment with sage as a natural antioxidant additive to cooking oils that can extend shelf life and help avoid rancidity.


Invitro anti-inflammatory activity:

Inhibition of protein denaturation:

The denaturation of protein is one of the cause of inflammation. Hence, protein denaturation can be employed as invitro screening model for anti-inflammatory compounds. The reaction mixture consists of test extract at different concentrations and 1% aqueous solution of bovine albumin fraction. pH of the reaction mixture was adjusted using small amount of 1N HCl. The samples were incubated at 37°C for 20 min and then heated at 57°C for 20 min. After cooling the samples, the turbidity was measured spectrophotometrically at 660 nm. The experiment was performed in triplicate.


Percent inhibition of protein denaturation was calculated as follows:

Percentage inhibition =

               (Abs control – Abs sample) X 100/ Abs control



Denaturation of proteins is a well documented cause of inflammation. As a part of the investigation on the mechanism of the antiinflammatory activity, ability of extract to inhibit protein denaturation was studied. It was effective in inhibiting heat induced albumin denaturation at different concentrations as shown in Table 1. Maximum inhibition, 76.78±1.112 % was observed at 500µg/ml. IC50 value was found to be 115.21±1.99µg/ ml Aspirin, a standard antiinflammatory drug showed the maximum inhibition, 74.12±1.46% at the concentration of 200µg/ml.


Table 1 Protein denaturation inhibiting activity of sage oil extract


Concentration on (µg)



Control (Aspirin)

Percentage activity





















IC 50



IC 50

( µg/ml)





In-vitro anti-inflammatory studies of Sage demonstrated the suppression of inflammation. The data of our studies suggests that extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. Proper isolation of the active constituent/s might help in the findings of new lead compounds in the fields of anti-inflammatory drug research




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Received on 12.09.2017            Modified on 23.09.2017

Accepted on 20.10.2017         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(1): 253-254.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00047.1