A Review: Solanum nigrum L. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant properties, Hepatoprotective effects and Analysis of Bioactive Natural Compounds

 

Imad Hadi Hameed1*, Maria Rosario Calixto Cotos2, Mohammed Yahya Hadi 3

1College of Nursing, University of Babylon, Iraq

2Fac. Chemistry and Chemistry Engineering; University National Mayor of San Marcos. Lima Peru

3College of Biotechnology, Al-Qasim Green University, Iraq

*Corresponding Author E-mail: imad_dna@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The berries and leaves are mainly used for medicinal purposes, besides the other parts of the whole plant. The leaves are used as poultice for rheumatic and gouty joints, skin diseases, used in the treatment of anti-tuberculosis and are said to produce Diaphoresis. Leaves are also used in dropsy, nausea and nervous disorders. The decoction of the berries and flowers are useful in cough. These are remedy for pulmonary tuberculosis and bronchitis, diuretic. The juice of the berries used as an antidiarrhoeal, ophthalmopathy and hydrophobia. It is also used in heart disease. Berries are used to posses tonic, diuretic and cathartic properties. They are also useful in inflammations and skin diseases. The roots are useful in osteopathy, ophthalmopathy, rhinopathy and hepatitis. The whole plant used as antiseptic, antiinflammatory, expectorant, cardiotonic, digestive, diuretic, laxative, diaphoretic, sedative, swelling, cough, asthma. The plant is also effective in curing cardiopathy, leprosy, hemorrhoids, nephropathy, ophthalmopathy, dropsy and general debility. Decoction of the plant depresses the CNS and reflexes of the spinal cord.  In antibacterial screening performed by disc diffusion method against two gram negative bacteria namely Xanthomonas campestris (plant pathogen) and Aeromonas hydrophila (animal pathogen), it was found that the methanol extracts of all the plant samples showed significant activity against the two tested bacteria. The methanol extracts of S. nigrum exhibited clear zone of inhibition against the tested microorganisms. The ethanolic extract of the dried fruit of Solanum nigrum L. was assessed for its possible antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic extract showed moderate antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of Solanum nigrum was detected against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

 

KEYWORDS: Review, Solanum nigrum, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Natural Compounds.

 

 


1. INTRODUCTION:

Solanum nigrum Linn. (Sn) commonly known as Black Nightshade is a dicot weed in the Solanaceae family. It is an African paediatric plant utilised for several ailments that are responsible for to infant mortality especially feverish convulsions 1-6. Sn is an Annual branched herb of up to 90 cm high, with dull dark green leaves, juicy, ovate or lanceolate, and toothless to slightly toothed on the margins. Flowers are small and white with a short pedicellate and five widely spread petals. Fruits are small, black when ripe. S. nigrum is found mainly around waste land, old fields, ditches, and roadsides, fence rows, or edges of woods and cultivated land. It is a common plant found in most parts of Europe and the African continent. Sn is a popular plant in part due to its toxic content of Solanine, a glycoalkaloid found in most parts of the plant, with the highest concentrations in the unripened berries. Although it is considered a rich source of one of the most popular plant poisons, it has proven also to be a reservoir of phytochemicals with pharmacological prospects.  Leaves and berries of Solanum nigrum are commonly used in South India for the treatment of gastric ulcers, gastritis and other gastric problems 7-19. The present study investigated the Solanum nigrum leaf and berry extracts for their protective effect on ethanol induced gastritis and aspirin induced gastric ulcers of pylorus ligated rats. Sucralfate and Ranitidine were used as standard Drugs.

 


 

 

Table 1:  Major pharmacological activity of Solanum nigrum.

Part of plant

System

Effects

Preparation

Ref.

 

Medical

Anti-cancer

Immunomodulatory

Antimicrobial

Nematicidal

molluscicidal

Antioxidant

Anti-convulsant

Hepatoprotective

Antiulcer genic

Anti-inflammatory

Hyperlidemic

Anti hyperlidemic

Hypotensive

Anti hyperlipidemic activity                    

Crude polysaccharide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethanolic extract

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40

Leaves

Medical

Hepatoprotective activity

Immunostimulant

preventing fish diseases

Antimicrobial activity

Anti-HCV activity

Anti gastritis and antiulcerogenic effects

Cardioprotective activity

Analgesic activity

Antidiarrhoeal activity

Cytotoxic activity

Anti-inflammatory

Antioxygenic

Aqueous and methanolic extracts

 

Methanol and aqueous extracts

Methanol and aqueous extracts

Chloroform extracts

Aqueous extracts

Methanolic extract

Ethanolic extracts

Ethanolic extract

Ethanolic extract

Methanolic extract

Solvent extracts

34

 

35

36

36

36

36

37

41

Fruits

Medical

Anticancer

Methanolic extract

39

 

Medical

Anti hyperlipidemic activity

Ethanolic extract

40

 

 


2.     Chemical constituents 

Several compounds have been isolated from different fractions of Sn which have shown pharmacological relevance to the observed effects of whole plant preparation of Sn. Another study reported the variability of the concentration of organic acids between seedlings of Sn and the mature plants. Acetic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid and citric acid were identified as the major organic acids in Sn 20-33. Tartaric acid and citric acid however, were said to be most important in adaptive responses by Sn to environmental stresses. High concentrations of solanine, a glycoalkaloid is found in most parts of Sn, but highest levels are found in unripe berries of Sn. However, when ripe, the berries are the least toxic part of the plant and are sometimes eaten without ill effects. Similarly, the solanine increases in the leaves as the plant matures. Solanine  may be separated by chromatography into six components: Alpha, beta gamma chaconines, and alpha, beta gamma solanines.  The absolute amount of alkaloid per leaf increased during leaf development, whereas, the concentration declined. Small unripe fruits of S. nigrum had a high concentration of solasodine, but both the concentration and the absolute amount per fruit decreases with fruit maturation. Researches reveal that the alkaloidal content of plant parts changes during development of Sn. Nitrates and nitrites also occur in variable amounts in black nightshade and may contribute to its toxic effects. Studies on Sn through spectroscopic analysis, chemical degradation and derivitisation led to the identification of six new steroidal saponins collectively called solanigrosides and a one known saponin degalactotigonin. Similarly, any set of two steroidal saponin known as nigrumins I and II were characterised from Sn 34-56.  One spirostanol glycoside and two furostanol glycosides have been isolated from a methanol extract of the stems and roots of S. nigrum. Quercitin represents one of the most potent natural antioxidants. Sn contains two quercetin glycosides namely, quercetin 3-O-(2Gal-_-rhamnosyl)-_-glucosyl (1_6)-_-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-_- rhamnosyl(l_2)-_-galactoside. Also, previously known quercetin 3-glucosyl(l_6)galactoside, 3-gentiobioside, 3- galactoside and 3-glucoside, were also found. The most recent phytochemical analysis of S. nigrum has resulted in the isolation of two noveldisaccharides. Although toxic constituents are present in most part of the plants, studies on the nutritional potential of the leaves and seeds revealed that Sn is nutritive despite the presence of some anti-nutritive components like oxalate.  Phytochemical analysis revealed high oxalate, phenol, but low sterol content in the studied plant materials. Cyanide levels were higher in the leaves compared to the seeds.

 

3.     Antimicrobial

Methanolic extracts of dried root tissues of black nightshade contained antifungal properties wchich act against A. brassicicola. Further fractionation and antimicrobial screening of ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions of root extracts showed that n-butanol extracts was the most potent. Saponins were identified as the active principles conferring antimicrobial effects on Sn Table 1

 

4.     Antioxidant properties 

Many pathological states encompassing both communicable and non-communicable diseases have been shown to have association with oxidative stress. Consequently, the need for potent antioxidants in our diet and drug supplements becomes very necessary 57-62. A study which utilises six pretreatment methods before cooking on the peroxidase activity, chlorophyll and antioxidant status of S. nigrum L., showed that pretreatment methods have significant effects (p < 0.05) on the parameters measured. A sharp difference in the carotenoids, phenolics, flavonoids and tannins contents has been reported, indicating the fragility of this antioxidant present in Sn 63-77.

 

5. Hepatoprotective Effects

S. nigrum L. (SN) is an herbal plant that has been used as hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory agent in Chinese medicine. The test drug significantly lowered the CCl4-induced elevation of hepatic enzyme markers (GOT, GPT, ALP, and total bilirubin) and decreased superoxide and hydroxyl radical generation.

 

6. Hypotensive potential

Sn which has been used as an antipyretic and anticancer in folk medicine was investigated for its antihypertensive properties 78-90. A 150 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Sn is made up of carbohydrates (69.74%) and protein (30.26%), which contains more than 50% hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine and proline blocked nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-_B) activation, and reduced inducible nitric oxide (iNO) production in vitro at a concentration of 40 _g/ml.

 

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I thank Dr. Amean A. Al-yasiri, College of Nursing, for valuable suggestions and encouragement. 

 

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Received on 05.07.2017             Modified on 19.08.2017

Accepted on 10.10.2017           © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2017; 10(11): 4063-4068.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00737.5