Comparative Evaluation of the Anthelmintic Activity of Coriandrum sativum Linn. and Apium graveolens Linn.

 

Sreesha N Nair1, Neeraja E D2, Greeshma Rejimon3, Meenu B3, Alexeyena Varghese4

Department of Pharmacognosy,Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Viswavidyapeetham University, AIMS Health Science Campus AIMS, Ponekkara (P.O), Kochi, Kerala, India-686041

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sreeshannair6189@gmail.com, sreeshannair@aims.amrita.edu

 

ABSTRACT:

The main source of drugs is the medicinal plants. Some of them are used as Anthelmintic agents. Coriandrum sativum Linn.(Malli) and Apium graveolens Linn.(Celery) belongs to the family Apiaceae. The main aim of the study is to make a   comparison   between anthelmintic activities of the ethanolic extracts of Coriandrum sativum Linn. and Apium graveolens Linn. The anthelmintic assay was evaluated by determining how much time is needed for helminths for paralysis and death. Results showed that the ethanolic extract of the drug has revealed a concentration dependent anthelmintic activity. Coriandrum sativum Linn showed more antioxidant activity than Apium graveolens Linn. Hence both plants can be included in our daily diet.

 

KEYWORDS: Coriandrum sativum Linn., Apium graveolens Linn., Ethanolic extract, anthelmintic activity.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Natural products obtained from plant, animal and minerals can be used for the treatment of human disease1. India is enriched with the natural sources. Plants are used for the treatment of various aliments from ancient times itself. Nature provides the drugs in the form of herbs. Almost all flowering plants have medicinal properties around 400000 species2. Now a days about 80% of people depends on traditional medicines for their primary treatment for several diseases. Nature provides the drugs in the form of herbs1. Herbal drugs had a key role in all traditional systems of medicine. Now-a-days medicinal plants are used commonly due to the fact that green medicine is safe and easily available where as the synthetic drugs which are not safe and adverse effects are more common3.Therefore, herbal remedies are considered to be the best for the prevention and treatment of some aliments 4.

The phytoconstituents have a wide range of biological functions like antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The phytoconstituents can also be used in management of the age related human diseases.5

 

Coriandrum sativum Linn leaves are aromatic .The whole plant is characterised by a strong disagreeable dour. Coriander  is used for disorders of digestive, respiratory and urinary system, and also it has diaphoretic, diuretic, carminative, and stimulant effects6 .The main constituent present in essential oil of coriander are linalool, α- pinene, γ- terpinene, geranyl  acetate, camphor and geraniol7It also contains traces of flavanoids, coumarines, isocoumarins and phenolic acids8. The distillation residues suitable for animal feed because of high amount of fats and proteins in the fruits. Coriander oil contains coriandrol, vebriniol and jireniol9.  Based on origin freshly collected coriander contains about 84% water, seeds contain up to 1.8% volatile oil. About 65-70% of (+linalool (coriandrol)), depending on the source,and smaller amounts of α-pinene, γ -terpinene, limonene and ρ-cymene together with various nonlinalool alchohols and esters10  were present in distilled oi1. Apium graveolens Linn which belongs to the family apiacea. It is a biennial herb which having vernacular name as Celary. It is used as a flavouring agent as well as in medicinal preparations. The plant has anticancer, antidiabetic and as well as reduces cholesterol level, decreases high fever and blood pressure, larvicidal, hepatoprotective activity11.Celary  seeds, stems and leaves oil included volatile oils, sesquiterpene alcohols and fatty acids12.The derived compounds contain selenine, limonene, myristic, linoleic, palmitoleic, palmitic, oleic, stearic acids  santalol, butyl phalide and phthalide13. A total of 16 combinations of seed extract have been identified in celery which make up 98.7% of the whole extract whose main components are D. limonene and myrcene14.  

 

Helminthes or parasitic worms infection affect about 2 billion people world wide15. Anthelmintics or anti-helminthics are drugs which expel parasitic worms from the body, either by stunning or killing them. They ae also known as Vermifuges (stunning) or vermicides killing16. But gastrointestinal helminthes are resistant to the currently available helminth drugs17.Now a days the use of some anthelmintics results in toxicity to human beings..Examples of plants with anthelmintic activity are Ocimum sanctum Linn, Carica papaya Linn, Centratherum anthelminticum.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Collection and Authentication:

The Coriandrum sativum Linn and Apium graveolens Linn (Apiaceae) leaves were collected from Edappally, Ernakulam district, Kerala, India. The plant was authenified taxonomically by Dr. Liza Jacob, Department of Botany, St. Teresa’s College, Ernakulam. The leaves were shade dried and powdered and stored in air tight container. The powdered leaves were extracted by hot continous extraction. After extraction the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure and a semi solid residue was obtained.

 

Preparation of extract:

The dried leaves were powdered with a mechanical grinder and stored in an air tight container. The leaves were then extracted with ethanol in soxhlet apparatus. 50g of the powder was weighed and filled in a porous cellulose thimble. The thimble was then placed in an extracter chamber, which is suspended above a round bottom flask containing 500ml of ethanol. It was then filtered and distillate and finally the pure extract were obtained. It was then kept at desiccator

 

Anthelmintic Assays:

The assay was carried out  on adult Indian earth worm Pheretima posthuma.18,20.Three groups of three earthworm of around equal size each were released in to 1 ml solution of various concentrations of ethanol extract (20, 40 and 60 mg /ml in distilled water). The same is repeated for two groups of reference standard albendazole (40 mg/ml in distilled water) and one group in ethanol, which serve as control. Time taken paralysis for each group was noted. Time for the death of worms were also noted only after after confirming that the earthworm was not moved when shaken vigorously and also when dipped in to warm water at 50oc19. Standard drug used is Albendazole.

 

RESULTS:

The present study it was noted that the ethanolic extract of both plants have certain degree of anthelmintic activity at 40 mg/ml concentration compared with the standard Albendazole at same concentration. This study reveals that both plants produces a concentration dependant activity for different extracts. The results show that EECS has more anthelmintic activity than EEAG.

 

DISCUSSION:

Anthelmintic are being derived from plants which are considered to be the best source of phytoconstituents. All anthelmintics have the ability kill worms by either starving them to death or paralyzing them. Ethanolic extracts Apium graveolens Linn and Coriandrum sativum Linn shows anthelmintic activity may be due to the presence of tannins. Tannins has the ability to bind to free proteins in the gastrointestinal tract of host animal or glycoprotein on the cuticle of the parasite and may cause death of the parasites.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

The anthelmintic activity of Coriandrum sativum Linn and Apium graveolens Linn was evaluated by Ajaiyeoba et al method. Both the plants belong to the same family (Apiaceae). So here we have done a comparative evaluation of ethanolic extract of both plants. From the result, we found that both plants have significant biological activity. Coriandrum sativum Linn showed more antioxidant activity than Apium graveolens Linn. Hence both plants can be included in our daily diet.

 

 

TableNo.1: Anthelmintic activity of Coriandrum sativum Linn

Sl No

Test sample

 

Concentration

(mg/ml)

Observations (min)

Paralysis

Death

1

 

Control

(Ethanol)

-

-

-

 

2

Albendazole

(Standard)

40

4±0.57

 

28±1.52

3

Group I

20

46±1.52

92±2.08

4

Group II

40

31±1.15

78±1.52

5

Group III

60

12±2.08

40±0.57

 

 

Table No 2:Anthelmintic activity of Apium graveolens Linn

Sl No

Test sample

Concentration

(mg/ml)

Observations (min)

Paralysis

Death

1

 

Control

(Ethanol)

-

-

-

 

2

Albendazole

(Standard)

40

5±0.57

 

30±2.64

3

Group I

20

74±4.04

112±1.52

4

Group II

40

57±2.51

96±2

5

Group III

60

44±2.08

75±2

 

REFERENCES

1.       Farnsworth NR,  Akerele O, Bingel AS, Soejarto DD, Guo Z. Medicinal plants in therapy. Bull world health organ 1985;63(6):965.

2.       Srujana TS, Babu KR, Rao BS. Phytochemical investigation and biological activity of leaves extract of plant Boswellia serrata.Pharma innovation 2012;1(5):22-46.

3.       Venkataswamy R, Doss A, Sukumar M, Mubarack HM.  Preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies of Lantana indica roxb. Indian J Pham sci 2010;72(2):50.

4.       Jain I, Jain P, Bisht D, Sharma A, Srivastava B, Gupta N. Comparative Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of six india plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. j Clin Diangs Res2015;9(2):50.

5.       Bhat RS, Al-Daihan S. Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of some green leafy vegetables. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4(3):189-93.

6.       Latha K, Rammohan B, Sunanda BP, Maheswari MU, Mohan SK.  Evaluation of anxioiytic activity of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum linn.in mice: A preliminary experimental study. Pharmacogn.Res 2015;7(1):47.

7.       Hosseinzadeh H, Alaw Qotbi AA, Seidavi A, Norris D, Brown D. Effects of different levels of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seed powder and extract on serum biochemical parameters, microbiota, and immunity in broiler chicks. Scientific World J 2014;2014:14

8.       Lo Cantore P, Lacobellis NS, De Marco A,Capass F, Senatore F. Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare(Miller) essential oils. J.Agric.Food Chem 2004; 52(26):7862-6.

9.       Mandal S, Mandal M. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015;5(6):421-8.

10.     Silva F, Ferreira S, Queiroz JA, Domingues FC. Coriander (coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: its antibacterial activity and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry. J Med Microbiol 2011;60(10):1479-86.

11.     Singh A, Handa SS. Hepatoprotective activity of Apium graveolens and Hygrophila auriculata against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;49(3):119-26.

12.     MacLeod AJ, MacLeod G, Subramanian G. Volatile aroma constituents of celery. Phytochemistry 1988;27(2):373-5.

13.     Cao XZ, You JM, Li SX, Zhang YL. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts from coriandrum sativum. International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety2012;1(2):54-9.

14.     Van Wassenhove F, Dirinck P, Vulsteke G, Schamp N. Aromatic volatile composition of celery and celeriac cultivars. HortScience 1990;25(5):556-9

15.     Laurence L Brunton, John S Lazo, Keith L Parker. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. NEW YORK: Mc Graw Hill Medical Publishing Division;2006.

16.     Sathianarayanan S, Fasmi KN, Rajasekaran KS .Immuno modulatory activity of methanolic extract of Wrightia tinctoria leaves. Advances in pharmacology and Toxicology 2012:13(2):39

17.     Kosalge SB, Fursule RA. Investigation of anthelmintic potential of some plants claimed by tribals of satpuda hills.Int J Pharm Tech Res 2009;1(1):68-72

18.     Khadatkar SN ,Manwar JV , Bhajipale NS. PHCOG MAG.: Research Article In –vitro anthelmintic activity of root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Phcog  Mag 2008;4(13):149

19.     Vigar Z. Atlas of medical parasitology. Singapore: P. G. Publishing House;1984

20.     Aravind et al.,I A study of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of methanolic leaf extract of syzygium malaccense(L) Merr and Perry, J Chem.pharm.Res2015 7(4):838-841

 

 

 

 

Received on 20.06.2017          Modified on 03.08.2017

Accepted on 20.08.2017        © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2017; 10(11): 3857-3859.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00699.0