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            0974-360X (Online)

 

 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

 

Assessment of Oral Hygiene Status in Smokers, Non Smokers and Alcoholics

 

Affrin J.H

BDS 1st Year, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai- 600083

*Corresponding Author E-mail:

 

ABSTRACT:

AIM: The aim of the study is to assess the oral hygiene status in smokers, non smokers and alcoholics.

OBJECTIVE: The hard tissue and soft tissue status will be assessed in three groups

Group 1: smokers who do not consume alcohol

Group 2: alcoholics without any smoking habits

Group 3: smokers and alcohol

Group 4: patients with no habits (non smokers and non alcoholic patients.

METHOD: This study includes 150 individuals. Periodontal status and tooth status will be recorded. Statistical analysis will be performed.

BACKGROUND: Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental problems, most commonly, dental cavities, gingivitis, and bad breath. Smoking and chewing are both are strongly linked with multiple dental diseases. Maintaining good oral hygiene is one of the most important things one can do for their teeth and gums.

REASON: Smoking has been identified as one of the predictive variables for response in periodontal therapy. Smoking has been considered as a significant risk factor for implant patients. Wound healing is delayed in smokers compared to non smokers. Thus smokers demonstrate poor oral hygiene compared to a normal person.

 

KEY WORDS:

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Oral cavity is an important part of the body and it plays a crucial role in chewing, swallowing, and in forming facial expression as well as maintaining nutritional status, system health and self esteem[1].Alcoholism and smoking are the top causes of mortality at present scenario. Smoking and consuming alcohol may lead to health problems when used alone or together[2]. The link between alcohol and tobacco has important implications like multiple cancer, lung diseases, heart diseases. alcohol and smoking can affect the ability to eat, speak, taste, and swallow[3]. Tobacco and alcohol carry a significant risk of physical and psychological addiction.

 

 

 

Received on 15.05.2015          Modified on 10.07.2015

Accepted on 22.07.2015        © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 8(8): August, 2015; Page 1167-1170

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00211.5

 

The majorities of individuals who fall prey to cancer are males who abuse both alcohol and tobacco. Smoking is a major killer. Not only does it take time off life, but it also cause 100's of problems with our body. Alcohol and smoking should be banned throughout the country. They’re both very harmful to our own body and deadly to others around. Even though they’re not considered a drug, they cause just as much trouble. Anyone who smokes and consumes alcohol should be aware of the dangers these habits possess. Since people who smoke and consume alcohol can easily become addicted to the nicotine in tobacco and to alcohol, it is best they know what they are getting themselves into before they start smoking or drinking. Alcohol can also affect behavior and make a drinker violent. Thus the patients should be educated well about the adverse effect of smoking and alcoholism in order to maintain good healthy status. Smoking an average of 1.5 packs per day gives a radiation dose of 60-160 mSv/year, [[4].Male and female smokers lose an average of 13.2 and 14.5 years of life, respectively.[5]Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental problems, most commonly, dental cavities, gingivitis, and bad breath. Smoking and chewing are both are strongly linked with multiple dental diseases. Smoking may be a predisposing factor in the development of gingival problems[6].

 

MATERIALS AND METHOD:

This study included of 100 individuals. The study was based on assessment of oral hygiene status in smokers, non smokers and alcoholic patients. The study was carried in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The patient who visited the dental clinic for treatment were considered as the subject. The data's were collect by questionnaire composed of name of the patient, age, sex, oral hygiene habits, socio economic status, frequency of smoking or consuming alcohol, group, number of decayed tooth, presence of debris, calculus, gingivitis, periodontitis. For the assessment diagnostic materials like mouth mirror, tweezer, explorer, William's probe were used. The subject were divided into four groups - smokers who do not consume alcohol, alcoholics without any smoking habits, smokers and alcoholic, patients without any habits. The data was analysed by SPSS software and chi square test was done.


 

RESULTS:

Decay * smokers or alcoholic or both

 

 

SMOKERS OR ALCOHOLIC OR BOTH

Total

alcoholic

both

nil

smoker

DECAY

-

N

9

10

6

14

39

%

37.5%

45.5%

31.6%

40.0%

39.0%

1

N

3

4

5

6

18

%

12.5%

18.2%

26.3%

17.1%

18.0%

2

N

0

1

1

3

5

%

.0%

4.5%

5.3%

8.6%

5.0%

3

N

2

1

3

3

9

%

8.3%

4.5%

15.8%

8.6%

9.0%

4

N

2

0

1

3

6

%

8.3%

.0%

5.3%

8.6%

6.0%

5

N

5

2

2

3

12

%

20.8%

9.1%

10.5%

8.6%

12.0%

6

N

1

3

1

1

6

%

4.2%

13.6%

5.3%

2.9%

6.0%

7

N

1

0

0

1

2

%

4.2%

.0%

.0%

2.9%

2.0%

8

N

0

0

0

1

1

%

.0%

.0%

.0%

2.9%

1.0%

9

N

1

1

0

0

2

%

4.2%

4.5%

.0%

.0%

2.0%

Total

N

24

22

19

35

100

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

Chi-Square Tests

 

Value

Level of significance

Pearson Chi-Square

17.881

Not significant

 

Debris* smokers or alcoholic or both

 

 

SMOKERS OR ALCOHOLIC OR BOTH

Total

alcoholic

both

nil

smoker

DEBRIS

-

N

1

1

1

7

10

%

4.2%

4.5%

5.3%

20.0%

10.0%

mild

N

18

15

15

18

66

%

75.0%

68.2%

78.9%

51.4%

66.0%

moderate

N

3

5

3

7

18

%

12.5%

22.7%

15.8%

20.0%

18.0%

severe

N

2

1

0

3

6

%

8.3%

4.5%

.0%

8.6%

6.0%

Total

N

24

22

19

35

100

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

Chi-Square Tests

 

Value

Level of significance

Pearson Chi-Square

9.943

Not significant

 

Calculus * smokers or alcoholic or both

 

 

SMOKERS OR ALCOHOLIC OR BOTH

Total

alcoholic

both

nil

smoker

CALCULUS

-

N

2

2

1

9

14

%

8.3%

9.1%

5.3%

25.7%

14.0%

mild

N

14

14

12

13

53

%

58.3%

63.6%

63.2%

37.1%

53.0%

moderate

N

6

4

6

10

26

%

25.0%

18.2%

31.6%

28.6%

26.0%

severe

N

2

2

0

3

7

%

8.3%

9.1%

.0%

8.6%

7.0%

Total

N

24

22

19

35

100

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

Chi-Square Tests

 

Value

Level of significance

Pearson Chi-Square

10.519

Not significant

 

Gingivitis * smokers or alcoholic or both

 

 

SMOKERS OR ALCOHOLIC OR BOTH

Total

alcoholic

both

nil

smoker

GINGIVITIS

-

N

1

0

1

2

4

%

4.2%

.0%

5.3%

5.7%

4.0%

mild

N

0

0

1

1

2

%

.0%

.0%

5.3%

2.9%

2.0%

moderate

N

2

2

0

2

6

%

8.3%

9.1%

.0%

5.7%

6.0%

severe

N

21

20

17

30

88

%

87.5%

90.9%

89.5%

85.7%

88.0%

Total

N

24

22

19

35

100

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

Chi-Square Tests

 

Value

Level of significance

Pearson Chi-Square

5.035

Not significant

 

 

 

 

Periodontitis * smokers or alcoholic or both

 

 

SMOKERS OR ALCOHOLIC OR BOTH

Total

alcoholic

both

nil

smoker

PERIODONTITIS

-

N

11

8

12

8

39

%

45.8%

36.4%

63.2%

22.9%

39.0%

mild

N

5

0

1

4

10

%

20.8%

.0%

5.3%

11.4%

10.0%

moderate

N

3

1

0

3

7

%

12.5%

4.5%

.0%

8.6%

7.0%

severe

N

5

13

6

20

44

%

20.8%

59.1%

31.6%

57.1%

44.0%

Total

N

24

22

19

35

100

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

Chi-Square Tests

 

Value

Level of significance

Pearson Chi-Square

19.809

p<0.05

 


Discussion of results:

P value is 17.881 >.05.Hence it can be concluded that the cross table of smokers or alcoholics or both for decay is not significant.

P value is found to be 9.943>.05. Hence it can be concluded that the cross table of smokers or alcoholics or both for debris is not significant.

P value is found to be 10.519>.05. Hence it can be concluded that the cross table of smokers or alcoholics or both for calculus is not significant.

P value is found to be 5.035>.05. Hence it can be concluded that the cross table of smokers or alcoholics or both for gingivitis is not significant.

P value Is found to be 19.809. Hence it can be concluded that the cross table of smokers or alcoholics or both for periodontitis is significant.

 

DISCUSSION:

Since, the results turned out to be non significant for most of the cases. For eg, in the case of calculus the p value was around 9.435 which is far away from the value for significance. Similarly for gingivitis the value was around 5.035 which again explains the non significances of alcoholism and smoking on gingivitis. Coming to decay we found that the p value was around 17.881 which again showed the non significance of decay towards smoking and alcoholism. Hence from this study it can be concluded that alcoholism or smoking does not have much effect when in limits on the oral cavity. However the p value for periodontitis alone was found to be less than 0.05, indicates its significance towards smoking and alcoholism. The result that was obtained was completely unexpected because in several studies conducted it was found that smoking and alcoholism on prolonged usage had an effect on oral cavity. Hence to come to a correct conclusion several more studies done on a larger population involving both addicts and average users has to be conducted.

 

REFERENCE:

1.       Wojciech Skorupka et al. "Assessment of oral hygiene in adults ", Cent. Eur J Public Health 2012; 20(3):233-236

2.       Shanu Mishea et al. "Tobacco: it's historical, cultural, oral and periodontal health association, Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry Jan -Jun 2013:3(1):12-18

3.       Adriana de Fatima vas conceals pererira, effects of cigarettes smoking on oral hygiene status, Journal of Dental Science, Oct 2013

4.       Mohammed Nadeem, association between smoking and intra oral distribution of dental plaque pattern in Pakistan population

5.       curtails factor in health and oral Heath, National Academy of Dentistry

6.       Abdoul Hussein Madani, interaction of alcohol use and specific types of smoking on the development of oral cancer, Int J High Risk Behaviour Addict, 2014 March 11.