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            0974-360X (Online)

 

 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

 

Prevalence of Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Chennai, India: A Cross Sectional Survey

 

S. Subhadharsini

Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals

*Corresponding Author E-mail:

 

ABSTRACT:

AIM: The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of TMDs.

 

TMDs is a collective term that describes a sub-group of painful oro-facial disorders, involving complaints of pain on the Temperomandibular joint(TMJ) region and fatigue of the cranio-cervicofacial muscles, especially mastication muscles, limitation of mandibular movement and presence of articular clicking. Emotional stress, occlusal interferences, malpositioning or loss of teeth, postural changes, dysfunctions of the masticatory musculature and adjacent structures, extrinsic and intrinsic changes on TMJ structure and/or a combination of such factors are causes of TMDs. TMDs were assessed by three indicators like; clicking, tenderness and reduced jaw mobility (RJM). The tempromandibular joint is a hinge that connects your jaw to the temporal bones of the skull, which is in front of each ear. It lets to move the jaw up and down, side to side while talking, chewing and yawning.

 

KEY WORDS: Temporomandibular disorder, Age group, Grinding or clenching, Chewing interference, Yawning.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a generic term used for any problem concerning the jaw joint. Injury to the jaw, temporomandibular joint, or muscles of the head and neck can cause TMD. Other possible causes include grinding or clenching the teeth, which puts a lot of pressure on the TMJ; dislocation of the disc[1]. The most common TMJ disorders are pain dysfunction syndrome, internal derangement, arthritis, and traumas[2]. It occurs more often in women than in men[3]. Generally the prevalence is low in children but increases with age. However, children rarely complain of any symptoms. It has been well established, by means of other epidemiological studies that signs and symptoms of TMDs are common in all ages. A high prevalence of such signs and symptoms have also been found in children.

 

 

 

Received on 15.05.2015          Modified on 10.06.2015

Accepted on 19.06.2015        © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 8(8): August, 2015; Page 1107-1108

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00193.6

 

However, they have been judged to be milder in character and less frequency in children and young individual[4]. It is therefore, important and valuable to have epidemiological data to estimate the proportion and distribution of these disorders in the age group of 15 to 25 in Chennai.

 

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of TMDs in college student of both sex through the analysis of the subjective and objective data obtained from a questionnaire[5].

 

MATERIALS AND METHOD:

The sample consisted of 50 students, in the age group of 15 to 25, Males -14 and Females -36. Surveys were distributed among a population of students .The survey population was selected between the age group of 15 to 25 and was asked to complete the 15 questions. The survey questions ranged from signs and symptoms more commonly associated with TMJD and other problem related to jaw. TMDs were assessed by three indicators like; clicking, tenderness and reduced jaw mobility. The findings are classified as symptoms and signs[6]. Diagnosis of TMDs is made with a history of facial pain combined with physical findings by askingfew question related to the topic[7].

 

RESULTS:

SIGHS AND SYMPTOMS

YES

NO

Clicking ,popping

11

39

Pain in around the TMJ

7

43

Pain when chewing

7

43

Mouth ever locked open

4

46

Pain sometimes feel in ear

8

42

Pain when yawning

8

42

 

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF TMJ DISORDER:

TABLE 1:

1.Clicking, popping

2.pain in or around the TMJ joint

3.pain when chewing

4. Mouth ever locked open

5. Pain sometimes feel like in the ear

6.pain when yawning

 

ACCORDING TO THE AGE:

TABLE 2:

AGE

Yes

No

17

1

 5

18

2

25

19

0

6

20

1

4

21

1

2

22

1

0

23

1

0

24

1

0

 

 

DISCUSSION:

Based on the analysis of the study from the above table 1, it can be observed that various signs and symptoms were not much prevelant among the people of age group 15-25. From a calculated population of 50 people, 11 people felt clicking and popping sound, 7 had pain around the joint, 4 were unable to close their mouth completely, 8 feel pain in ear and discomfort while yawning.

 

Based on the variations on age from the above table 2, it can be interpreted that very few had Tempromandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. A recent Study conducted among Turkish children by muhtarooullari M et al. proved that there was an increase in signs and symptoms with respect to age among the selected population[8].

 

In our study the results are obtained in contrast to the above study because there was no significant change with respect to age.

 

REFERENCE:

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2.       Cleveland Clinic. Health information. Retrieved on 09/21/ 2007, from http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/.

3.       Detamore, M. S., K. A. Athanasiou, and J. Mao. A call to action for bioengineers and dental professionals: directives for the future of TMJ bioengineering. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 35(8):1301–1311, 2007. doi:10.1007/s10439-007-9298-6.

4.       Dunstan K. Prevalence of Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction in Subjects with Different Occlusions using the Helkimo Index, 2005. Available from: http://etd.uwc.ac.za/usrfiles/modules/etd/docs/etd_init_5852_1173686029. [Last accessed on 21 June 2012]. 

5.       5.Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in urban and rural children of northern hilly state, Himachal Pradesh, India: A cross sectional survey Deepak Chauhan1, Jairam Kaundal2, Suneet Karol3, Tripti Chauhan4

6.       McDonald RE, Avery DR, Dean JA. Examination of the mouth and other relevant structures. In: Dean JA, Avery DR, McDonald RE, editors. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent. 9 th ed. Maryland Heights Mo: Mosby Elsevier; 2011. p. 1-18. 

7.       Brooks SL, Brand JW, Gibbs SJ, Hollender L, Lurie AG, Omnell KA, et al. Imaging of the temporomandibular joint: A position paper of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997; 83:609-18.

8.       Muhtaroðullari M, Demirel F, Saygili G. Temporomandibular disorders in Turkish children with mixed and primary dentition: Prevalence of signs and symptoms. Turk J Pediatr 2004;46:159-63