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RESEARCH ARTICLE

 

Spider diversity of Ram Jharna, Raigarh district, Chhattisgarh, India

 

Amia Ekka1 and Renu Kujur2

1Assistant Professor, School of Studies in Life Sciences, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492010

2School of Studies in Life Sciences, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492010

*Corresponding Author E-mail: amia_tirkey@rediffmail.com; kujur.renu45@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The purpose of the present study were to explore the diversity of spider fauna at Ram Jharna, Raigarh district Chhattisgarh, India. Ram Jharna is a beautiful destination at Raigarh which is situated at a distance of just 18 kms. From Raigarh. Spiders of 118 species representing 52 genera under 17 families, 23 species are unidentified. Among all these 7 families Predominant diversity was examined in the families Araneidae (26 species) followed by Thomisidae (22 species), Gnaphosidae (18 species), Lycosidae (14 species) Oxyopidae (10 species).

 

KEY WORDS: Chhattisgarh, Diversity, Raigarh, Ram Jharna, Spider.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Spiders are most diverse invertebrate that have two body segments cephalothorax and abdomen, four pair of legs, absence of chewing mouth parts and wings. Spiders are identified for their webs and web silks. All spiders can produce silk, but many of them can’t whirl web, they may use the silk to make sac, nest and mostly to wrap the prey.  They are taxonomically classified in the order Araneae of class Arachnida under phylum Arthropoda. Spiders play a noteworthy voracious part in nature by regulating population of insects. Furthermore, Spiders are an essential food source of animals such as amphibians, birds, small reptiles, and mammals (Foelix 1996; Marc et al., 1999). The recent world spider catalog comprises 44906 species under 3935 genera and 114 families (Platnick, 2014; version 15.0). Sebastian and Peter (2009) described 1520 spider species under 377 genera belonging to 60 families from India. The updated check list provided by Siliwal et. al. (2005) documented 1442 species of spiders belonging 438 genera under 59 families. The updated Checklist of spiders from India – 2012 Keshwani et. al. documented 1685 species belonging 438 genera and 60 families.

 

 

 

 

Received on 05.05.2015          Modified on 22.05.2015

Accepted on 21.06.2015        © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 8(7): July, 2015; Page 813-819

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00131.6

 

Ram Jharna is a beautiful destination at Raigarh which is situated at a distance of just 18 kms. From Raigarh. A natural water source is the prime attraction of this place. It is believed that Lord Ram drank water from the source during the period of his exile from Ayodhya. The diverse climatic, edaphic and geographical conditions of central India have covered the way for establishing its floral prosperity (Kala and Dubey, 2012). The forest vegetation, in the sampling area was dominated by Shorea robusta, Madhuca indica, Buchnania lanzan. Forest vegetation may be an important factor for presence of spider fauna. This was first approach of study of spider diversity in this area.

 

History of arachnology in Central India     

Tikader and Gajbe (1976) illustrated few species of spiders from family Gnaphosidae from Madhya Pradesh. Tikader was Pioneer (1980, 1982b) Arachnologist from Madhya Pradesh, and gave explanation on many species of spiders from family Araneidae, Gnaphosidae, Lycosidae, Philodromidae and Thomisidae from this area and rest of India. The spiders of state Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh was examined in detail by Gajbe (1987-1999), who illustrated many species from this region. Gajbe (1992) elucidated the species from family Mimetidae. Gajbe (1999) documented various lynx spiders of genera Oxyopes and Peucetia (Family Oxyopideae) from the state Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

 

Platnick (1991) and Platnick and Gajbe (1994) documented species of the family Cithaeronidae for the initial time from Madhya Pradesh, India. Gajbe (1995b) documented 14 species and Rane and Singh (1997) recorded five species from Kanha Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh. Gajbe and Gajbe (1999) explained about 32 new species, Bhandari and Gajbe (2001) verified existence of 10 new species from Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Gajbe (2001, 2003a,b) documented 102 species of spiders from district Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh and further documented 25 new species of spiders from Madhya Pradesh, placed under the genera Rhene, Eucta, Tetragnatha, Dolomedes, Heteropoda, Tegeneria, Thomisus, Triaeris, Scytodes. Gajbe (2003) recorded Spider of Genus Castianeira from Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. Gajbe (2004c) reveals sighting of Argiope aemula from Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. Ramakrishna et. al.  (2006) have documented the spider fauna of some national parks of Madhya Pradesh, in which collectively 62 species are listed, incorporating 16 species from Kanha National Park, 27 species from Pench National park and 29 species from Satpura National Park. Gajbe, P. (2009) depicted 32 species of spiders from Panchmarhi Biosphere reserve. Chandra et. al. (2010) documented 154 species of spiders from Narmada River Basin, Madhya Pradesh. Sharma (2012) verified presence of genus Myrmarachne of family Salticidae at Indore, Madhya Pradesh. Patil et. al. (2013) reported 23 species of spider belonging to 12 genera under 07 families from Rani Veerangana Durgawati Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh.

 

Gajbe (1995a) reported 13 species from Indravati Tiger Reserve, Chhattisgarh. Gajbe, U. (2007) verified existence of 127 species of spiders from Madhya Pradesh including Chhattisgarh. Distribution of species of spiders from Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh was compiled by Gajbe (2003a) reveals existence of 186 species of spiders belonging 69 genera under 24 families. Spider fauna of state Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh has been compiled by Patil (2011) as an updated checklist of 214 species belonging to 68 genera under 22 families.

 

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHOD:

As spiders make use of extensive variety of niches, to collect samples, sampling has to be done in all habitats of Raigarh district. Six different collection techniques ex. Pitfall trapping, vegetation beating, ground hand collection, litter sampling, sweep netting and aerial hand collection were employed.

A)    Sampling area: Ram Jharna is situated (21058’41.92” and 83015’51.11”) at a distance of just 18 kms. From Raigarh.

B)     Sample Collection

Sampling protocols for spiders followed by Sorensen et al. (2002).

1)     Pitfall Trapping – Pitfalls are the most broadly used method for sampling spider assemblages of litter or ground dwelling arthropods.

2)     Sweep Netting - Sweep netting includes collection through the herb layer. Swinging a sweep net through a under storey shrub vegetation.

3)     Ground Hand Collection – Ground hand collection includes hand collection of sample of spiders from ground to knee level.

4)     Aerial hand Collection – includes the collection of samples of spiders from knee level to arm length level. This method help in the collection of web building spiders and free living spiders on the foliage and stems of living or dead shrubs etc.

5)     Vegetation Beating – This method is utilized to gather spiders living in the shrubs, bushes, high herb vegetation, small branches and trees. The vegetation was  beated by stick for the collection of samples on a cloth.

6)     Litter Sampling – Includes separating of spiders from the litter collection.

C)     Preservation– specimens which will be collected are then transferred to 70% alcohol for later identification.

D)    Identification- Identification of spiders on basis of the taxonomic keys for Indian spiders explained by Tikader (1982,1987), Reddy and Patel (1992), Biswas and Biswas (2003) Sebastian and Peter (2009) and published literatures.

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Present study on diversity of spiders was done during 2013-2014 in Ram Jharna, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh, India. The result reveals presence of spiders of 118 species representing 52 genera under 17 families, 23 species are unidentified. Among all these 7 families Predominant diversity was examined in the families Araneidae (26 species) followed by Thomisidae (22 species), Gnaphosidae (18 species), Lycosidae (14 species) Oxyopidae (10 species). The forest vegetation, in the collecting area was dominated by Shorea robusta, Madhuca indica, Buchnania lanzan. Forest vegetation may be an important factor for presence of spider fauna. This area is interestingly diverse, present study was first approach to explore diversity of spiders in this area.

 

Observation: List of Spiders of Ram Jharna

I.     FAMILY AGELENIDAE KOCH,1837

Genus I.a. Tegenaria Latreille, 1804

1.      Tegenaria comstocki (Gajbe 2004)

        Comment : Endemic to India

 

 

 

II.    FAMILY  ARANEIDAE SIMON,1895

Genus. II.a.  Araneus Clerck,1757

1.      Araneus mitificus (Simon, 1886)

2.      Araneus nympha (Simon, 1889)

3.      Araneus sp.

Genus  II.b.  Argiope Audouin, 1826

1.      Argiope aemula (Walckenaer,1842)

2.      Argiope pulchella (Thorell,1881)

Synonym : Argiope undulata (Thorell, 1881)

was synonymised with Argiope pulchella

Genus II.c. Chorizopes Cambridge, 1870

1.      Chorizopes sp.

Genus II.d. Cyclosa Menge, 1866

1.      Cyclosa confraga (Thorell,1892)

Synonym : Epeira confraga (Thorell,1892)

2.      Cyclosa hexatuberculata (Tikader,1982)

Comment :  Endemic to India

 

3.      Cyclosa moonduensis (Tikader,1983)

Comment :  Endemic to India

4.      Cyclosa sp.

Genus II.e. Cyrtophora Simon,1864

1.      Cyrtophora bidenta (Tikader,1970)

Comment :  Endemic to India

2.      Cyrtophora jabalpurensis (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment :  Endemic to India

 

Genus II.f. Eriovixia Archer,1951

1.       Eriovixia excelsa (Simon, 1889)

Comment : Transferred from genus Neoscana to Eriovixia

Genus II.g. Larinia Simon, 1874

1.       Larinia bharatae (Bhandari and Gajbe 2001)

Comment :  Endemic to India

2.      Larinia sp.

 Genus II.h. Neoscana Simon,1864

1.       Neoscana bengalensis (Tikader and Bal 1981)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.       Neoscana mukerjei (Tikader, 1980)

Comment : Endemic to India

3.       Neoscana nautica  (L. Koch, 1875)

4.       Neoscana pavida  (Simon, 1906)

Synonym : Araneus pavidus (Simon, 1906)

Comment : Araneus pavidus was transferred to

genus Neoscana by (Tikader and Bal, 1981)

5.      Neoscana sanghi (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

6.       Neoscana sanjivani  (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

7.       Neoscana theisi (Walckenaer, 1842)

8.      Neoscana sp.1

9.      Neoscana sp. 2

Genus. II.i. Zygiella (Cambridge,1902)

1.      Zygiella indica (Tikader and Bal,1980)

Comment : Endemic to India

 

III.        FAMILY  DICTYNIDAE CAMBRIDGE, 1871

Genus.III.a.  Nigma  Lehtinen,1967

1.           Nigma  sp.

IV.         FAMILY ERESIDAE KOCH, 1851

Genus. IV.a. Stegodyphus Simon, 1873

1.           Stegodyphus  sp

 

V.          FAMILY  GNAPHOSIDAE  POCOCK, 1898

Genus.V.a. Callilepis Westring, 1874   

 

1.           Callilepis chakanensis (Tikader, 1982)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.V.b. Drassodes  Westring,1851

1.           Drassodes sagarensis (Tikader, 1982)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.           Drassodes tikaderi (Gajbe, 1987)

Comment : Endemic to India

 

Genus.V.c.  Drassyllus Chamberlin,1922

1.           Drassyllus  jabalpurensis (Gajbe, 2005)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus. V.d.  Gnaphosa Latreille,1804

1.           Gnaphosa pauriensis (Tikader and Gajbe,1977)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.           Gnaphosa poonaensis (Tikader,1973)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.V.e.  Herpyllus Hentz,1832

1.            Herpyllus goaensis (Tikader, 1982)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.V.f.  Nodocion Chamberline,1922

1.           Nodocion tikaderi (Gajbe, 1922)

Synonym : Liodrassus tikaderi (Gajbe, 1992)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.V.g.  Poecilochroa Westring, 1874

1.           Poecilochroa tikaderi (Patel, 1989)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus. V.h.  Scopoides Platnick, 1989

1.           Scopoides sp.

Genus. V.i.  Sergiolus Simon, 1891

1.           Sergiolus poonaensis (Tikader and Gajbe, 1976)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.           Sergiolus singhi (Tikader and Gajbe, 1976)

Comment : Endemic to India

3.           Sergiolus sp. 1

4.           Sergiolus sp. 2

 

Genus.V.j.  Sosticus Chamberline, 1922

1.           Sosticus jabalpurensis (Bhandari and Gajbe, 2001)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.V.k.  Zelotes Gistel, 1848

1.           Zelotes jabalpurensis (Tikader and Gajbe,1976)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.           Zelotes yogeshi  (Gajbe, 2005)

Comment : Endemic to India

3.           Zelotes sp.

 

VI.         FAMILY  HERSILIIDAE  THORELL, 1870

Genus.VI.a.  Hersilia Audouin, 1826

1.           Hersilia savignyi (Lucas, 1836)

 

VII.     FAMILY   LYCOSIDAE   SUNDEVALL, 1833

Genus.VII.a.   Arctosa C.L. Koch,1847

1.           Arctosa himalayensis (Tikader and Malhotra, 1980)

2.           Arctosa indica (Tikader and Malhotra, 1980)

Genus.VII.b.   Hippasa Simon, 1885

1.           Hippasa agelenoides (Simon 1884)

2.           Hippasa greenalliae (Blackwall, 1867)

3.           Hippasa hansae (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

4.           Hippasa sp.

Genus. VII.c.   Lycosa  Latreille, 1804

1.           Lycosa jagdalpurensis (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.           Lycosa poonaensis (Tikader and Malhotra, 1980)

Comment : Endemic to India

3.           Lycosa shaktae (Bhandari and Gajbe, 2001)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus. VII.d.   Pardosa  C.L. Koch, 1847

1.           Pardosa amkhasensis (Tikader and Malhotra,1976)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.           Pardosa jabalpurensis (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

3.           Pardosa pusiola (Thorell, 1891)

4.           Pardosa ranjani (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

5.           Pardosa sp.

 

VIII.   FAMILY  NEPHILIDAE  SIMON 1984

Genus.VIII.a.  Nephila  Leach, 1815

1.           Nephila clavata (L.Koch, 1878)

2.           Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793),

According to Platnick 2011, Nephila maculata

was synonymised with  Nephila pilipes

 

IX.   FAMILY  OONOPIDAE  SIMON, 1899

Genus.IX.a. Triaeris Simon, 1891

1.      Triaeris barela (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

 

X.      FAMILY  OXYOPIDAE THORELL, 1870

Genus. X.a.  Oxyopes Latreille, 1804

1.      Oxyopes bharatae (Gajbe, 1999),

Comment : Endemic to India

2.      Oxyopes jabalpurensis (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

3.      Oxyopes kamalae (Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

4.      Oxyopes ketani (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

5.      Oxyopes kusumae  (Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

6.      Oxyopes sp.

      Genus.X.b.  Peucetia Thorell,1869

1.       Peucetia ashae (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.       Peucetia jabalpurensis (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment  : Endemic to India

3.       Peucetia viveki (Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to  India

4.      Peucetia sp.

 

XI.   FAMILY  PHILODROMIDAE  THORELL, 1870

Genus. XI.a. Philodromus  Walcakenaer, 1826

1.      Philodromus  ashae (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.      Philodromus bhagirathai (Tikader, 1966)

Comment : Endemic to India

3.      Philodromus domesticus (Tikader 1962)

Comment : Endemic to India

4.      Philodromus jabalpurensis (Gajbe andGajbe 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

5.      Philodromus sp.

Genus .XI.b.  Thanatus  C.L. Koch, 1837

1.      Thanatus jabalpurensis (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.      Thanatus ketani (Bhandari and Gajbe)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.XI.c.   Tibellus Simon, 1875

Comments : Genus Tibellus was removed from family

Thomisidae and placed in the family Philodromidae

by Homann (1975)

 

1.      Tibellus jabalpurensis  (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.      Tibellus sp.

 

XII.           FAMILY  PHOLCIDAE  C.L.KOCH, 1851

Genus.XII.a. Artema  Walckenaer, 1837

1.      Artema sp.

 

XIII.        FAMILY  SALTICIDAE  BLACKWALL, 1841

Genus.XIII.a. Phidippus  C.L.Koch, , 1846

1.      Phidippus bhimrakshiti (Gajbe, 2004)

Genus.XIII.b.  Plexippus  C.L.Koch, , 1846

1.      Plexippus paykulli (Audoun, 1826)

Synonym : Marpissa bengalensis was synonymised

with Plexippus paykulli  by Zabka (1990);

Marpissa mandali was synonymised with

Plexippus paykulli  by Tikader and Biswas (1981).

Genus.XIII.c.  Rhene  Thorell,1859

1.      Rhene haldanei (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.      Rhene sanghrakshiti (Gajbe,2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

 

XIV.          FAMILY  SCYTODIDAE  BLACKWALL, 1864

Genus. XIV.a. Scytodes Latreille, 1804

1.      Scytodes  alfredi (Gajbe,2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.      Scytodes sp.

 

XV.   FAMILY TETRAGNATHIDAE MENGE, 1866

Genus.XV.a.  Guizygeilla  Zhu, Kim and Song, 1997

1.      Guizygeilla sp.

 

Genus.XV.b. Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804

Synonym : Genus Eucta Simon 1881 was synonymised

with Tetragnatha by Levi 1981

 

1.       Tetragnatha chamberlini (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.XV.c. Leucauge  White, 1841

1.      Leucauge sp.

 

 

XVI.         FAMILY THOMISIDAE SUNDEVALL, 1833

Genus.XVI.a. Misumenoides  Cambridge, 1900

1.      Misumenoides gwarighatensis (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.XVI.b.  Monoeses  Thorell, 1869

1.      Monoeses jabalpurensis (Gajbe and Rane, 1992)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.XVI.c.  Oxytate   Koch, 1878

Comment : Genus Dieta Simon, 1880 was synonymised

with Genus Oxytate by Song.et.al. 1982

 

1.      Oxytate elongata  (Tikader, 1980)

Comment: Dieta elongata (Tikader, 1980) was

synonymised with Oxytate elongata (Tikader, 1980)

Genus.XVI.d.  Ozyptila  Simon, 1864

Comment : According to Platnick(2011), genus name Oxyptila

used be Indian Authors is unjustified emendation

 

1.      Ozyptila jabalpurensis (Bhandari and Gajbe, 2001)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.XVI.e.  Runcinia  Simon, 1875

1.      Runcinia khandari (Gajbe , 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.      Runcinia yogeshi (Gajbe and Gajbe, 2001)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.XVI.f.  Thomisus  Walckenaer, 1805

1.      Thomisus bargi (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.      Thomisus danleli (Gajbe 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

3.      Thomisus manishae (Gajbe, 2005)

Comment : Endemic to India

4.      Thomisus pateli (Gajbe,2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

5.      Thomisus pathaki (Gajbe,2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

6.      Thomisus rajani (Bhandari and Gajbe, 2001)

Comment : Endemic to India

7.      Thomisus simoni (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

8.      Thomisus viveki (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

9.      Thomisus whitakeri (Gajbe, 2004)

Comment : Endemic to India

10.   Thomisus sp.

Genus.XVI.g.  Tmarus Simon, 1875

1.      Tmarus jabalpurensis (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

Genus.XVI.h.  Xysticus  Koch, 1835

1.      Xysticus bharatae (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

2.      Xysticus jabalpurensis (Gajbe and Gajbe, 1999)

Comment : Endemic to India

3.      Xysticus joyantius (Tikader, 1966)

Comment : Endemic to India

4.      Xysticus kali (Tikader and Biswas, 1974)

Comment : Endemic to India

5.      Xysticus tikaderi (Bhandari and Gajbe, 2001)

Comment : Endemic to India

 

XVII.      FAMILY  ULOBORIDAE   THORELL, 1869

Genus.XVII.a. Uloborus Latreille, 1806

1.      Uloborus jabalpurensis (Bhandari and Gajbe, 2001)

Comment : Endemic to India

 

 

Table  1: Spiders Family name  and Common name

 

S.No.

Family name

Common name

1

Agelenidae

Funnel web spiders

2

Araneidae

Orb web spider

3

Dictynidae

Hackled band producing spider

4

Eresidae

Social spider

5

Gnaphosidae

Ground runners

6

Hersilidae

Foliage runners

7

Lycosidae

Wolf spider

8

Nephilidae

Large Orb web weavers

9

Oonopidae

Goblin spider

10

Oxyopidae

Lynx spider

11

Philodromidae

Elongated crab spider

12

Pholcidae

Daddy long leg spider

13

Salticidae

Jumping spider

14

Scytodidae

Ground runners

15

Tetragnathidae

Long jawed orb web weavers

16

Thomisidae

Crab/flower spider

17

Uloboridae

Hackled orb web spider

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Scene of Ram Jharna

 

 

 

 


 

 

 


Neoscana bengalensis

 

    

 


 

 

 

 

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Bhandari, R. and Gajbe, P. (2001b). Description of three new species of spiders of the genera Thomisus Walckenaer, Oxyptila Simon and Xysticus Koch (Araneae : Thomisidae) from Madhya Pradesh, India.  Rec. of Zoo. Sur. of Ind., 99 : 81-85

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