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RESEARCH ARTICLE

 

Ethnomedicinal recipes for Urinary and Kidney ailments from Tribals of Sriharikota Island, Andhra Pradesh

 

R. Bharath Kumar1*,B. Suryanarayana2

1Associate Professor, School of Biotechnology, Vignan University, Vadlamudi, Guntur-522213

2Associate Professor (Retd.), # 8-307, Karnakamma Street, Venkatagiri Town –524132

*Corresponding Author E-mail: drbharathravuru@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Sriharikota Island in Andhra Pradesh is an elliptical land mass sandwiched between Bay of Bengal in the East and Pulicat lake in the West. Sullurpet is the nearest railway station, which is 18 Km from Sriharikota Island and it is on Chennai –Kolkata trunk line and 90 Km away from North of Chennai. An aboriginal tribe called Yanadi dwells in Sriharikota. It is similar to Chenchu community elsewhere in Andhra Pradesh. Inspite of the community being drifted from their natural way of life due to agro-rural development activities, a few aged tribals are still able to furnish traditional ethnomedicinal data.

 

So far no ethno medico-botanical studies are conducted in this area except for list of 50 plants reported for general ailments/ diseases by Suryanarayana et.al (1989). Therefore a detailed study on ethno medico-botanical uses of the tribals of Sriharikota Island was undertaken for the duration three years (1996-1999). During this work about 280 species are collected having a variety of ethno medico-botanical/pharmaceutical values. However the article presents the 26 plant species only having remedial effect for Urinary and Kidney ailments (i.e. Diuretic, Disuritic, obstruction and urinary tract irritation etc.) The study analyzes the habit and plant part(s) used for ethnomedicinal practices by the tribals of Sriharikota Island.

 

KEYWORDS: Ethnomedicinal recipes, Urinary and Kidney ailments, tribals, Sriharikota.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

An aboriginal tribe called ‘Yanadi’ dwells in Sriharikota. It is similar to Chenchu community elsewhere in Andhra Pradesh. Inspite of the community being drifted from the natural way of life due to agro-rural development activities a few aged tribal men are still able to furnish traditional ethno medico-botanical data. In Sriharikota Island about tribal families are living in 3 colonies viz. Penubakam, Kothachenu and Chengalpalem [2].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 20.02.2015       Modified on 27.02.2015

Accepted on 15.03.2015      © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 8(4): April, 2015; Page 468-475

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00078.5

 

Topography

Sriharikota Island is geographically located at 800 21’’ E and 13022’’ N to 140 N. it is a spindle shaped landmass sandwitched between Bay of Bengal on the East and Pulicat Lake on the West. It is 18 km East of Sullurpet.The nearest railway station located on Chennai-Kolkata trunk line. Chennai is 98 km away from Sriharikota [2,19].

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

An intensive medico-ethnobotanical survey of Sriharikota Island was undertaken for the duration three years (1996-1999). Regular periodical fieldwork is conducted covering all the seasons so as not to miss seasonal elements having pharmaceutical value and collected a large number of specimens in their respective phenological stages. Ample field notes recorded pertaining to frequency, abundance, edaphic and morphological characters, which cannot be deducted from exsiccata. Local tribal men are contacted to record data related to ethno medico-botanical uses, drug preparation and mode of administration etc. After identification, samples are properly processed, mounted on herbarium sheets and deposited in Visodaya Govt.College Herbarium (VGCH) and a duplicate set at SHAR Herbarium, Sriharikota.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

During these studies a good number of ethnomedicinal plants are collected. However in this paper 12 species of having remedial effect on various common Urinary and Kidney ailments (Diuretic, Disuritic, obstruction and urinary tract irritation etc.) are enumerated. Latest Scientific name followed by relevant synonyms if any, local name, habit flowering and fruiting season, ethnomedicinal data and their phytochemical composition are also furnished for each species. Plants marked with asterisk (*) are reported here first time for their remedial effect on various common Urinary and Kidney ailments as above mentioned. Their other medicinal uses adopted in the Island and elsewhere also given in Annexure.

 

Enumeration:

1. Aerva lanata  (L.) Juss.               (Amaranthaceae)

Ln:  Pindikura, Konda pindi. Sn:   Astmabayada, Pashanabedha.

Erect tomentose herbs. 

Common in fields and waste places.  Fl and Fr:  October – February.  Ld: Penubakam:  RBK  9116.

 

Root decoction as diuretic: 100g of fresh roots taken and ground to paste. It is mixed  in 200 ml of water, boiled and prepared decoction. 10-15 ml of decoction taken orally twice  a day, for 10-days to get relief from urinary complaints.

CC: Tannin[1,2].

2. Asparagus racemosus  Willd.   (Liliaceae)

Ln: Pilliteegalu, Kappagaddalu, Challagaddalu. Sn: Bhirupatri, Sathavari.

An armed pretty climber.

Common  in forests.  Fl and Fr : July – November. Ld: Beripeta : RBK  9255.

Tuberous roots as diuretic: Root tubers processed and ground to powder. The powder is boiled and prepared decoction. 1 – 2 table spoonfuls of decoction is taken orally 2 – 3 times a day for 4 – 5 days for free urination.

 

CC: Sarsapogenin [1,4].


3. Bacopa  monnieri  (L.)  Penne.  (Scrophulariaceae)                                                                           

 =Moniera  cuneifolia  Michauxe Fl. Bor.

Ln: Brahmi.  Sn: Nir-brahmi.

A succulent, prostrate herb.

Common and abundantly growing in moist soil among margins of doruvus and lowlying areas.  Fl and Fr .:  throughout the year. Ld:  Palliveedi :  RBK 9374.

Whole plant as diuretic:  100g of fresh leaves taken in 250 ml of water boiled and prepared decoction. 10-15 ml of decoction taken for 3-4 days thrice a day to get relief from urinary problems.

CC: D-mannitolapigenin, brahmine,  saponins[3,7]. 

 

4.  Cissampelos pariera L. var hirsuta (Buch. Ham ex. DC.)Forman.       (Menispermaceae) =Cissampleos pareira L.

Ln: Vishaboddi, Adavibanka teega.  Sn:  Pootha, Vriddhakarmina.

Climbing shrubs.

Spreading on shrubs and hedges.  F1. and  Fr.:  July-December.  Ld: Penubakam: RBK 9191.

 

Roots  diuretic : 50g of  fresh  roots  are  washed  with water  and cut into  small  pieces  and  boiled  in  ½  litre  water  to prepare decoction.  1 tablespoonful (10 ml) of decoction is given orally twice a day to the patient to get relief from urinary troubles and dysentery. Recipe is continued for 20-30 days.

CC:  Berberine, Saponins [5,6].

 

5. Crataeva magna   (Lour.)  DC. (Capparaceae)

=Crataeva  religiosa  sensu  Dunn. 

Ln:  Mavalangi, Mogilenka.  Sn:  Shvetadru, Varuna.

A medium sized deciduous tree. 

Common in dry forests.  F1.  and  Fr.:  May-August.  Ld:  Penubakam:  RBK  9131.

Stem bark- diuretic:  Decoction of stem bark 5-10 ml  is  given twice  a day to the patient to get relief from urinary infections.                                                                                                                                     

CC:  Tannins, Saponins [1,11].

 

6. Cynodon dactylon  (L.) Pers. (Poaceae)

Ln: Garika. Sn: Durva, Haritali.

Perennial creeping herbs.

Common in grass land and way sides forming turfs and also grown as lawn grass.  Fl and Fr: Throughout the year. Ld: Penubakam : RBK  9112.

Rhizomes as diuretic: The paste of rhizome is boiled in water to prepare decoction.  1 – 2 table spoonfuls of decoction taken orally twice a day for 1-week to get relief from urinary problems and promotes urination.

CC: Protein, Fibre, Carbohydrates [2,12].

 

7. Hybanthus enneaspermus  (L.)Muel - Arg. (Violaceae ) =Ionidium  suffruticosum (L.) Roem. and Schult.

Ln:  Dagguchettu.  Sn: Ratnapurusha.

Herbs.

Common in waste moist places. F1. and  Fr.:  November-January.  Ld:  Keepakam:  RBK 9105.

 

Root diuretic: Fresh roots washed with water.  50g of fresh root bits boiled in water to prepare decoction.100 ml of decoction is  taken orally twice  a day to get relief from urinary infections.  The treatment is continued for 15-20 days to get cured.

CC : Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroidal nucleus [2,5].

 

8. Pedalium  murex  L. (Pedaliaceae)

Ln: Peddapalleru, Yenugapalleru.  Sn: Gokshrua.

Erect , tall herbs.

Common in the open sandy soil in pure stands, the plants emit bad smell.  Fl. and Fr.: September-March. Ld: Keepakam: RBK  9396.

Fruits and leaves diuretic:  200g of fruits and leaves in equal taken into 500 ml of water boiled and obtained decoction. 10-15 ml of decoction taken orally 2-4 times a day for 2-3 days for free urination.

CC:  Alkaloid, Resin [1,4].

 

9. Phyllanthus  amarus   Schum.  and  Thonn.               (Euphorbiaceae)  =P. niruri  Auct. 

Ln:  Nela usiri. Sn:  Bhumyamalaki, Bahupatri, Dalaparashini. 

Erect pretty herbs.

Common as weed in fields and in wet open waste lands often in pure stands.  Fl and Fr : Most part of the year. Ld : Ellanthugunta :  RBK 9257.

Plant decoction diuretic: 200g of fresh plant material processed and taken into 500 ml of  water boiled and  prepared decoction.  10 ml of decoction taken orally 2-3 times a day for 3-4 days to get relief from urinary complaints.

CC: Phyllanthin,Hypophyllanthin,Saponin,Potassium [4,13].

 

10. Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) Benn. (Urticaceae)                                                                                                                         
=Pouzolzia indica (L.) Gaudich.

Ln:  Ucchagaddalu.

Herbs.

Occasional in the under growth of forests.  Fl and Fr : August – November. Ld: R.V. Chatram:  RBK 9821.

Root decoction as diuretic:  Root decoction is prepared by taking roots and water in 1:2 ratio. 10 ml of decoction is given orally twice a day for 3-4 days for free urination and relief from urinary problems.

CC: Flavonoids, tannin, carotenoids, ascorbic acid [14,20].

 

11. Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae)                                                                       
Ln:  Chinnapalleru. Sn:  Bahukantaka, Kshudragokshura.

A prostrate, spreading herb.                                                                                                       

A common weed, on way sides.  Fl.  and  Fr.:  Throughout the year. Ld: Penubakam : RBK  9825.

Whole plant-diuretic:  50g of fresh plants cut into small pieces, taken in 200 ml of water and added suitable quantity  of black pepper powder (Piper nigrum) and boiled to prepare decoction.  10-15 ml of decoction taken orally twice  a day for 4-5 days to get relief in  urinary disorders.

CC:  Vitamin C,  Haramine,  Steroidal sapogenins, Diosegenin,  Gitagenin [8,15,21].

 

12. Vernonia  cinerea   (L.)  Less.     (Asteraceae)

Ln: Garika tammi.  Sn:  Sahadevi.

Erect herbs.    

Common in waste places  and fields.  F1.  and  Fr.:  Throughout the year. Ld:  R.V. Chatram:  RBK  8952.

Whole plant diuretic: 100g of plant material cut into small pieces, added 200 ml of water and boiled to prepare decoction.  10-15 ml of decoction taken orally twice  a day to get relief from urinary problems.

CC: Vernolide A,B, Stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol [16,19].


 

 


 


 

 

 

 

Medicinal Plant Species –Used by Tribals for  Urinary and Kidney ailments

 

 

Aerva

Asparagus-Racemosus2

 

 

Aerva lanata (L.) Juss.

Asparagus racemosus Wild.

 

 

Bacopa

Cissampelos

 

 

Bacopa monieri  Wettst.

Cissampelos pariera L.var. hirsuta (Buch.Ham ex.DC.)Forman.

 

 

cynodon

 

 

Crataeva nurvala  Buch. - Ham.

Cynodon dactylon  (L.) Pers.

 

Hybanthus

Pedalium

Hybanthus enneaspermus  (L.) F.V. Muell.

Pedalium murex  L.

Phyllanthus

Phyllanthus amarus  Schum and Thonn.

Pouzolzia zeylanica  (L.) Benn.

Tribulus terristris  L.

Vernonia cineria  (L.) Less.

 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

The authors are pleased to record their gratitude to DOS-ISRO for financial assistance to conduct the project. The authors are also grateful to the Principal, Visvodaya Govt. College, Venkatagiri and the Director, SHAR Centre, Sriharikota for providing facilities and encouragement at laboratory and in the field respectively. Authors are grateful to the Head, CandLD, Division for his keen interest and support to conduct the fieldwork.

 

REFERENCES :

1.       Anonymous, 1948-76. The Wealth of India (Raw Materials). Vol. 1-11. CSIR, New Delhi, India.

2.       Bharath Kumar, R. 2000. Ethnobotanical Studies of Sriharikota Island, Andhra Pradesh. Ph.D. Thesis. S.V.University, Tirupati.

3.       Bharath Kumar,R and B. Suryanarayana (2014)-Tribal Medicinal Plants for Cooling and Alterative Properties from Sriharikota Island, Andhra Pradesh. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(8): August (2014) 889-896.  

4.       Bharath Kumar, R., S.Asha and B. Sarath Babu.2014. A Note on Phytodiversity and  Phytochemistry of Important Plant Species of Vignan University Campus, Vadlamudi, Andhra Pradesh. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2014 Jan; 5(1): (B) 373 – 386.

5.       Chopra, R.N., S.L.Nayar and I.C.Chopra, 1956. Glossary of Indian Medicinal plants. CSIR,  NewDelhi.

6.       Chopra, I.C. Chopra, K.L. Handa and L.d. Kapoor. 1958. Chopra's Indigenous drugs of India.  U.N. Dhur and Sons Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta. 

7.       Chopra, I.C. Chopra and B.S. Verma. 1969.  Supplement to glossary of Indian medicinal plants.  CSIR, New Delhi. 

8.       Conklin, H.C. 1962. Ethnobotanical problems in comparative study of folk taxonomy. Proc. Ninth Pacific Sci. Cong. Pacific Sci. Assocn. 4: (Botany) 299-301.

9.       Dastur, J.F. (3rd. ed. 1970).  Medicinal Plants of India and Pakistan. 1 - 211. Pub. Tarapore vala Sons and Co. Pvt. Ltd., Bombay.

10.     Dey, A.C. 1994. Indian Medicinal Plants and Ayurvedic Preparations. Bishen Singh MahendraPal Singh, Dehra Dun -248001 (India)

11.     Gupta, S.P. 1995. Study of plants during ethnological research among the Tribals. (ed. S.K. Jain).  A  Manual of Ethnobotany 2ed. Scientific Publishers. Jodhpur.  9-18. 

12.     Hemadri, K. 1979. Medicinal Plants from Andhra Pradesh. Telugu Akademy, Hyderabad. 

13.     Jain, S.K. (ed.). 1981. Glimpses of Indian Ethnobotany. Oxford and IBH. Pub. Co.  New  Delhi. 

14.   Kirtikar KR and Basu BD.1935. Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol 3, pp. 1841. Allahabad. Lalit Mohan Publication.

15.     Narayana Rao, K and Thammanna 1990. Medicinal Plants of Tirumala, Pub.by Tirumala Tirupati  Devasthanams, Tirupati. 

16.     Rama Rao, N. and A.N. Henry. 1996. The Ethnobotany of Eastern Ghats in Andhra Pradesh. India..pp.1-259. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. 

17.     Rao, P.S., K. Venkaiah and R. Padmaja 1999. Field Guide on Medicinal Plants. Research and Development Circle, Forest Department, Andhra Pradesh.

18.     Sreenivasa Rao, A. 1991. Floristic studies on The Flora of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh. Ph.D.  Thesis. S.V.University, Tirupati.

19.     Sudarsanam, G. and N.S. Balaji Rao. 1994. Medicinal Plants used by the Yanadi tribe of Nellore district.  Andhra Pradesh. India. Bull. Pure and Applied Sci. 13b : 65-70.  

20.     Suryanarayana, B., A.S.Rao, A.M.Rao and V.Veerraju. 1998. Flora of Sriharikota Island     Technical Report.  I.S.R.O., Bangalore. (TR-1989-98)

21.     Vedavathy, S., V.Mrudula and A.Sudhakar. 1997. Tribal Medicine of Chittoor district in Andhra Pradesh. Pub. Herbal Folklore Research Centre., S.V. Arts and Science College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.


 

 

ANNEXURE

Other Medicinal uses for Plants of Urinary and Kidney ailments from Tribals of Sriharikota Island, Andhra Pradesh reported first time from Sriharikota

S.No.

Scientific Name and Family

Local Name(s)

Other uses

In Island

Elsewhere

1.

Aerva lanata (L.) Juss.

 

(AMARANTHACEAE)

Pindikura, Konda pindi, Pashanabedha.

 

--

The leaf & flower are useful for dissolving kidney stones, treating gonorrhoea, cough, sore throat, indigestion, wounds and as a specific for diabetes[1,3].

2.

 

Asparagus racemosus Wild.

 

( LILIACEAE)

Pilliteegalu, Kappagaddalu, Sathavari

Roots as galactogogue: Fresh root tubers are made into powder. 2 spoonfuls of powder swallowed with a glass of milk,daily for 30 – 40 days for sumptuous lactation in nursing mothers.

Used for the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and as a               galactogogue[16,21] .

3.

Bacopa monieri  Wettst

 

(SCROPHULARIACEAE)

Brahmi.  Nir-brahmi

10 -15 ml of whole plant decoction  is  taken  twice a day for 30-40 days as a tonic and for relief from nerve problems.

It is  traditionally used  as neurological tonic and cognitive enhancer and also known as neuroprotective properties [14,18].

4.

Cissampelos pareira  L.  var. hirsuta  (Buch. Ham ex. DC.) Forman

 

(MENISPERMACEAE)

Vishaboddi, Adavibanka teega.   Vriddhakarmina

 

Leaves used as  antiseptic:  Fresh leaves taken and  cleaned. 20g leaves boiled in a glass of water, with one spoonful of turmeric powder until Jelly like paste is obtained. It is applied on wounds and cuts. 

 

 

 

Used  in treatment for inflammation, expectorant , emmenagogue, antipyretic and diuretic[3,6].

5.

Crataeva nurvala  Buch. - Ham.

 

(CAPPARACEAE)

Mavalangi, Mogilenka, Shvetadru, Varuna

Root bark odontalgic: 100g of fresh root bark cut into small pieces,  ground into fine paste and applied on infected gums twice  a day to get relief from tooth-gum infection  and  inflammation

Anti-inflammatory agent,   hypotonic bladder, prevention and treatment of                          kidney stones[14,17].

6.

Hybanthus enneaspermus  (L.) F.V. Muell.

 

(VIOLACEAE)

Dagguchettu,  Ratnapurusha

Leaf powder as bechic:  Fresh leaves powdered and mixed with one teaspoonful turmeric powder.  5g of the mixture  is taken orally twice  a day to get relief from cough.

Plant is tonic, demulcent and diuretic; removes urinary calculi; used in strangury pain, dysentery, vomiting, asthma and cough [8,9,10].

7.

Pedalium murex  L.

 

(PEDALIACEAE)

Peddapalleru, Yenugapalleru, 

Gokshrua

Refrigerant: 10-15 ml of decoction taken orally twice a day for 3-4 days for cooling effect.                             Emmenogogue:  20 ml of decoction taken orally with 1g of black pepper powder twice a day for 15-20 days for menstrual problems and to promote normal menstruation.

Traditionally used for the treatment of puerperal diseases, digestive tonics, ulcers, fevers, wounds, other ailments and general debility [2,15].

8.

Phyllanthus amarus  Schum & Thonn.

 

(EUPHORBIACEAE)

 

Nela usiri, Bhumyamalaki

Plant juice for Jaundice: 200g of fresh plant material is squeezed and obtained juice.  1-2 tbs. of   juice taken orally 2-3 times a day for 15-20 days to get relief from jaundice and it also given for general liver disorders.

Used for problems of the stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney stones and spleen[5.6].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.

Pouzolzia zeylanica  (L.) Benn.

 

(URTICACEAE)

 

Ucchagaddalu.

 

--

Leaves are anthelmintic and vulnerary; used as a cicatrizant for gangrenous ulcers, in syphilis and gonorrhoea.Leaf juice is used as galactagogue[8,9]

10.

Tribulus terristris  L.

 

( ZYGOPHYLLACEAE) 

Chinnapalleru.   Bahukantaka

Whole plant - antacid:  A few plants are boiled in adequate quantity water to get  strong decoction.  5-10 ml decoction taken orally once a day to get relief of irritation in stomach due to acidity.

Useful in kidney, bladder, urinary tract and uro-genital related conditions, where it is said to act as a diuretic[3,21]

11.

Tribulus terristris  L.

 

( ZYGOPHYLLACEAE) 

Chinnapalleru.   Bahukantaka

Whole plant - antacid:  A few plants are boiled in adequate quantity water to get  strong decoction.  5-10 ml decoction taken orally once a day to get relief of irritation in stomach due to acidity.

Useful in kidney, bladder, urinary tract and uro-genital related conditions, where it is said to act as a diuretic[16,18].

12.

Vernonia cineria  (L.) Less.

 

(ASTERACEAE)

Garika tammi,  Sahadevi

--

Used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, liver tonic, hepatoprotective  and uterus toner, skin problems & conjunctivities[15,17].