Project Writing for Retail Pharmacy Practical Training: A Proforma

 

Prasad V. Patrekar* and Sachin S. Mali

Department of Pharmaceutics, Adarsh Institute of Pharmacy, Vita, 415 311, Maharashtra, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: prasadpatrekar@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

It is very important to know the layout of pharmacy for student apprentice pharmacist. The knowledge of proper arrangement of things in the pharmacy, during the training period, someone will not get problem for arrangement to be done in his own pharmacy. Student pharmacist who wants to registered pharmacist must know the drugs and cosmetic Act 1940. The drug and cosmetics Act was passed in 1940, with a main object to regulate the import, manufacture distribution and sale of drug and cosmetics. The Act also provides for the control over the sale and distribution of drugs by only trained and qualified persons. In retail pharmacy now-a-days readymade formulation of drugs are available student pharmacist knows the different dosage forms of drug but in training he got opportunity to handle, feel and see the different dosage forms at one place i.e. in retail pharmacy. A trained pharmacist must know the drug formulations available in market but with that someone must know the pharmacological action of the particular drug. A Student pharmacist has to undergo 750 Hrs. practical training spread over 3 months in a retail pharmacy. During this period student pharmacist interact with medical representatives of different companies. Over the counter (OTC) drugs concepts is very important while taking training in any retail pharmacy. As our pharmacy profession is ethical profession, here we have to sale each and every medicine against the prescription given by registered medical practioners. Generally prescriptions are written specific format and it contains different parts. It is the duty of every pharmacist to give sales receipt to the patient after dispensing the medicines. This proforma will beneficial to all institutes of pharmacy for uniformity in project and training before sanctioning the apprentice practical training.

 

KEYWORDS: Layout of retail pharmacy, Schedules, Different dosage forms, OTC, Prescription etc.

 


LAYOUT OF RETAIL PHARMACY

A good layout results in comforts convenience, appearance safety and profits. Plant or shop pharmacy layout means “It identically involves the allocation of space and the arrangement of equipment’s and stock of medicines in such a manner that overall operating costs or investments costs are minimized”.

 

Layout of pharmacy broadly means the arrangement and location of different furniture, medicines etc. within the available space. More important is how the owner is utilized the space to arrange the things. The decision regarding pharmacy layout cannot be taken once for all at the time of locating things. It should be flexible enough to accommodate the subsequent changes in the market trends and requirement of pharmacy and thus business objective can be achieved satisfactorily. Layout is a plan for arranging the physical facilities and manpower and utilizing them in an effective manner. Layout of retail pharmacy as shown in fig. 1

Fig 1: Layout of Retail Pharmacy

 

It is very important to know the layout of pharmacy for student apprentice pharmacist. With this trainee pharmacist can get the idea about storage of medicines and as well as display of it. Trainee pharmacist can get idea about proper utilization of space and thus achieves the objective of minimum movement of both medicine him / her. If trainee pharmacist got the knowledge of proper arrangement of things in the pharmacy, during the training period, trainee pharmacist will not get problem for arrangement to be done in his own pharmacy.1

 

OBJECTIVES OF LAYOUT

1.      Optimum utilization of man, materials and space.

2.      To minimize the selling expenses by handling the drugs / medicines efficiently.

3.      Minimize the delays in dispensing by providing convenient service centers.

4.      To provide optimum space for reserve stock office and visiting place for employees.

5.      To provide efficient supervision and dispensing control and reduce to changes q theft.

6.      To minimize the movements of customers within the premises.

7.      To attract the large number of customers.

 

SCHEDULES2

Student pharmacist who wants to registered pharmacist must know the drugs and cosmetic Act 1940. The drug and cosmetics Act was passed in 1940, with a main object to regulate the import, manufacture distribution and sale of drug and cosmetics. The Act also provides for the control over the sale and distribution of drugs by only trained and qualified persons.

 

To control the drugs sale and distribution, D and C Act has mentioned various schedules to the Act. A student pharmacist must know the various schedules for drug before starting the actual training. During this period trainee pharmacist can get knowledge about the drugs according to schedules. It is not like domestic things that, you can sale drugs to anyone who comes to your pharmacy. Our sale trade is ethical and hence knowledge of various schedules is important for every trainee student pharmacist.

 

Schedules which are very important relating to retail pharmacy;

  A -       List of Forms used for making applications for    issuing licenses, granting licenses, sending memorandums.

  B -        Fees for test or analysis by Central drug Laboratory           or Government Analyst.

  C -        Biological and Special products

        1)  Other Special Products.

  D -      Class of Exempted drugs which are exempted from a certain provision applicable to import of drugs.

  E -      List of poisonous Substances Omitted.

        1) List of Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani Poisonous Substances.

  F -        Provisions applicable to blood blank requirement                and licensing to process blood Component.

1)     Provision applicable to Vaccines, anti sera and             diagnostic antigens.

2)     Standard for surgical dressings

3)     Standard for ophthalmic preparation

  G -       List of substances to be taken under supervision of            registered medical practitioner.

  H -       Prescription drugs which are required to be sold by            retail only on prescription of Registered Medical Practitioner.

   I -        Calculation of proportion of poison in Certain     Cases.

   J -        List of diseases and ailments which a drug may not           claim to prevent or are.

  K -       List of drugs exempted from certain Provisions   Applicable to mtg of drugs and sale of drugs.

  L -        List of drugs to be sold on prescription only.

  M -       Good Manufacturing Practices and requirement of             factory premises, plant, equipment for manufacturing of drugs.

1)     Requirement for manufacture of homeopathic              drugs.

2)     Requirement of factory premises, plant,         equipment for manufacture of cosmetics.

3)      Requirement of factory premises for             manufacture of medical devices.

  N -       List of minimum equipment for efficient running of           pharmacy.

  O -       Standard for disinfectant fluids.

  P -        Life period of drugs

1)      Pack Size of drugs.

  Q -       List of colours permitted to be used in cosmetics of           colours permitted to be used soaps.

  R -        Standard for condoms made up rubber latex        intended for single.

1)     Standard for medical devices.

  S -        Standard for cosmetics.

  T -        Requirement for factory premises hygienic          conditions for manufacture of Ayurvedic and Unani drugs.

  U -       Particulars to be shown in manufacturing and      analytical record of drugs.

1)     Particulars to be shown in manufacturing reward          of cosmetics.

  V -       Standard for patent and proprietary medicine      containing vitamins.

 W -       List of drugs which shall be marketed under generic          names only.

  X -       List of habit forming psychotropic and other drugs.

        Requirement and guideline for clinical trial for import and manufacture of new drugs.

 

DIFFERENT DOSAGE FORMS 3

Drugs are used for diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, cure or prevention of disease in human being. Drugs are rarely administered in different dosage forms after converting them into suitable formulation.

 

In retail pharmacy now-a-days readymade formulation of drugs are available student pharmacist knows the different dosage forms of drug but in training he got opportunity to handle, feel and see the different dosage forms at one place i.e. in retail pharmacy. Student pharmacist must initially recall and understand the different dosage forms and how they are administered. Because in some retail pharmacies the medicines are kept in shelves according to dosage forms e.g. capsules, tablets, syrups, Creams, injections etc.

Hence before starting the training trainee pharmacist must collect different dosage forms meaning and their administration or application so that trainee pharmacist can give information to the patient about administration, storage condition etc. Dosage forms may be classified on the basis of physical form the final product.

 


 

Figure:2.  Dosage forms

 


A.       SOLID DOSAGE FORMS

1.        Unit dosage

a.      Tablet-

Tablet is a unit pharmaceutical dosage form. It comprises a mixture of active substances and excipients, usually in powder form, pressed or compacted from a powder into a solid dose.

b.      Capsule-

Techniques used to enclose medicines in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule.

c.       Powder –

A powder is a dry, bulk solid composed of a large number of very fine particles that may flow freely when shaken or tilted.

d.      Pills-

A pill was originally defined as a small, round, solid pharmaceutical oral dosage form of medication that was in use before the advent of tablets and capsules.

2.        Bulk dosage

§  Internal dosage forms

a.      Granules-

A granule is a dosage form consisting of powder particles that have been aggregated to form a larger mass, usually 2–4 mm in diameter.

b.      Effervescent Granules-

Effervescent granules are uncoated granules generally containing acid substances and carbonates or hydrogen carbonates which react rapidly in the presence of water to release carbon dioxide.

 

§  External dosage forms

a.      Dusting Powder-

        A dusting powder is a finely divided insoluble powder containing ingredients such as talc, zinc oxide, or starch.

b.      Insufflations-

        It is the practice of inhaling a substance. Insufflation has medical use as a route of administration for many respiratory drugs used to treat conditions in the lungs (e.g., asthma or emphysema) and paranasal sinus (e.g., allergy).

c.       Snuffs-

        Snuff (tobacco), fine-ground tobacco, intended for consumption by being inhaled or sniffed into the nose

d.      Dentifrices-

        Dentifrices are agents used along with a toothbrush to clean and polish natural teeth.

 

B.  LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS                                                                               

1.      Monophasic dosage forms

§  Internal dosage forms

a.      Syrup–

A syrup is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals.

b.      Elixirs–

It is a clear, sweet-flavoured liquid used for medicinal purposes, to be taken orally and intended to cure one's ills. When used as a pharmaceutical preparation, an elixir contains at least one active ingredient designed to be taken orally.

c.       Linctuses–

A syrupy or sticky preparation containing medicaments exerting a local action on the mucous membrane of the throat.

d.      Draught-

These are liquid oral preparations of which only one or two rather large doses of the order of 50 ml are prescribed.

 

§  External dosage forms

a.      Liniments –

Liniment (or embrocation), from the Latin linere, to anoint, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin. Sometimes it called balms.

b.      Lotion –

The term "lotion" has been used to categorize many topical suspensions, solutions and emulsions intended for application to the skin.

c.       Gargles -      

Gargling is where the head is tilted back, allowing the mouthwash to sit in the back of the mouth while exhaling, causing the liquid to bubble.

e.       Mouth Washes –

It is a liquid which is held in the mouth passively or swilled around the mouth by contraction of the perioral muscles and/or movement of the head, and may be gargled, where the head is tilted back and the liquid bubbled at the back of the mouth.

f.       Eye Lotion –

Eye-lotions are usually weak solutions in water of one or more medicaments of an antiseptic, astringent, or sedative character- such as boric acid, mercuric chloride, alum, tannic acid, borax, or sodium bicarbonate.

g.      Eye Drops–

Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to administer.

h.      Throat Points–

Throat paints are more viscous due to high content of glycerin which being sticky adheres to the affected site and prolong the action of the medicament.

d.      Nasal Drops–

Nasal drops are solutions of drugs that are instilled into the nose with a dropper. They are usually aqueous because oily drops inhibit movement of cilia in nasal mucosa and if used for long periods, may reach the lungs and cause lipoidal pneumonia.

 

2.      Biphasic dosage forms

a.      Suspensions–

A Pharmaceutical suspension is a coarse dispersion in which internal phase is dispersed uniformly throughout the external phase.

b.      Emulsions–

An emulsion is a system consisting of two immiscible liquid phases, one of which is dispersed throughout the other in the form of fine droplets; droplet diameter generally ranges from 0.1–100 μm.

 

C.           SEMI SOLID DOSAGE FORMS

§  External dosage forms

a.      Ointments–

An ointment is a greasy, semi-solid pre-paration that contains dissolved or dispersed drug.

b.      Pastes–

Pastes are semisolid dosage forms that contain one or more drug substances intended for topical application.

c.       Creams–

A cream is a semi-solid emulsion formulated for application to the skin or mucous membranes. Droplet diameter in topical emulsions generally ranges from 0.1–100 μm.

d.      Jellies–

Jellies are transparent, non-greasy, semisolid preparation for external applications to skin & mucous membrane.

e.       Suppositories–

A suppository is a drug delivery system that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository) or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and is absorbed into the blood stream.

 

Student pharmacist must write two examples of medicines available in the retail pharmacy of each dosage form. This can give idea that student pharmacist has handled such products and trainee pharmacist is aware that products/medicine.

 

PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSES OF DRUG4

A trained pharmacist must know the drug formulations available in market but with that trainee pharmacist must know the pharmacological action of the particular drug. For that trainee pharmacist must have full knowledge about pharmacological classes and the meaning and the drugs comes under each category. For this trainee pharmacist can take help of Drug information books available in retail pharmacy like CIMS, MIMS, and Drug Today etc.

 

This information helps them in patient counseling or can give information to patient about action of drug.

Hence student pharmacist must write down pharmacological classes of drug initially and then trainee pharmacist can write available medicines examples according to classes. 

 

Pharmacological classes’ are-

1.      Antibiotic-

Antibiotic are chemical substances delivered from metabolically produced by living organizations, which are capable of inhibiting the processes of other micro organization in small concentration.

2.      Antipyretic -

 The agent which reduces elevated body temperature than normal.

3.      Analgesic -

The drug which decreases sensitivity of pain by depressing CNS without loss of consciousness is called analgesic.

4.      Hematinic -

These are drugs which raise number of red blood cells and amount of hemoglobin to normal level and above when they are below normal.

5.      Anti-inflammatory -

 The drugs which are used to reduce inflammation and pain arise from it.

6.      Anti-diarrheal-

Diarrhea is defined as the frequent passage of liquid faces with or without blood or mucus.

7.      Antacid-

 Antacid are medicine that neutralize stomach acid.

8.      Anti-emetic-

These are the agent used specifically to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting.

9.      Hypoglycemic agents-

The agents that reduce the blood glucose level are known as hypoglycemic agent.

10.    Diuretics-

A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. This includes forced diuresis.

11.    Anticancer–

These drugs are used in the treatment of malignant diseases (cancer). These drugs can be used for cure, control, or palliative (relief of symptoms) therapy.

 

NEW MEDICINES

A Student pharmacist has to undergo 750 Hrs. practical training spread over 3 months in a retail pharmacy. During this period student pharmacist interact with medical representatives of different companies. Every time there are companies which come into market with new drug molecule or new drug formulation. Student pharmacist can get information from the medical representative of companies. For this student pharmacist must have good communication with them and develop good business relation. From them trainee pharmacist can get other market positions of other drugs/formulations.

 

A student pharmacist must note down the new arrivals of medicines in to market during the training period. Trainee pharmacist has to collect all the information about new product in the note book. A student pharmacist must write the information in following format.

1.      Brand Name of products.

2.      Main ingredient of products and concentration.

3.      Composition of formulation.

4.      If chemical name and structure given by company in leaflet should write.

5.      Indications of medicine.

6.      Dose of drug.

7.      Contraindication.

8.      Interactions.

9.      Maximum Retail Prize.

10.    Manufacturer name.

 

TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS FOR MEDICINES STORAGE5

Medicines are not stored properly they may not work in the way they were intended, and so pose a potential risk to the health and wellbeing of the person receiving the medicine.  Medicines should be stored under conditions which ensure that their quality is maintained.   The temperature of storage is one of the most important factors that can affect the stability of a medicine.  The purpose of this guidance is to clarify the temperature storage arrangements that a residential care service should have in place when it manages medicines on behalf of people in the service.

 

Many medicines require storage between 2°C and 8°C.  Some products can be irreversibly degraded even by brief periods at sub-zero temperatures, and so monitoring of storage temperature is vital. A separate, secure and dedicated refrigerator should be available for medicines in services where there is a regular need for medicines to be stored between 2°C – 8°C.

 

In smaller services where the need for cold storage may only be, for example, for the occasional bottle of oral antibiotic or eye drops, medicines could be stored in a domestic fridge.  Here medicines should be kept on a separate shelf in a lidded plastic container which will help in isolating the medicines from any other fridge items.  The medicines container in the domestic fridge should not be accessible to service users. Some medicines require storage at less than 15°C.  Since most services do not have a cool room a refrigerator would probably provide appropriate storage for such products, provided that storage below 8ºC does not affect the medicine.

 

The requirement to store medicines at 25°C or below can usually be satisfied by room temperature storage.  The requirement to monitor room temperatures is only an issue if the room appears to be “warm”.   This might be the case, for example, if the room was next to the kitchen, contained a cupboard with a hot water tank, was consistently warmed by sunlight through a window etc.  

 

If the main medicines room falls into this sort of situation, or if there is any doubt about the temperature of the room, it would be recommended that daily temperature readings are recorded for a sustained period (e.g. 2-3 months) to ascertain if the temperature is consistently above 25 degrees.     

 

If the main storage area is found to be consistently above 25°C measures such as the introduction of an air conditioner should be implemented by the service in an attempt to control the problem. While some medicines will be unaffected at temperatures consistently above 25°C, others, however, will not.  If the service is in any doubt about which medicines may be affected they should contact their supplying pharmacist for advice.

 

Summary

1.      Storage conditions can influence the stability of medicines.

2.      Maximum and minimum temperatures over the previous 24 hours should be recorded daily in fridges used to store medicines between 2°C and 8°C.

3.      Temperatures should be recorded daily for any central medicines storage areas if there is any concern that the temperature is above 25°C.

 

OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS

Over the counter (OTC) drugs concepts is very important while taking training in any retail pharmacy. As our pharmacy profession is ethical profession, here we have to sale each and every medicine against the prescription given by registered medical practioners.

 

That means physician checks the patient make diagnosis and accordingly prescribes medicine for treatment of particular disease. If anybody takes medicine without consulting physician in that case instead of treatment/ cure some other problem may arise. Hence under D and C Act 1948, it is mentioned that the medicines in retail pharmacy should be sold against the prescription.

 

In pharmacy market there are some medicines or formulations available which can be sold to patient whenever demanded without prescription. Such medicines which are given without prescription demanded by patient are called as over the counter medicines (OTC). For such products physicians’ prescription is not required.

 

After this, one may say that patients comes to pharmacy and sometimes asks medicines which patients has taken before on prescription and now patients has demands without prescription. Such medicines come under OTC. It is not true. To clear OTC concept in other word- ‘The Medicines which has television, newspaper advertisement are comes under OTC’. Our other products are not advertised by this way e.g. Violin gel, Saridon, Zandu balm etc. Such drugs student pharmacist must have to identify during training period and should mention in report. Those drugs are sale over the counter without prescription is called as over the counter drug.

 

PRESCRIPTION READING AND COMMENTS

Prescription is a written order from a registered medical practitioner or other properly licensed practitioners such as dentist, veterinarian etc. to a pharmacist to compound and dispense a specific medication for the patient. Prescribing are generally written in English language but Latin words or abbreviations are frequently used in order to save time, Hence every pharmacist must know the Latin terms and abbreviations used by the physician. Generally prescriptions are written specific format and it contains different parts.

 

PARTS OF PRESCRIPTIONS3

1)       Date

2)       Name, Age, Sex and Address of the patient

3)       Superscriptions

4)       Inscriptions

5)       Subscriptions

6)       Signature

7)       Renewal instructions

8)       Signature address and Registrations number of the prescriber

 

1)      Date

It is more important to pharmacist to find out date of prescribing and date of prescription for narcotic and other habit forming drugs the date is very important to avoid misuse of prescriptions.

2)      Name, Age, Sex and Address of patient

Identifications of prescriptions is depends on information’s  written like name, age, ,sex and address o patient on prescriptions. If any mistake according to age and sex pharmacist can check it and correct it by consulting with the prescriber.

3)      Superscription

It is symbolic representations before writing the prescriptions ‘Rx’ is an abbreviations of Latin word meaning ‘You Take ‘originally in old days it is considered as a sign of Jupiter , the God of healing . It is a humble request to god for quick recovery the patient

4)      Inscription

It is the main part of prescription it contains names and quantities to be taken of prescribed ingredients.

 

Each ingredient is written on separate line along with its prescribed quantity.

 

But in complex prescriptions several ingredients are given and such prescription is divided in two parts as follows –

A)     Base: It just contains the active ingredients which are given to produce described therapeutic effect.

B)     Adjuvant: These are the ingredient which is use either to enhance the action of drug or improve the palatability of the preparation.

C)     Vehicle: These are the ingredients which used to dissolve the solid ingredient or to increase the volume of preparation.

5)      Subscriptions

It contains the direction to the pharmacist for preparing the number of doses for dispensing. But now this part is omitted because most of the prescriptions are not compounded.

6)      Signature

This is the direction to the patient about administration of the drug. It is usually written as ‘Sig’ on the patient must be transferred to the label of container in which medicament is dispensed.

        Instructions like

A.     Mode of administrations.

B.     Frequency of administration or applications

C.     Quantity to be taken

D.     Special instructions – such as dilution mixing etc.

7)      Renewal Instructions

The prescriber should indicate or write on prescription whether it may be renewed and for how many times this is more important to prevent misuse of narcotic and habit drugs

8)      Signature, address and registration number of prescriber

At the end of prescription there must be signature of the prescriber along with its registration number qualifications and address.

But now a day’s drugs are available in the market as ready-made formulations manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies. Hence in present day the role of pharmacist is to hand over the ready-made preparations to the patient and provide advice if demanded regarding mode of administration.

 

In course, theoretically student apprentice has covered all the aspects of prescription. But during training period he has to use that knowledge while handling the prescription.

Trainee pharmacist has to read the prescription carefully. Trainee pharmacist must know the age and sex of patient before dispensing drugs to them. This is because if there is mistake by physician trainee pharmacist can correct after consulting the physician regarding dose of preparation.

 

Trainee pharmacist must have knowledge about the drugs given in prescription that is about pharmacological action, dose of  drug, way of administration, storage condition etc. Also trainee pharmacist must know the adverse effects and contra indications about drug. So that trainee pharmacist can understand that in prescription why other drugs are written by physician e.g. Antacids etc

 

Trainee pharmacist must be able to evaluate the prescription by giving special comments. The comments like why the drugs are prescribed along with other drugs.

 

Once this practice of evaluating the prescription in all way is adopted by student apprentice there are very less chances of giving wrong dose, drug, and preparation by them in future.

 

Hence comments on the prescription apprentice received during training period are important. It is not like that for every prescription he/she has to comment. But from prescriptions handled during training period, out of that 20-30 prescriptions he/she should select  and  should evaluate according to his/her knowledge  and  give comment about that.

 

The main objective of training to student pharmacist is not only make him/her aware with medicines, but trainee pharmacist must also become competent enough to analyze the prescription with help of physicians and drug reference book.  

 

SALES BILL AND PURCHASE BILL

It is the duty of every pharmacist to give sales receipt to the patient after dispensing the medicines. The sales invoice is important for patient and retail pharmacy, because it is the only one evidence that which medicines are given by retail pharmacy to the patient as shown in Table No.1.

 

In a pharmacy medicines are sold to the patient as per prescription by charging the cost. This transaction is retail trading. For resale firstly pharmacy owner should have to purchase the medicines from wholesalers available in that area.

In pharmacy market there are number of wholesalers are available having medicines of different companies they sale these medicines to retail pharmacy for resale to the patient.

As we know medicines are very important because they are playing with human health, hence every student apprentice pharmacist must know the important things while purchasing the medicines from wholesaler. For this purpose during training period trainee pharmacist must go through purchase bills. Purchase bill format is as shown in Table No.2.

 


 

SALES BILL

Table No. 1: The format of sales invoice of retail pharmacy

Name of Chemist and Druggist:-______________________

Address:-________________________________________

Cash Invoice No.

Patient Name and Address:-______________________________________________

Name of Physician:- _________________________________Date:-____________

Name of Medicine

Qty.

Mfg. Date

Batch No.

Expiry Date

Amount

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

Drug License No -                                                                                                                                                                            Sign of Pharmacists

 

PURCHASE BILL

Table No. 2: Purchase bill format

Name of Wholesaler

Tax- Invoice

Name of Retail Pharmacy-__________________________

Address-________________________________________

Drug License No._________________________________

Date

Invoice No.

Particulars

Mfg.

Pack

Batch No.

Expiry Date

MRP

Rate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

VAT No:-

CST No:-

Drug License No. of Wholesaler: -                                                                     Sign.

 

 


While receiving the medicines is must check that the received medicines are according to our placed order or not.

At the same time the medicine received, we should check manufacture, packing, batch no, expiry date, rate (MRP) should be same as per label on the packing. If any problem e.g. Batch No. on label and bill does not match we should return that medicine to wholesaler or get bill changed.

 

CONCLUSION:

To do the practical training in a retail pharmacy is nothing but utilizing and implementing whatever knowledge gained during course. Every student trainee should do systemic training during practical training period. This proforma will beneficial to all institutes of pharmacy for uniformity in project and training before sanctioning the apprentice practical training.

 

REFERENCES:

1.         Mehta RM. Drug house management. Drug store and business management, Vallabh Prakashan. 2010; 5th ed: pp.69-93.

2.         Kuchekar BS. Drugs and cosmetic act, 1940 and rules there under 1945. Pharmaceutical jurisprudence, Nirali Prakashan. 2005; 12th ed: pp. 35-124.

3.         Mehta RM. Pharmaceutics II. Vallabh Prakashan. 2008.

4.         Dr. Yadav AV. Pharmacology and toxicology. Nirali Prakashan. 2013.

5.         Health Guidance: The Temperature Requirements for Medicines Storage. Publication code: HCR-0213-076. 2013; pp. 1-3.

 

 

 

 

Received on 25.07.2014                Modified on 18.08.2014

Accepted on 28.08.2014                © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(9): Sept. 2014  Page 1073-1080