Analgesic Activity of Roots of Aralia racemosa

 

Manpreet Kaur1*and Harinder Kaur2

1G.H.G. Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Gurusar Sadhar, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

2Govt. Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Corresponding author: asrpreet2007@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The analgesic activity of various extracts of Aralia racemosa was evaluated by tail flick method and acetic acid- induced writhing method. It was found that all the extracts showed significant narcotic analgesic activity with tail flick method. The activity was found to be maximum of methanol extract and minimum of petroleum ether extract. The activities were about 30-60 percent of that of morphine sulphate. Similar results were obtained from acetic acid induced writhing test. Significant activity was shown by all extracts. The activity was maximum of methanol extract and minimum of petroleum ether extract and the activity was comparable to that produced by standard aspirin.

 

KEYWORDS: Aralia racemosa, Analgesic activity, Tail flick method, Acetic acid- induced writhing, Aspirin.

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

The genus Aralia comprises of more than 50 species in world distributed throughout North America, East Asia, China, Indo-Malaya. The Arabic name of Aralia racemosa is sadah, which refers to a (North America) Indian name, spikenard1. Aralia racemosa improves stamina and adaptation to stress. The American Indians used Aralia racemosa in various ways for backache, swellings, inflammation and chest pain. It has been used successfully to help shorten the duration of labor. In homeopathy Aralia racemosa is used in ENT allergies2. Aralia racemosa is stimulant and diaphoretic with a special affinity for the respiratory organs. It may be given to produce perspiration in the early stages of coughs and colds and to asthmatic patients. In chronic complaints of the uric acid or gouty diathesis and in syphilis, it increases waste, removes morbific products from the system and gives tone to all the organs. As a local application in chronic ulcers and chronic skin diseases it is both stimulant and antiseptic. In foul smelling and acrid leucorrhea it is used as an injection. It acts as a disinfectant. In present study an attempt was made to investigate various extracts of Aralia racemosa for its analgesic effects as no work has been done for analgesic activity.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Collection and extraction:

The roots of Aralia racemosa were purchased from Natural Botanicals Ghaziabad September 2008 and were authenticated by the authority of Botany department, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana. A voucher specimen no (AR-1) is deposited in the departmental herbarium of G.H.G. Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Gurusar Sadhar, Ludhiana. The roots were dried in shade, finely powdered and extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol using soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure. All the extracts were preserved in a dessicator for further studies. The test doses of each extract were prepared as a suspension with Tween-80 (1%) in distilled water to get the desired concentration of the extract.

 

Animals:

Swiss mice (20-25g) of either sex were used and were maintained at 25  ± 3ºC. They were kept in a well ventilated animal under natural photoperiodic condition in large polypropylene cages and were fed standard rat chow and water ad libitum. The animal experiment was approved by Animal Ethical Committee of Institute.

 

Evaluation of Analgesic activity:

The analgesic activity was evaluated by both tail flick method3-5 and acetic acid-induced writhing method3,4,6  to ascertain narcotic and non-narcotic type of activity, respectively. In tail flick method Swiss mice of either sex (20-25g) were randomly distributed into five groups consisting of six animals each group. The first group was served as control and the animals of that group were administered vehicle Tween-80 (1%) orally.


Table 1:  Analgesic activity of various extracts of A. racemosa by Tail flick method.

Group

Dose (mg/kg)

Mean time (s) ± S.E8

20min

40min

60min

Vehicle

-

1.7 ± 0.16

1.8 ± 0.15

1.7 ± 0.12

Morphine sulphate

5

8.7 ± 1.14*

14.6 ± 1.32*

15.9 ± 0.68*

Petroleum ether

100

4.0 ±  0.7

4.4  ± 0.51

5.3 ± 0.51*

Chloroform extract

100

4.0  ± 0.47

6.2  ± 0.59

6.9 ± 0.73

Methanol extract

100

6.6± 0.95*

9.4 ± 0.75*

9.9± 1.04

*Indicates significant difference at P< 0.001 when compared to control.

 

 

 

Table 2: Analgesic activity of various extracts of A. racemosa by acetic acid–induced writhing method.

Group

Dose (mg/kg)

No. of writhing

Mean ± S.E8

Vehicle control

56.7 ± 0.88

Aspirin

25

36.5 ± 1.52*

Petroleum ether extract

100

42.2 ± 1.62*

Chloroform extract

100

30.2 ± 2.17*

Methanol extract

100

27.2± 1.95*

*Indicates significant difference at P< 0.001 when compared to control.

 

 

 


The second group of animals were administered Morphine sulphate at a dose of 5mg/kg, intraperitoneally. The animals of third, fourth and fifth groups were treated with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extract, respectively at a dose level of 100mg/kg orally. The reaction time was noted at 20, 40 and 60 min time intervals, after drug administration. The percent inhibition of tail flick response measured as time to tail flick was calculated using formula,

 

% protection = ( 1- Wt/Wc) x100,

 

Where, Wt and Wc are the mean values of the time to tail flick in the test and control groups, respectively. The results were recorded in the table -1. The data were analysed using student’s ‘t’ test and the level of significance was set at P<0.001.

 

The non-narcotic analgesic activity was evaluated against acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. In this method, Swiss mice of either sex of weight between 20-25g were randomly distributed in five groups each consisting of six animals. The first group was served as control and the animals of that group were administered 3%v/v acetic acid at a dose of 1ml/100g intraperitoneally. The onset of writhing was noted and the number of writhings was recorded for a period of 10 min for each animal of the group. The second group of animals was administered aspirin at a dose of 25mg/kg, intraperitoneally and 15 min later, the animals of that group were administered acetic acid. The onset and number of writhing response were observed. The animals of third, fourth and fifth groups were treated with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extract, respectively at a dose level of 100mg/kg orally, and the acetic acid-induced writhings were recorded as described for groups 1 and 2. Percent protection against acetic acid-induced writhings was calculated using the formula, % protection =(1- Wt/Wc) x100, where Wt and Wc  are the mean values of number of writhings in the test and control groups, respectively. The results are recorded in the Table – 2. The data was analysed using student’s ‘t’ test and the level of significance was set at P<0.001.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

In the tail flick method, it was found that all the extracts showed significant narcotic analgesic activity. The activity was found to be maximum of methanol extract and minimum for petroleum ether extract. The activities were about 30-60% of that of morphine sulphate. Similar results were obtained from acetic acid-induced writhing test also showing significant activity for all extracts. The activity was maximum of methanol extract and minimum for petroleum ether extract and the activity was comparable to that produced by standard aspirin.

 

REFERENCES:

1.        Kong YC, Chen DS. Elucidation of Islamic drugs in Hui Hui Yao Fang: a linguistic and Pharmaceutical approach. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 54; 1996:85-102.

2.        Colin P. Homeopathy and respiratory allergies: a series of 147 cases. Homeopathy. 95; 2006: 68-72.

3.        Kulkarni SK. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 2nd Edn, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, 1993: 43.

4.        Turner RA. In; Screening methods in pharmacology, Academic Press, New york and London,1965: 112.

5.        Varma S, Hamdard ME, Dandiya PC. A note on neuropsychopharmacological studies of Melia azedarach leaves. Indian.J. Pharmacol, 21; 1989:46.

6.        Hazare SW et al.  Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Dalbergia sissoo. Indian. J. Pharmacol, 32; 2000:357.

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 27.09.2011          Modified on 15.10.2011

Accepted on 19.10.2011         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 4(12): Dec. 2011; Page 1896-1897