In-vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Musa sapientum Linn. Flower

 

Ashutosh Mishra1*, Dusmanta Kumar Pradhan1, Manas Ranjan Mishra1, Rajanikanta Behera2, Ashok Kumar Panda2 and Sunil Kumar Vaishnaw1

 

1The Pharmaceutical College, Samaleswari Vihar, Tingipali, Barpali, Bargarh Orissa.

2School of Chemistry, Sambalpur University, Burla, Orissa.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: ashumusafer@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Musa sapientum commonly known as banana is widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of so many diseases. Anthelmintic activity of M. sapientum was performed on its ethanolic extract because it rendered positive to tannin and phenolic compounds in comparison of other solvent extract qualitative phytochemical tests. Anthelmintic activity was performed on adult Indian earthworm, Pheretima posthuma. The results were showed ethanolic extract dose 50 to 250 mg/ml dose significant paralyzed and dead of earthworm in comparison of standard Piperazine citrate 10 to 50 mg/ml. Anthelmintic activity, paralysis and death of warm in ethanolic extract 50mg/ml 15±0.1 and 28±0.3, 250mg/ml, 01±0.8 and 7±0.1, however, Piperazine citrate 10 mg/ml 40±1 and 68±0.3, 50mg/ml 02±0.3 and 7±0.7.

 

KEYWORDS: Musa sapeintum, Anthelmintic, Pheretima posthuma.

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

Since the beginning of human civilization man has been dependent on plant kingdom for his basic needs, viz., food, medicine, clothing and shelter. Ancient man derived more than 90 percent of medicinal agents from higher plants. Even today, traditional system of medicine is practiced in many countries possessing ancient cultures, and major portion of their therapeutic needs are obtained from plant drugs.

 

Anthelmintics are a drug that’s used to treat infections with parasitic worms. This includes both flat worms, e.g., flukes and tapeworms and round worms, i.e., nematodes. They are of huge importance for human tropical medicine and for veterinary medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that a staggering 2 billion people harbour parasitic worm infections1.

 

Diseases caused by helminthes parasites in livestock’s continue to be a major productivity constraint, especially in small ruminate in the tropics and subtropics. In the developing world, the greatest impact of parasitic diseases is indirect and potential productivity losses. Infections caused by gastrointestinal helminthes parasites of livestock are among the most common and economically important diseases of grazing livestock. Adulteration of anthelmintics has been found to be a common practice.

 

Illiteracy in incorrect usage, are also a problem leading to the same consequences. Moreover, these drugs are relatively expensive. As a consequence of these problem and difficulties, pastoralists and small holder farmer have continued to use indigenous plants as livestock dewormers. Considerable research has shown that some plants not only affect the nutrition of animals, but also have antiparasitic effects. For example plants that contain condensed tannins, a class of phenolic secondary metabolites have these effects2.

 

Musa sapientum is a tropical fruit of great acceptance and an economically important fruit available throughout the year. The stem (inflorescence stalk) of M. sapientum is widely used as a vegetable in south India. The juice of the stem is claimed to have beneficial effects in reducing obesity by local practitioners of naturopathy3.

 

The assay was performed on adult Pheretima posthuma due to its anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasite of human beings3-4. Because of easy availability, earthworms have been used widely for the initial evaluation of anthelmintic compounds in vitro5-7.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Drugs and Chemicals

Piperazine citrate (Mother care laboratory), Distilled water, Normal Saline

Worm

Earth worms (Pheretima posthuma) were collected from the water logged areas and identified at the Pharmacology Department of The Pharmaceutical College, Barpali.

Method:

Qualitative phytochemical tests: The ethanolic, aqueous and hexane extract obtained from the Musa sapientum Linn. was subjected to various qualitative tests for the identification of various active constituents present in this species8.

 

Anthelmintic activity: The anthelmintic activity was carried as per the method of Mali and Wadekar9 with minor modifications. For the anthelmintic activity of flower extracts of M. sapientum, Indian adult earthworms of 3-5 cm in length and 0.1-0.2 cm in width were used. The worms were divided in to six groups containing six earthworms in each group. All the earth worms were washed in normal saline solution before they were released. Extract and standard solution (Piperazine citrate) were freshly prepared before performing the experiments. Ethanolic extract and the standard drug solution were poured into different petridishes.

 

The test drug containing different concentrations of alcoholic extract (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/ml in distilled water) were prepared. They were released in respective petridishes. Observations were made for the time taken to paralyze (Paralysis was said to occur when the worm did not revive even in normal saline) and Death (Death was concluded when the worms lost their motility followed with their body colors fading away).

 
Statistical analysis:

The results are presented as mean±SEM. “One-way Anova with Dunnett’s post test was performed using Graph Pad Prism version 3.00 for windows. Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA, P<0.05 were considered significance.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:

Qualitative phytochemical analysis of M. sapientum flower was studied by using different reagent for identification of different constituents like Alkaloids Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Saponins, Tannins and Phenolic Flavonoids Compounds, Steroids, Proteins and Amino acids, Terpenoids, Fixed Oils and Fats, Gum and Mucilage and Lignins. Analysis showed the absence of Alkaloids, Gum and Mucilage and lignins out of all tested phytoconstituents (Table 1).

 

Table 1: Qualitative Phytochemical analysis of flower of M. sapientum

Plant constituents

Ethanolic extract

Alkaloids

-

Carbohydrates

+

Glycosides

+

Saponins

+

Tannins and Phenolic Compounds

+

Flavonoids

+

Steroids

+

Proteins and Amino acids

+

Triterpenoids

+

Fixed Oils and Fats

+

Gums and Mucilage

-

Lignins

-

Reading were taken from three observations, (+)  Present, (-) Absent

The results of anthelmintic activity of M. sapientum flower extract (50-250 mg/ml) showed effective in comparison of standard drug (Piperazine citrate). Test drug 250 mg/ml dose showed paralyzed warm within 1±0.8 min and death 7±0.1 min, its equivalent to standard drug 50 mg/ml paralyzed 2±0. 3 min and death 7±0.7 min (Table 2 and Fig. 1-2).

 

Table2: Anthelmintic activity of M. Sapientum flower

Test subs.

Concentration mg/ml

Time taken for paralysis (p)

Time taken for Death (D)

Control dist.water/saline

-

-

-

Alcoholic extract

50

100

150

200

250

15±0.1

09±0.3

05±0.4

04±0.1

01±0.8

28±0.3

15±0.1

12±0.5

9±0.6

7±0.1

Piperazine citrate

10

20

30

40

50

40±0.1

25±0.1

05±0.4

04±0.6

02±0.3

68±0.3

45±0.2

12±0.3

9±0.4

7±0.7

 

Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed that presence of flavonoids, amino acid, saponin and tannins like phytoconstituents in the extract of M. sapientum.  Tannins are one of the chemical constituents that produce anthelmintic activity10-12.

 

Chemically tannins are polyphenolic compounds some synthetic phenolic anthelmintic eg. Niclosamide, Oxyclozanige and Bitacional are shown to interfere with energy generation in helminthes parasites by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation9.

 

It is possible that tannins contained in the extracts of M. sapientum produced similar effects. Another possible anthelmintic effect of tannins is that they can bind to free proteins in the gastrointestinal tract of host animal or glycoprotein on the article of the parasite and cause death.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

It is a great pleasure to extent our heartfelt gratitude to my Chairman, Shri R. L. Hota, Ex. M.L.A, who gave inspiration, motivation, and encouragement during our research work.

 

There is no word to express our thanks to Dr. S. Jha for his valuable help and suggestion for the preparation of the manuscript.

 

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10.     Niezen JH, Waghorn GC, Charleston WAG, Waghorn GC. Growth and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in lambs grazing either Lucerne (Medicago sativa) or sulla (Hedysarum coronarium), which contains condensed tannins. J Agri Sci 1995; 125: 281-9.

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Received on 30.04.2010       Modified on 20.05.2010

Accepted on 31.05.2010      © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 4 (1): January 2011; Page 89-91