Preliminary Evaluation of Hibiscus Stem Mucilage as Suspending Agent

 

Mohini Upadhye*, Deepmala Wagh and Uttara Joshi

Department of Pharmacognosy, Modern College of Pharmacy (For Ladies), Pune, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: mohiniketh@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Mucilage is a glycoprotein, an exopolysaccharide, a polymer produced by most of the plants and some micro-organisms. It occurs in various parts of nearly all classes of plant usually in relatively small percentage and is frequently associated with other substance such as tannins and alkaloids.

 

In recent years, plant gums and mucilages have evoked tremendous interest due to their diverse application in pharmacy in the formulation of both solid and liquid dosage forms

 

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage obtained from the stems of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. as a suspending agent. A suspension of CaCo3 was prepared using 2 % w/v of hibiscus mucilage as suspending agent and it is evaluated for its stability using the parameters like sedimentation volume, viscosity, redispersibility and pH. The suspending agent of Hibiscus mucilage was compared with CaCo3 suspensions prepared using 2 % w/v of suspending agents such as acacia and tragacanth. The study has revealed that Hibiscus mucilage can be a potential candidate as a suspending agent and can be used for conventional tablet formulation.

 

KEYWORDS: Hibiscus, mucilage, suspending agent

                      

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

Mucilages are the normal physiological products of metabolic activity of plants. Being a polysaccharide they are partially soluble in water. They have ability to swell and form a gel.

 

Mucilage is a glycoprotein an exopolysaccharide, a polymer produced by most of the plants and some of micro-organism. It occurs in various parts of nearly all classes of plants usually in relatively small percentage is frequently associated with other substances such as tannins and alkaloid.

 

Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Malvaceae) (1) are native to tropical Asia. It is commonly known as Jasvanda. It is an evergreen, woody, glabrous, showy shrub, 5-8 ft height and leaves bright green, ovate, entire below, coarsely toothed above and the flowers solitary, axillary bell shaped with pistil and stamens projecting from the centre.

 

The plant was found to contain mucilage (2) and act as a suspending agent in the earlier studies.(3)The major constituents are taraxeryl acetate, stigmasterol, campesterol, ergosterol, cholesterol, lipids, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, fructose, glucose, sucrose, flavonoids, Hibisectin, cyanin glucosides, alkanes. The present study aims to evaluate the suspending property of stems of Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Isolation of Mucilage:

The stems were collected and sun dried for at least 7 days. The material was soaked in distilled water (1000 ml) at room temp. for 12 hrs. The resulting mass was stirred at about 100 rpm for 11 hrs and stained through muslin cloth. To the filtrate, acetone was added until precipitation was completed. The precipitated mucilage was filtered through muslin cloth and the mucilaginous residue was spread on glass plates and dry at 40 șC. then was dispersed in 200 ml water with stirring for 12 hrs. and ethanol was added in different proportions. Initially, the concentration of ethanol was made upto 20 % in the solution, some impurities that precipitated were removed by centrifugation. The ethanol concentration was further increased to 60 % to precipitate the mucilage. The precipitated mucilage was filtered, treated with acetone to remove the traces of water and dried in an oven at 40 șC. (4)

 

 

Table 1: Determination of suspending property of Hibiscus mucilage

Time in min.

Blank

(CaCo3)(F)

CaCo3+ Hibiscus (F)

CaCo3+ Tragacanth (F)

CaCo3+ Acacia (F)

0

1

1

1

1

5

0.1

0.5

0.99

0.93

10

0.09

0.38

0.99

0.92

15

0.09

0.36

0.99

0.91

20

0.09

0.32

0.99

0.91

25

0.09

0.31

0.99

0.91

30

0.09

0.30

0.99

0.91

Sedimentation volume = (F) = Hu / H0

 

Table 2: Determination of redispersibility

Day

Tragacanth

Acacia

Hibiscus

1st

50 ml

50 ml

50 ml

5th

48 ml

38 ml

11 ml

15th

47 ml

36 ml

10 ml

25th

47 ml

36 ml

9 ml

 

Table 3: Determination of PH

Day

Tragacanth

Acacia

Hibiscus

0th

7.2

7.4

7.62

7th

7

7.2

7.52

14th

6.90

7.2

4.43

21th

6.85

7

7.40

 

Preparation and evaluation of suspensions:

Preparation of Suspension:

Suspension of 2 % CaCo3 in water was made using 2 % of suspending agents (4,5) like acacia, tragacanth and hibiscus mucilage. For preparation of suspension of CaCo3, it was first levigated with glycerine (1:1) and then the suspending agent was added in required amounts. The test suspension was evaluated by using the parameters like sedimentation volume, PH and viscosity and it was compared with acacia and tragacanth.

 

Sedimentation Volume:

Sedimentation volume is the most important parameter in the evaluation of the suspension stability. Sedimentation volume (f) is the ratio of ultimate height (Hu) of the sediment as the suspension settles in a cylinder under standard condition to the initial height (Ho) of the total suspension. It was determined by keeping a measured volume of the suspension in a graduated cylinder in an undisturbed position for a definite period of time and noting the value of Hu and Ho. (6)

 

Redispersibility:

Redispersibility of a suspension was estimated by shaking the suspension with the help of a mechanical device, which stimulates the motion of human arm during shaking. Fixed volume (50 ml) of each suspension was kept in calibrated tubes, which was then stored at room temperature for various time intervals (5, 10, 15 days). One tube was removed and shaken vigorously to redistribute the presence of deposit if any was noted. The time taken to redisperse the sediment suspension was recorded. (7)

 

Determination of PH:

The PH is defined as the negative logarithm of concentration of H+ ions. It was measured by PH meter. The PH meter was standardized and calibrated using buffer solution of different PH. 0.5% w/v dispersion of drug was taken in a beaker. Calomel electrode and glass electrode were dipped into the solution. Sufficient quantity of distilled water was added in the beaker, if necessary to immerse the lower ends of the electrodes into the solution. The PH of emf of the cell was noted by selecting the appropriate knowbs. (8)

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The average yield of dried mucilage obtained from Hibiscus stem mucilage was 7.714% w/w. On the basis of elemental analysis, the presence of magnesium, potassium, sulphate and nitrate were confirmed in the mucilage of stem. High water holding capacity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis mucilage will also undertake its evaluation as a suspending agent. The sedimentation volume profile of the suspension with Hibiscus mucilage, tragacanth, acacia are given in the table (1).  The dispersed particle of CaCo3 prepared using Hibiscus mucilage was found to sediment at lower rate than those prepared with tragacanth and acacia.

 

Since the suspension produces sediment on storage, it must be readily dispersible so as to ensure the uniformity of the dose. Less is the time taken to redisperse the sediment, the better is the redispersibility. The redispersibility of Hibiscus mucilage was found to be slightly lower than compared to the two standards tragacanth and acacia mucilage. The rate of redisbility and PH observed for mucilage, tragacanth and acacia are given in Table (2) and (3) respectively.

 

Thus it can be concluded that the extracted mucilage obtained from the stems of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. is nontoxic can be a potential candidate as a suspending agent and can be used for conventional tablet formulation.

 

REFERENCES:

1.        Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica, 22nd Edition, Volume I, Mumbai: Pupular Book Depot, 1995.

2.        Shimizu N, Tomada M, Suzuki I, Takada K, Plant Mucilages, XL III, A representative mucilage with biological activity from the leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Bio Pharm Bull 1993; 16: 735-9.

3.        Edwin E, Sheeja E, Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies on Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Ind J Nat Prod 2005; 21:43-5.

4.        Anroop B, Bhatnagar SP, Ghosh B, Parcha V. Studies on Ocimum gratissimum seed mucilage, evaluation of suspending properties. Ind J Pharm Sci 2005; 67: 206-9.

5.        Chandra SR, Girija PP, Shrinivas K, Bhanoji Rao ME. Application of Moringa oleifera gum as a suspending agent in the formulation of sulphamethoxazole. The Indian Pharmacist 2005-5; 7 5-7.

6.        Jain NK, Sharma SN. Text Book of Professional Pharmacy 4th Edition, New Delhi; Vallabh Prakashan: 1998.

7.        Verma PR, Razdan B. Evaluation of Leucaenea leucocephata seed gum as suspending agent in sulphadimidine suspensions. Ind J Pharm Sci 2003; 67:665-8.

8.        Hadkar VB. A handbook of practical physical pharmacy and physical pharmaceutics, Nirali Prakashan , Pg No: 39, 27 and 23.

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 09.09.2009          Modified on 05.11.2009

Accepted on 10.12.2009         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 3(1): Jan.-Mar. 2010; Page 291-292