In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Nymphacea stellata Willd

 

Sibnarayan Acharya, Digbijay Kumar, Asit Ranjan Sahu, Saswata Kumar Parida and Satyajit

C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy and Research, Wadhwan, Surendranagar, Gujrat-363030

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sibanarayan.acharya@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Different extracts of thalamus of Nymphacea stellata willd., were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, the chloroform and ethanol extract of the plant shows significant activity. The activities are comparable with the reference drug Albendazole and Piperazine citrate.

 

KEYWORDS: Nymphacea stellata, Anthelmintic activity, chloroform extract, ethanol extract, Albendazole, Piperazine citrate

                      

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

Nymphacea stellata willd. a large, perennial, ovoid, acute rootstock,  belongs to Family- Nymphaeaceae is an aquatic herb has been used in the Indian system of medicine. It is commonly known as Nilpadma in Hindi and subdikain in Oriya.  Ethnoboatnical information reveals that the powdered rhizome is given in dyspepsia, diarrhoea and piles. They are also used for blennorrhagia and diseases of the urinary tract.1 A decoction of flowers is considered narcotic and antiaphrodisiac. Antihepatotoxic effect of Nymphaea stellata willd., against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in albino rats.2 Hypoglycemic activity of Nymphaea stellata leaves ethanolic extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats.In the present study it was aimed to evaluate antthelmintic activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of Nymphacea stellata willd thalamus.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The thalamus of Nymphacea stellata willdwere collected from the pond and ditches near the bank of Subarnarekha riverside in the district of Mayurbhanj, Orissa and identified by Botanical survey of India, Howrah. These were dried in shade and crushed to moderately coarse powder and stored in air tight container. The powder was successively extracted with organic solvent like petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and ethanol.  The extracts were reduced under vacuum with rotary evaporator to obtain a molten mass. The percentage yield of petroleum ether, Benzene Chloroform and ethanol extract is 1.8, 3.3, 4.3 and 9.75 % respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of flavanoid and free phenolic compounds in chloroform and ethanol extract.

 

Anthelmintic assay:

In the present study the Anthelmintic activity was evaluated for different extract of the plant against control (vehicle only) and standard drugs (Albendazole and piperazine citrate in concentration 10mg/ml and 15mg/ml respectively) using pheretima posthuma (Earthworm, obtained from Horticulture department, Baripada) of nearly equal size (8cm). Earthworms are selected due to their anatomical and physiological resemblance with Intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings.3

 

Procedure: The method of Mathew et.al and Dash et.al4,5 was followed for anthelmintic screening. Fifteen groups each consisting of six earthworms of approximately equal size was released into 50ml of desired formulation. The vehicle for solubilising standard and test solution was 1% gum acacia in normal saline.

Group-1: Control group (50ml vehicle only)

Group-2: Albendazole (10mg/ml in 50ml of vehicle)

Group-3: Piperazine citrate (15mg/ml in 50ml vehicle)

Group-4, 5, 6: petroleum extract 10, 15and 25 mg/ml each in 50ml of   Vehicle respectively.

Group-7, 8, 9:   Benzene extract10, 15and25mg/ml each in 50 ml of vehicle respectively.

Group-10, 11, 12:  Chloroform extracts 10, 15and25mg/ml each in 50 ml of vehicle respectively.

Group-13, 14, 15:  Ethanol extract (10, 15and25mg/ml in 50ml vehicle).

 

Observations were made for the time taken to paralysis and/or death of individual worms up to 4 hours of test period. Death was concluded when the worms lost their motility, followed by fading away of their body color. The time taken by worms to become motionless was noted as paralysis time. Earthworms were frequently applied with external stimuli, which stimulate and induce movement, if alive.


Table. 1

Sl. no

Test substance

Concentration

Time taker for Paralysis (min)

Time taken for Death (min)

1

Control

-

-

-

2

Albendazole

(10mg/ml)

37.2+1.2

65.5+2.4

3

Piperazine citrate

(15mg/ml)

20.75+0.72

_

4

Pet. Ether extract

 

 

10mg/ml

15mg/ml

25mg/ml.

80+1.4*

59.51.2*

38.4±1.4*

_

93.6+1.4*

64+1.2*

5

Benzene extract

 

 

10mg/ml

15mg/ml.

25mg/ml

60+ 1.6*

44.2+1.6*

29.8+1.6*

95+ 1.5

70.5+ 2.1*

55.2+1.4*

6

Chloroform Extract

 

 

10mg/ml.

15mg/ml

25mg/ml

29.39±2.1*

22.10±1.6*

16+ 1.4*

71.15±2.2*

49.28±1.2*

35.2+ 1.4*

7

Ethanol extract

 

 

10mg/ml

15mg/ml

25mg/ml

61.3±2.0*

40.5±0.8*

26.4±1.6*

109.05±2.2*

83.7±0.85*

54.3±1.05*

*P<0.05 when compared to control. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM

 

 


Statistical Analysis:

Result expressed as mean ± S.E., were evaluated by unpaired student T test. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

The results of anthelmintic activity are shown in table 1. In the present study it was observed that all the extracts have shown a positive response to, whereas the chloroform and ethanol extract of the plant shows significant activity compared with standard. Further  Which compounds in the extract is/are responsible for such activities was under study however preliminary phytochemical analysis shows presence of carbohydrate glycosides and steroids, tannin, flavonoid, saponin in chloroform and ethanol extract. The anthelmintic activity may be due to presence of one or more of these compounds.

 

REFRENCE:

1.        Kiritikar K. R. and Basu B. D: Indian Medicinal Plants, 2nd Edn., Vol. I, Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, 1995;. 113-114.

2.        Bhandarkar,M.R.,Aqueel.Khan,JournalofEthnopharmacology,2004;91, 61-64.

3.        Kailashraj R., Krurup A., The Indian J.Pharma. 1962 ;74: 64-65

4.        Mathew, A.S., Patel, K.N. and Shah B.K., Indian J. Nat. Prod., 1995, 14 (1) 11

5.        Dash, G.K. Mishra, B., Panda, A., Patro C.P., and Ganapaty, S., Indian J.Nat Prod., 2003, 19(3),24



 

 

 

 

Received on 23.09.2009          Modified on 20.11.2009

Accepted on 18.12.2009         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 3(1): Jan.-Mar. 2010; Page 287-288